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apa essay examples APA C ITATION S TYLE: E XAMPLES. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 5 th edition, CSB SJU Reference BF 76.7 .P83 2001. Article in a standard encyclopedia (paper copy) Article in a standard encyclopedia (web site version) Website (NOT from an online database) (In a real paper, the following citations would be double-spaced, in hanging indent format.) B OOK Geissler, E. M. (1998). Pocket guide to cultural assessment (2nd ed.). Boutique Essay! St. Louis, MO: Mosby. You can also go to, search the world's largest database of library books, and click on of tables and figures Cite this item for almost any book.

Its APA citations are not 100% correct, though; beware of capitalization , state of publication, and hotels, punctuation errors (see NOTES ). BOOK CHAPTER, ESSAY, or ARTICLE when author is why is it important credited de Paula, T. C. M., Lagana, K., Gonzalez-Ramirez, L. (1996). Mexican Americans. In J. Boutique Hotels Essay! G. Essay! Lipson, S. L Dibble, P. A. Minarik (Eds.), Culture and nursing care: A pocket guide (pp. 203-221). Hotels! San Francisco: USCF Nursing Press. Thesis Of Tables! JOURNAL ARTICLE (from an online database) (for more details, see the APA's official site) Kavanagh, K., Absalom, K., Beil, W., amp Schliessmann, L. Hotels! (1999). Connecting and becoming culturally competent: A Lakota example. Advances in Nursing Science, 21 , 9-31. Retrieved March 26, 2001 from ProQuest/Nursing Journals database . JOURNAL ARTICLE ( online , on a web site) (for more details, see the APA's official site) Outbreak news. (2001, February 23). Linkers! Weekly Epidemiological Record, 76 , 57-64.

Retrieved February 28, 2001 from MAGAZINE ARTICLE ( paper copy) Ulrich, T. (1997, September 22). Linking an Amish hereditary disease with cerebral palsy, a pediatrician challenges a dark inheritance. Time, 150 , 30-33. MAGAZINE ARTICLE (from an online database) Ulrich, T. Hotels Essay! (1997, September 22). Linking an Amish hereditary disease with cerebral palsy, a pediatrician challenges a dark inheritance. Time, 150 , 30-33. Retrieved March 1, 2001 from InfoTrac/Expanded Academic ASAP database . Writing Essay! NEWSPAPER ARTICLE ( paper copy) Padilla, H. (2000, June 6). Hugo prohibits custom animal slaughter; the vote will officially close a Hmong slaughterhouse, where animals were sacrificed for religious reasons. Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN) , p. 1B. NEWSPAPER ARTICLE (from an online database) Padilla, H. Hotels! (2000, June 6).

Hugo prohibits custom animal slaughter; the vote will officially close a Hmong slaughterhouse, where animals were sacrificed for writing essay linkers religious reasons. Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN) , p. 1B. Boutique Hotels Essay! Retrieved February 28, 2001 from Lexis-Nexis Universe/General News database . Essay Pollution! PAMPHLET / BROCHURE (Cite like a book but add [Brochure] as shown) Research and Training Center on Independent Living. Hotels Essay! (1993). Guidelines for essay for environmental reporting and writing about people with disabilities (4th ed.) [Brochure]. Lawrence, KS: Author. ERIC DOCUMENT Fredrickson, M. (2000). Parent/child communication in migrant communities . Miami, FL: Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 377 236) DISSERTATION If you obtain an boutique actual dissertation (not just its abstract), in print or on microform, check the Publication Manual of the APA for complete directions on citing it properly.

DISSERTATION (abstract only, obtained on CINAHL) Crow, G. Why Is It Important To Vote! K. (1988). Toward a theory of therapeutic syncretism: The Southeast Asian experience: A study of the Cambodians' use of traditional and cosmopolitan health systems . Essay! (Doctoral dissertation, University of Utah, 1988). Abstract retrieved March 19, 2001 from CINAHL database . DISSERTATION (abstract only, obtained from DAI on FirstSearch) Crow, G. K. (1988). Toward a theory of therapeutic syncretism: The Southeast Asian experience: A study of the Cambodians' use of traditional and cosmopolitan health systems (Doctoral dissertation, University of Utah, 1988). Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (08B), 3101. Abstract retrieved March 19, 2001 from First Search/Dissertation Abstracts International database . WEBSITE ( NOT from an online database) (for more details, see the APA's official site) The Amish, the Mennonites, and the Plain People. (n.d.). Retrieved May 30, 2000 from Pennsylvania Dutch Country Welcome Center Web site: I NTERVIEWS, E-MAILS, PHONE CONVERSATIONS, etc. Writing! Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communications in text only. Give the boutique hotels initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible. ( APA Manual , section 3.102) Example: I. M. Certain ( personal communication , April 1, 2000 ). PRESENTATIONS, SPEECHES, POSTER SESSIONS, etc.

Like the example above, if they do not provide recoverable data, these would not be included in the reference list and would be cited in the text only. If, however, something tangible exists (e.g. Writing! handouts of hotels PowerPoint slides, an abstract in a conference program, etc.), it might be citable. See the APA Manual , section 4.16 D and F. Here is an example of a poster session : Worral, P. Writing Linkers! S. Levin, R. (2004, June) . Developing a statewide research agenda . Poster session presented at the biannual meeting of the American Nurses Association , Minneapolis, MN . Since they ask, I have suggested to boutique, students who wish to cite a presentation unofficially, for an undergraduate paper, that they could cite it like this: Twohy, K. (2004, January 15) . Testimony given at why is it important essay, Health, Human Services and Corrections Budget Division , St. Cloud, Minnesota . (Remember that, in a real paper, the above citations would all be in hanging indent format.) NOTES - to clarify some of the boutique essay trickier points! Using italics , as in the examples above, is preferred, but underlining is still acceptable. Italicize book and journal titles , but not article titles. APA's capitalization rules for titles can be confusing! In the reference list, capitalize the first letter of every main word of linkers a journal, magazine or newspaper title.

For book and article titles, capitalize only the essay first letter of the first word of the title, the first word of essay its subtitle (if it has one), and boutique essay, any proper names. In the text of a paper , however, the writing essay linkers rules are different, and hotels, every main word of a title gets capitalized. Use only the initials of the authors'/editors' first (and middle) names, leave a space between initials (e.g. Rowling, J. K. , not J.K. ), and link multiple names with an ampersand ( ). List And Figures! If no author is given, start with the title and then the date. Use et al in hotels place of the additional authors when there are more than six authors. Journal articles : If each issue of the periodical begins with page one, include the issue number after the volume number as shown in pollution the examples.

If the page numbering continues from issue to issue, do not include the issue number. Websites : if the date the page was created (or updated) is not given, put n.d. (no date) in boutique hotels the citation in place of the essay date. (This is not to be confused with the date you retrieved it.) For articles retrieved in hotels full text from a database (e.g. Account Position! ProQuest Nursing Journals), you don't need the boutique hotels web address (URL), just the full name of the database. These cities can be listed without a state abbreviation because they are well known for publishing: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco . In addition, when the publisher is a university and the name of the state (or Canadian province) is essay pollution included in its name, do not repeat the boutique state (or province) in why is it important the publisher location. When typing your Reference List, double space all lines. Use hanging indents , that is, the essay first line of each item should be flush left, and the second and subsequent lines should be indented. (The above examples are not displayed this way because hanging indents cannot easily be rendered on web pages.) For documents and oligopoly essay, situations not listed here, see the printed manual, in the reference collection at both libraries.

Its call number is Reference BF 76.6 .P83 2001, or other APA websites listed on Citing Sources. Public Services Librarian. 37 College Ave. Hotels Essay! South. St. Joseph, MN 56374.

Format based on essay on conservation of resources APA Citation Style from the essay B. Davis Schwartz Memorial Library.

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Monique R. Morgan, “The Eruption of Krakatoa (also known as Krakatau) in 1883? This essay gives a brief overview of the events of essay 26-27 August 1883, when the thesis of tables volcanic island of Krakatoa in hotels essay Indonesia exploded; it generated tsunamis which killed over 36,000 people, was heard 3,000 miles away, and produced measurable changes in sea level and on conservation, air pressure across the world. The essay then discusses the findings of the Royal Society’s Report on Krakatoa, and the reports in the periodical press of lurid sunsets resulting from Krakatoa’s dust moving through the atmosphere. It closes by examining literature inspired by Krakatoa, including a letter by Gerard Manley Hopkins, a poem by Alfred Tennyson, and novels by R. M. Ballantyne and M. P. Shiel. On 27 August 1883, after a day of boutique alarming volcanic activity, an obscure, uninhabited island now widely known as Krakatoa (or Krakatau)[1] erupted with a force more than ten thousand times that of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima (Thornton 1). The world quickly took notice. Officials reported the it important essay eruption via undersea telegraph cables. People thousands of miles away heard the explosion, and boutique, instruments around the world recorded changes in air pressure and sea level. In the list and figures months that followed, newspapers and journals printed vivid accounts of spectacular sunsets caused by fine particles that the volcano spewed into essay the upper atmosphere and that circled the globe, gradually spreading further north and south.

The Royal Society, a British academy of scientists, formed a special Krakatoa committee to collect these articles, other eye-witness testimony, and more precise data (such as barograph readings of air pressure) to analyze the material meticulously and to publish a thorough report of their findings. Krakatoa inspired not only scientific investigation, but also literary creations. Gerard Manley Hopkins published a letter describing the Krakatoa sunsets in evocative and figurative language. Alfred Lord Tennyson transmuted the crimson sunsets into the setting, and the dominant imagery, of his poem “St. Telemachus.” In Blown to Bits , R. M. Ballantyne interwove a detailed, factual account of Krakatoa’s destruction with an invented tale of exploration, revenge, and romance, centered on fictional characters who narrowly escape the eruption and essay, tsunamis. M. P. Shiel used a volcanic eruption as the major plot device in essay his last man novel, The Purple Cloud , and, in his depiction of a fictional eruption, Shiel mimicked the central place of the telegraph and the periodical press for scientists’ and laymen’s knowledge of Krakatoa. The August 1883 eruption was not entirely unexpected, but nearly so. Krakatoa had erupted violently from May 1680 through November 1681 (Symons 10), but had then been dormant for two centuries. The volcano stirred to life on 20 May 1883 with a series of moderate eruptions (Symons 11). Locals took note but were not especially alarmed. In fact, the island briefly became a tourist attraction.

A steamship carrying an excursion party from Batavia (now called Jakarta) “reached the volcano on essay, the Sunday morning, May the boutique hotels 27th, after witnessing, during the night, several tolerably strong explosions, which were accompanied by earthquake-shocks” (Symons 12). These visitors may have been foolhardy, but some were quite observant, and later were able to provide valuable data, such as estimates of the size of the crater, the frequency of explosions, and the height of the vapor column. Letter Manager Position. One took a photograph of the volcano exploding; another collected a pumice sample (Symons 12-13). Eruptions continued in June and July, but, in the words of the Royal Society’s 1888 report, “in a district where earthquakes and volcanic outbursts are so frequent, this eruption of Krakatoa during the summer months of 1883 . . . soon ceased to attract any particular attention” (Symons 13). Residents of the boutique Javan and Sumatran coasts near Krakatoa quickly became alarmed on 26 August 1883 when more serious explosions began, some accompanied by tsunamis (Thornton 11-12). The next morning the essay situation became much more dire. Boutique Hotels. Four great explosions, the third of which was the strongest, occurred at 5:30 a.m., 6:44 a.m., 10:02 a.m., and 10:52a.m. Krakatoa time (Symons 22).[2] Two-thirds of the island of Krakatoa disappeared (Symons 23), likely by collapsing into the hollow cavity left by essay for environmental pollution the eruption of pumice (Simkin and boutique hotels essay, Fiske 18).

The resultant dust cloud immersed in darkness a region extending to Batavia, nearly a hundred miles distant, and to some villages 130 to 150 miles away (Symons 26-27). For those within a radius of 50 miles, the total darkness lasted over two days (Thornton 29).[3] The greatest destruction was caused not by ash and fire but by water. Essay Linkers. The most violent of the explosions, occurring at approximately 10:02 a.m. on hotels, 27 August 1883, triggered an immense tsunami. The Royal Society Report on Krakatoa “assumed that the for environmental pollution actual height of the boutique essay wave, before it reached the shore, was about 50 feet,” but it also cites some eyewitnesses on the Javan shore who estimated the wave was 100 to 135 feet (Symons 93); later investigators credit the larger estimates (Simkin and cover letter position, Fiske 15). Whatever its exact height, the wave was incredibly deadly and far-reaching. Boutique. Officially, it killed 36,417 inhabitants of coastal towns and villages, though more may have died (Thornton 13; Simkin and Fiske 15), and oligopoly, its faint remnants were detected as far away as the English Channel (Thornton 18). The 10:02 a.m. explosion also produced the furthest-travelling audible sound in recorded history (Thornton 1); it was heard over hotels essay, almost one-thirteenth of the earth’s surface, including at Rodrigues Island approximately 3,000 miles across the Indian Ocean from Krakatoa (Symons 79). The reason such a violent eruption occurred at Krakatoa, rather than some other location, was partially understood by late-nineteenth-century science. According to the Royal Society’s 1888 Report on Krakatoa’s eruption, “The marked linear arrangement in this immense chain of volcanic mountains [across Java and Sumatra] points to the existence of essay a great fissure in the earth’s crust, along which the subterranean energy has been manifested” (Symons 4).

At the Straight of Sunda, a second fissure crosses it almost at a right angle (Symons 4), and boutique hotels, Krakatoa lies “at the point of intersection of these two great lines of volcanic fissure” (Symons 5; see Fig. 1). Figure 1: Map from the Royal Society Report, labeled “Sketch-map of the Sunda Strait, showing the lines of volcanic fissure which appear to traverse the district” (Symons 4) Modern geology affirms this general idea, but offers a more specific explanation for essay for environmental the convergence of volcanic activity. In an ocean trench near Sumatra and Java, two tectonic plates collide in what is called a subduction zone, and the Indo-Australian plate is forced under the boutique hotels Asian plate into the molten mantle below (Thornton 41). As the Indo-Australian plate slides downward, some of it melts, and the range of volcanoes results from this molten magma occasionally rising to the earth’s surface and erupting (Thornton 41). As Ian Thornton summarizes, “Geologists have shown that the rate of subduction of oceanic crust is faster, and it important essay, the angle of subduction shallower, along the Sumatran trench than along the boutique hotels essay Javan trench. Why Is It Important Essay. The change is hotels abrupt and occurs at Sunda Strait” (43), the essay for environmental fulcrum around which Sumatra has slowly rotated twenty degrees clockwise in relation to Java over the past two million years (Thornton 42-43). Krakatoa’s unique position as a center of volcanic and tectonic activity is now well understood, but several other aspects of the 1883 eruption are still open to scientific debate. Explanations for the cause of the third great explosion and the accompanying tsunami generally fall into boutique essay two competing camps, with some arguing for an upward explosion as seawater reacted with hot magma, and others for the downward collapse of the volcano’s walls.

Simkin and for environmental, Fiske consider the debate settled: “Verbeek, the Dutch Mining engineer studying Krakatau immediately after the eruption, correctly deduced that the missing portion of the island had collapsed into the circular void left by the eruption of boutique huge volumes of pumice. Alternative explanations, such as the forceful blasting out of the missing portion of Krakatau, have not been supported, and Krakatau remains a type example of caldera collapse” (18). Thornton, however, thinks these key questions remain unresolved and suggests that “[i]t is likely that during the course of so complex an cover letter manager eruption many events cited as evidence for the competing theories occurred” (39). Scientists also continue to scrutinize Krakatoa as a case study in the formation and development of an island ecosystem. Much of the attraction stems from Krakatoa’s likely status as an ecological tabula rasa in the immediate aftermath of the 1883 eruption; most biologists who have studied the island group agree that no life forms survived.[4] Subsequent volcanic activity at Krakatoa has provided an even clearer example of an island completely devoid of life progressing toward a complex ecosystem. Essay. On 26 January 26 1928, a new volcanic ash island broke through the sea’s surface; it was later named Anak Krakatau (Krakatau’s Child) (Thornton 132). The new island was destroyed by sea erosion three times, but in August 1929 a fourth version of the island arose and became a permanent fixture in the Krakatoa island group (Thornton 133). The emerging ecosystems on writing, both the remnants of the old Krakatoa islands and on Anak Krakatau could provide guidance for reconstructing ecosystems that have been devastated by hotels human activity, such as logging and mining (Thornton 251). To Vote Essay. As Thornton explains, the rules by which different species arrive and interact in a new ecosystem “appear to hotels, depend strongly on the historical context” (262), and Krakatoa offers an unusually thorough historical record for current scientists because of the sustained and systematic attention it has received since 1883. Such attention, from scientists and laymen around the globe, began within hours of the eruption, because news of on conservation of resources it travelled rapidly via the worldwide network of telegraph lines. “The instantaneity of the telegraph reports,” Richard Hamblyn argues, “create[ed] an entirely new category of disaster: the universal news event, a story followed, in the case of Krakatau, by more than half the world’s population” (179).

The telegrams themselves are startling, and boutique essay, display a “terse eloquence” (Simkin and Fiske 15). A telegram sent from Batavia to Singapore on 27 August 1883 reads: Noon . Essay Of Resources. —Serang in total darkness all morning—stones falling. Village near Anjer washed away. Batavia now almost quite dark—gas lights extinguished during the night—unable communicate with Anjer—fear calamity there—several bridges destroyed, river having overflowed through rush sea inland. (qtd. in Simkin and Fiske 14) Calamity had, indeed, struck Anjer: at approximately 9:00 that morning, a large wave had inundated the coastal town (Simkin and Fiske 38). A few residents survived because they had fled a prior wave and had run to higher ground. Amongst them was Anjer’s recently appointed Telegraph-master, who was later able to provide a harrowing eyewitness account of events (Simkin and Fiske 69-73, 80-81). Despite, or perhaps because of, the horrifying nature of the eruption, some of the telegrams from Batavia are almost poetic in their condensed eloquence and evocative figurative language.

A telegram sent around noon on 28 August proclaimed, “Where once Mount Krakatau stood the sea now plays,” conveying calm, eerie beauty amid the desolation (qtd. in Simkin and Fiske 14). The telegraph coverage also enabled a more thorough scientific investigation of the eruption’s global effects, as Tom Simkin and Richard S. Fiske stress in their magisterial centennial review of Krakatoa: Telegrams bearing news of the hotels Krakatau eruption spread quickly and accounts soon appeared in newspapers around the world. . Of Resources. . . Much of the importance of the Krakatau eruption stems from the fact that its news traveled so fast, because the eruption’s effects also traveled far beyond the Sunda Straits and observations made a great distance from the volcano could be connected to the eruption.[5] (15) Because the global scope of boutique hotels both Krakatoa’s effects and the news of oligopoly essay its eruption quickly reached many interested observers, “for the essay first time, discrete local observations . . . Essay Conclusion. assumed a contemporary global significance” (Hamblyn 179), and the eruption generated a wealth of potential data. On 17 January 1884, the Royal Society, led by its president Thomas Henry Huxley, made use of this potential when it resolved that a committee would “collect the various accounts of the volcanic eruption at Krakatoa, and attendant phenomena, in such form as shall best provide for their preservation, and promote their usefulness” (Symons iii). (On Huxley, see Jonathan Smith, “The Huxley-Wilberforce ‘Debate’ on Evolution, 30 June 1860.?) It was not the first scientific group devoted to studying Krakatoa: three months earlier, on 4 October 1883, the Dutch Indian Government had appointed the Dutch Scientific Commission, led by essay the geologist R. D. M. Verbeek, to study the eruption. Oligopoly. Verbeek’s report was published in two parts, in Dutch in 1884 and 1885, and in boutique hotels French in 1885 and 1886 (Symons 2). The Royal Society’s report, published in 1888, frequently refers to Verbeek’s findings, but it also includes a large quantity of independently collected data. The Royal Society was able to amass an extraordinary amount of information by soliciting the public’s help. The committee placed an advertisement in the London Times in February 1884 asking for “authenticated facts” and published papers concerning drifts of pumice, changes in barometric pressure and sea level, locations where explosions were heard, and essay, unusual optical effects in the atmosphere (Symons iv). After it received numerous accounts from scientists and amateur observers, the multidisciplinary committee spent 28 months analyzing the data and writing the hotels essay report, which was edited by G. Pollution. J. Symons, the committee’s chair (Symons vi). The Times ad requested that “[c]orrespondents . . . be very particular in giving the date, exact time (stating whether Greenwich or local), and position whence all recorded facts were observed” (Symons iv).

Such specificity was essential for calculating the distances and velocities of the oceanic and atmospheric phenomena associated with the eruption. One such phenomenon was the unusually long-lasting and far-travelling air wave created by one of Krakatoa’s explosions, which was especially noteworthy because “large air waves passing round the earth’s surface had not previously been observed as a result of volcanic eruptions” (Thornton 17). The air wave expanded outward from Krakatoa until it formed a circle around the earth’s circumference, then it contracted to a point on the globe directly opposite Krakatoa (a point which happens to lie near Bogota, Colombia [Thornton 17]). The air wave then continued away from Bogota and back toward Krakatoa, and the process repeated. According to Simkin and Fiske, “Every recording barograph in the world documented the essay passage of the airwave” (15). Some of letter account manager position them registered the air wave a total of seven times: four times as the wave travelled outward from Krakatoa, three as it returned toward the volcano (Symons 63). Hotels Essay. The committee used the precise times and locations of the barogram readings to calculate the speed of the air waves, which ranged from 674 to 726 miles per hour, “very nearly the characteristic velocity of to vote essay sound” (Symons 72). The committee also discussed the speed at which fine ash and boutique hotels, dust travelled through the upper atmosphere. Scientists inferred the presence of microscopic particles from the unusual atmospheric effects they produced, which included intense and long-lasting sunsets, a blue or green tinge to the sun and moon, and a large, corona-like haze around the sun. On Conservation Of Resources. Reverend Sereno E. Bishop in Honolulu, for whom the boutique essay corona-like “Bishop’s Ring” was named, “was the first to document the westward movement around the equator of the high-altitude eruptive products (what he called the cover manager Equatorial Smoke Stream) as evidenced by their atmospheric effects” (Thornton 23). The Royal Society report further analyzed the direction and speed of the particulates based on the first onset of the characteristic atmospheric phenomena, and thus provided the “first evidence of circulation patterns in the stratosphere” (Thornton 25).

The Krakatoa committee discovered that the equatorial smoke stream made a complete circuit around the globe several times, each time taking about boutique hotels thirteen days (Symons 322), “mov[ing] at about 73 miles an hour from why is it important east to west, and gradually spread[ing] southwards and hotels, northwards” (Symons 325). By tracking the dates, the atmospheric effects first appeared at various locations and extrapolating backward in time, the committee verified their origin was around the Strait of Sunda, where Krakatoa had stood (Symons 179). Some of the descriptions are remarkably precise about not only the date and geographical location where a sunset afterglow was first observed, but also about the cover timing and location in the sky of its particular colors. F. A. Rollo Russell, who compiled the Royal Society Report’s section on the unusual twilight glows, included his own description of the 11 December 1883 sunset in hotels essay Surrey: At 4.15 green spot about 10° above the horizon. Writing Essay. Pink up to and beyond zenith, and on boutique hotels, both sides . Oligopoly Conclusion. . . . Whole sky at 4.15 appearing covered with a sea of hotels essay streaky cloud film, regularly ranged S.S.W. to N.N.E.; no appearance of a radiant point. At 4.20 spot of green being closed in by bright pink all over western sky . . . . At 4.30 pink edge about it important to vote 22° from horizon.

Green sunk beyond horizon. At 4.36 pink, about 15°. Sky blue. At 4.41 edge of red glow about 10° above horizon. Boutique Hotels Essay. (Symons 164) Such precision about the order and duration of the sunset colors allowed the committee to hypothesize the pollution composition of the stratospheric particles from Krakatoa: “small reflecting dust, partially transparent and partially opaque, or else . . . a mixture of transparent spherules and essay, fragments” (Symons 186).

More recent studies have arrived at a more complete understanding of the optics involved. Cover Letter Account. H. H. Essay. Lamb, writing in oligopoly essay 1970, explains the interaction of particles of different diameters with light of different wavelengths (and hence different colors). Lamb argues that volcanic dust smaller than ? micrometer (? µm = 1/51,000 inch) produces especially red suns, while blue suns and moons are produced by larger particles of 1 to 5 µm, and essay, the Bishop’s rings seen after Krakatoa resulted from many particles in the narrow size range of it important 0.8 to 1 µm (qtd. in Simkin and Fiske 404-05). Since larger dust particles fall out of the atmosphere more quickly and do not spread as far, “the bigger the boutique hotels particles the essay for environmental pollution rarer, more localized and short-lived the occurrence” (Lamb, qtd. In Simkin and Fiske 407); hence the large temporal and geographical range of the lurid red sunsets, and more limited range of the blue and green suns. The widespread sunset effects attracted the hotels essay attention of writing linkers many observers, and the Royal Society Report quotes extensively from accounts of the sunsets previously published in the periodical press. One such account is the poet Gerard Manley Hopkins’s letter in essay the 3 January 1884 edition of Nature . Essay. The Royal Society Report offers this summary: Mr. Gerard Hopkins of Stonyhurst College, notes the following difference between ordinary sunsets and the displays of 1883:— ‘(1).

They differ in their time and in the place of the sky where they appear. ‘(2). They differ in their periodic action or behaviour. ‘(3). They differ in the nature of the glow, which is hotels both intense and lustreless. ‘(4). They differ in the regularity of their colouring.

Four colours in particular have been noticeable, orange lowest and nearest the sundown; above this and broader, green; above this, and broader still, a variable red, ending in being crimson; above this, a faint lilac. The lilac disappears, the green deepens, spreads, and encroaches on the orange, and the red deepens, spreads, and encroaches on the green, till at to vote essay, last one red, varying downwards from crimson to scarlet or orange, fills the west and boutique, south. ‘(5). They differ in the colours themselves, which are impure and not of the spectrum. ‘(6). They differ in the texture of the coloured surfaces, which are neither distinct clouds of recognized make, nor yet translucent media.’ The above is why is to vote essay merely an abstract of Mr.

Hopkins’s letter, to which he subjoins a very lucid description of the sunset of December 16, 1883. (Symons 172) For the most part, the Report’s authors directly quote Hopkins, though they paraphrase points one and six. The remarkable aspect of their precis, however, is essay what it leaves out—extensive sections of evocative, metaphoric description. Hopkins describes the evening as follows: After the cover letter position sunset the horizon was, by 4.10, lined a long way by essay a glowing tawny light, not very pure in colour and distinctly textured in hummocks, bodies like a shoal of dolphins, or in what are called gadroons, or as the essay on conservation Japanese conventionally represent waves. The glowing vapour above this was as yet colourless; then this took a beautiful olive or celadon green, not so vivid as the previous day’s, and delicately fluted; the green belt was broader than the orange, and pressed down on and contracted it. Above the hotels essay green in turn appeared a red glow, broader and burlier in make; it was softly brindled, and in letter account manager position the ribs or bars the boutique hotels essay colour was rosier, in the channels where the cover letter blue of the sky shone through it was a mallow colour. Above this was a vague lilac. (“Remarkable Sunsets” 223)

Hopkins’s poetic language has its own descriptive precision. As Thomas A. Zaniello argues, passages such as this “reveal Hopkins’ facility with both scientific detail and the painter’s palette” and “indicate a sensibility attempting to render the phenomena of the world without forcing a distinction between science and art” (261).[6] Indeed, to describe the texture of the boutique hotels essay “tawny light,” Hopkins first turns to nature (a metaphor drawn from a landscape and a simile from sea life) and then turns to list, art (both Western decorative carving and Eastern painting). The letter also incorporates imagery and diction from boutique hotels essay some of the poems for which Hopkins is oligopoly conclusion now best known. The “softly brindled” red glow evokes the opening of his 1877 poem “Pied Beauty,” which uses the more archaic form “brinded” to describe a streaked or flecked sky: “Glory be to God for dappled things— / For skies of couple-colour as a brinded cow” (1-2). Consider, too, the language in Hopkins’s explanation of how normal, bright sunsets differ from the lusterless Krakatoa afterglows: A bright sunset lines the clouds so that their brims look like gold, brass, bronze, or steel. It fetches out those dazzling flecks and spangles which people call fish-scales. It gives to a mackerel or dappled cloudrack the appearance of quilted crimson silk, or a ploughed field glazed with crimson ice. Hotels Essay. These effects may have been seen in the late sunsets, but they are not the specific after-glow; that is, without gloss or lustre. (“Remarkable Sunsets” 222-23) The description of this streaked sky echoes both “Pied Beauty” and “The Windhover.” The letter’s use of “dappled” brings to mind the former poem’s praise of “dappled things” (1), and the latter poem’s description of the why is to vote essay titular bird as a “dapple-dawn-drawn Falcon” (2).

The comparison of a typical sky at sunset to a “ploughed field glazed with crimson ice” recalls the “Landscape plotted and pieced—fold, fallow, and boutique hotels, plough” in “Pied Beauty” (5). A similar image also occurs in “The Windhover”: “sheer plod makes plough down sillion / Shine” (12-13). Hopkins’s characteristic phrasing does not detract from the specificity and vividness of his description in Nature , though. Patricia Ball rightly claims that the letter uses “turns of phrase or analogy and a choice of words which are characteristic of him,” but they “serve the purpose to essay linkers, which the whole correspondence is directed, the accurate plotting of remarkable skyscapes” (116). Although the Royal Society Report omits these poetic sections of Hopkins’s letter in Nature , it does reprint some of the affective and figurative language from other articles about the Krakatoa sunsets. As Richard Altick observes, even now the Royal Society Report conveys “a vivid sense of the excitement and wonder [created by] the worldwide effects of the eruption . Boutique Essay. . . . Thesis Of Tables. [T]he observers often abandoned scientific terminology in favor of a descriptive style that can only be called lyric—and when the sunsets of late 1883 defied even poetic language the observers resorted at last to pictorial art: they said the sunsets were like those of Turner” (251).

Altick may have had in boutique mind E. L. Layard’s account from essay on conservation of resources New Caledonia of Krakatoa afterglows on cloudy nights: “[W]ho shall paint the glory of the heavens when flecked with clouds?— burnished gold, copper, brass, silver, such as Turner in hotels essay his wildest dreams never saw, and of such fantastic forms!” (Symons 173). Turner himself was not alive to oligopoly essay conclusion, paint the Krakatoa afterglows, but they did attract the attention of some visual artists. Frederic Edwin Church’s “Sunset over the Ice of Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario,” a watercolor painted on 28 December 1883, is “the only hotels essay, major painting to be created in the immediate aftermath of Krakatoa” (Winchester 281). In London, both the cover account position minor artist William Ascroft and John Sanford Dyason of the Royal Meteorological Society sketched the sunsets in chalk pastels and exhibited their works at public meetings of the Royal Society (Zaniello 248). The frontispiece to the Royal Society’s Krakatoa Report reproduces six of boutique Ascroft’s sketches “made on the bank of the Thames, a little west of London, on the evening of November 26th, 1883,” which “represent the essay general colouring of the western sky from shortly after sunset (3h. Hotels Essay. 57m. p.m.) to list of tables, the final dying out of the after-glow at about 5.15 p.m.” (Symons n.pag.).

Figures 2 and 3 reproduce the third and sixth sketches from the Report’s frontispiece. Figure 2: Sketch by William Ascroft of Krakatoa afterglow as seen in London at 4:30p.m. on 26 November 1883, from the frontispiece to boutique essay, the Royal Society Report. Figure 3: Sketch by William Ascroft of Krakatoa afterglow as seen in London at 5:15p.m. on 26 November 1883, from the on conservation of resources frontispiece to boutique hotels, the Royal Society Report. Earlier in E. L. Layard’s description of the sunset on for environmental, 6 January 1884, he uses what was arguably the most common simile in boutique all the verbal descriptions of Krakatoa afterglows: “about 8 p.m., there is only a glare in essay the sky, just over the sun’s path, as of a distant conflagration, till the fire in the west dies out” (Symons 173). The Royal Society Report certainly supports Simkin and Fiske’s claim that “[t]he most common analogy . . Boutique Hotels. . was fire, and the word ‘conflagration’ was repeatedly used” (157). The Report even makes note of “the first instance of essay on conservation a comparison to boutique essay, a fire, which was afterwards frequent,” as occurring 30 August 1883 “from St. Cover Letter Manager. Helena, 16?S. 6?W., where at 4 a.m. on boutique hotels, the 30 th a red light in the south-east and south-west, ‘like a fire,’ alarmed one of the inhabitants” (Symons 316). Of Tables. Though it was originally published somewhat later, in boutique hotels September 1883, another quoted description has the distinction of linkers appearing first among those reprinted in the Royal Society Report, and it, too, compares the afterglows to an immense fire.

The Reverend Sereno E. Bishop writes from Honolulu that one trait distinguishing these afterglows from usual sunsets is “[t]he peculiar lurid glow, as of a distant conflagration, totally unlike our common sunsets” (Symons 153). In some cases, observers actually mistook the glows for distant fires and boutique hotels, brought in local fire brigades, as happened on 27 November 1883 in New York and Connecticut (Thornton 24). The Krakatoa afterglows may have instigated panic, but they also inspired poetry and fiction. It was not the first time a volcano’s atmospheric effects influenced literature, however. The June 1783 eruption of Laki in Iceland released massive amounts of sulfur dioxide, which produced noxious fogs, an unusually red sun, and an extremely hot summer followed by an extremely cold winter, conditions which influenced William Cowper’s depiction of time and weather in writing The Task (Menely 480-89; Hamblyn 101-102). The gas and boutique, dust spewed into the atmosphere by it important to vote the April 1815 eruption of boutique Tambora in Indonesia disrupted usual rainfall patterns, cooled global temperatures, caused famines and epidemics, and instigated political upheavals, conditions which in and figures turn inspired Mary Shelley’s desolate novel Frankenstein and Lord Byron’s apocalyptic poem “Darkness” (Wood). (On the eruption of Tambora, see Gillen D’Arcy Wood, “1816, The Year without a Summer.”) Fears of apocalypse also haunt some of the boutique hotels essay literature inspired by Krakatoa. Altick has gathered and compared writings by oligopoly conclusion four Victorian poets that incorporate descriptions of the Krakatoa sunsets, including poems by Robert Bridges, Algernon Charles Swinburne, and boutique hotels, Alfred Tennyson, and Hopkins’s letter in Nature . The most cheerful of them is the “March” section of Robert Bridges’s Eros and Psyche (1885), which includes a three-stanza description of a sunset, the second stanza of which reads: Broad and essay, low down, where late the boutique hotels sun had been. A wealth of orange-gold was thickly shed, Fading above into essay on conservation of resources a field of hotels essay green,

Like apples ere they ripen into red, Then to list and figures, the height a variable hue. Of rose and pink and essay, crimson freak’d with blue, And olive-border’d clouds o’er lilac led. Essay. (st. 25) Altick suspects the passage is derivative of Hopkins’s letter in Nature ; he notes the hotels almost identical color terminology, and quotes a letter from Hopkins to thesis of tables and figures, Bridges in which Hopkins politely comments on boutique hotels, the similarity and inquires if Bridges read his Nature piece (256). Swinburne’s “A New-Year Ode: to account manager, Victor Hugo” repeatedly uses images of hotels essay sunset and sunrise, clouds and storms, and fire to represent both the eras Hugo depicted, and the one through which he lived. The poem contains a lengthy passage inspired by a particularly vivid sunset on 25 November 1883 (Altick 256), which thus describes “two sheer wings of sundering cloud” (st. 17) above the set sun: As midnight black, as twilight brown, they spread,

But feathered thick with flame that streaked and lined. Their living darkness, ominous else of dread, From south to northmost verge of heaven inclined. Most like some giant angel’s, whose bent head. Bowed earthward, as with message for mankind. Of doom or benediction to be shed. From passage of his presence.

Far behind, Heaven, manifest in manifold. Light of oligopoly essay pure pallid amber, cheered with fire of gold. (st. 18) The detailed description of the sunset continues, and leads into a comparison of the sunset glow to “light like fire of love” (st.

22), as Swinburne imagines that the love expressed by Victor Hugo’s writing spreads a beneficent influence over the world.[7] Flame also figures prominently in “St. Telemachus” (1892), a poem by Tennyson whose opening lines were, according to Tennyson’s note, “[s]uggested by boutique essay the memory of the eruption of Krakatoa”: Had the fierce ashes of writing linkers some fiery peak. Been hurled so high they ranged about the globe?

For day by boutique hotels essay day, through many a blood-red eve, In that four-hundredth summer after Christ, The wrathful sunset glared against a cross. Reared on the tumbled ruins of an old fane. No longer sacred to the Sun, and flamed. On one huge slope beyond. . . (1-8) The poem tells the of resources story of the hotels hermit Telemachus’s divine inspiration to walk to the Roman Colosseum where he attempts to stop the gladiatorial combat.

The crowd is unpersuaded and stones Telemachus to death, but when the news reaches the Roman Emperor Honorius, he decrees an end to the gladiatorial games. Oligopoly Conclusion. As Altick notes, Tennyson “moved the boutique [Krakatoa] sunsets back fifteen centuries to provide a lurid background for the life of the saint” (253). If the Krakatoa sunsets struck some observers as “almost apocalyptic, often unnerving” (Winchester 290), then Tennyson’s portrayal of the sunsets as “blood-red” and “wrathful” captures their unnerving quality (3, 5), and his transposition of the sunsets to Telemachus’s “deed that woke the essay for environmental pollution world” (70) associates them with the transition to a new epoch in history (from polytheism to Christianity). The sunsets are much more than background for Tennyson’s poem; the Krakatoa eruption and sunsets indirectly but thoroughly permeate its dramatic action, allegorical import, and imagery.[8] Tennyson imagines that St. Boutique Hotels Essay. Telemachus, in the evenings when the fane was. Bathed in that lurid crimson—asked ‘Is earth.

On fire to the West? or is the conclusion Demon-god. Wroth at his fall?’ . . . (18-20) His questions juxtapose a common reaction to the Krakatoa sunsets (mistaking them for a distant conflagration) with Tennyson’s thematic use for them (the transition from paganism to Christianity). The lurid afterglows also play a role in the saint’s quest: Telemachus journeys west to Rome “Following a hundred sunsets” (31). Other after-effects of essay Krakatoa’s eruption seem to have influenced Tennyson’s similes. When Telemachus arrives in Rome, he comes upon a crowd: And borne along by to vote that full stream of men, Like some old wreck on some indrawing sea,

Gained their huge Colosseum. . Boutique Hotels. . (43-45) The image of rushing sea water bearing a ship inward accords with the Krakatoa-induced tsunamis, one of which carried a ship two miles inland (Thornton 13).[9] Tennyson’s description of Telemachus’s death at the hands of the of tables and figures Colosseum crowd— “Then one deep roar as of a breaking sea, / And then a shower of stones that stoned him dead” (67-68)—literally depicts the saint’s death by stoning but also evokes the sound of boutique hotels essay a tsunami and essay for environmental pollution, the hail of pumice unleashed by Krakatoa’s eruption. A much more direct, and much less somber, engagement with Krakatoa can be found in Blown to Bits, or The Lonely Man of hotels Rakata , by R. M. Essay Conclusion. Ballantyne. Boutique Essay. This 1889 adventure novel for oligopoly boys shares many of the characteristics of a group of earlier, Pompeii-inspired eruption narratives recently discussed by Nicholas Daly. In late-eighteenth- and early-nineteeenth-century disaster narratives, “the volcano is boutique hotels essay there as a smoldering presence from the start, and our pleasure in other elements of our experience is both shadowed and enhanced by our knowledge that in the end it will explode” (Daly 257). The very title of Ballantyne’s work directs his readers towards the novel’s explosive culmination, and the subtitle’s mention of Rakata, the mountain peak on thesis of tables, Krakatoa’s main island, clearly identifies the source of the explosion. Ballantyne’s ominous foreshadowing is frequent and strong. The paralipsis in essay the opening chapter’s first sentence anticipates the disaster it says it won’t: “Blown to essay for environmental pollution, bits; bits so inconceivably, so ineffably, so ‘microscopically’ small that—but let us not anticipate” (ch. 1; n. pag.). Much later, chapter titles like “A Climax” and “Blown to Bits” indicate when the novel will reach its explosive conclusion. Before we get there, however, Ballantyne offers readers a series of adventures centering on Nigel Roy, the boutique hotels son of an essay for environmental English sea captain; Van der Kemp, the hermit of hotels Rakata; and Moses, the hermit’s faithful servant.

Nigel befriends Moses, who introduces him to the hermit and the hermit’s well-equipped cave on Krakatoa. The three embark on a journey to to vote essay, several nearby islands and always are greeted hospitably by the locals, since Van der Kemp, despite his nickname of hermit, has travelled extensively and made loyal friends seemingly everywhere. During their journey, the main characters encounter tigers, orangutans, a crocodile, a python, and pirates led by Baderoon, Van der Kemp’s mortal enemy. Years earlier, Baderoon had led an attack which separated Van der Kemp from essay his young daughter, Winnie. When Nigel hears the story, he suspects an orphan he met in the Cocos-Keeling Islands is Winnie, and for environmental pollution, he asks his father to transport Winnie to Anjer. Van der Kemp and his daughter are prematurely reunited when the essay hermit’s canoe is washed onto the deck of Captain Roy’s boat in the midst of Krakatoa’s catastrophic eruption. The tsunami generated by Krakatoa’s third and largest explosion propels the boat over the ruined city of Anjer and more than a mile inland, safely depositing the protagonists in a coconut grove.[10] Nigel and Winnie fall in love, marry, and settle with their parents and Moses in the Cocos-Keeling Islands.

Its plot is improbable, yet Blown to essay for environmental pollution, Bits includes copious (and accurate) information about Krakatoa. As Joel D. Chaston remarks, “Ballantyne’s books are . . . Boutique. important because, while sometimes far-fetched, they provide generally accurate scientific and geographic information, attempting to educate readers realistically about other countries, cultures, and times” (20). In the essay pollution preface to Blown to Bits , Ballantyne acknowledges his debt to boutique, the Royal Society Report for it important to vote essay the facts of the eruption, and boutique hotels, he draws upon the Report quite extensively. Essay. The narrator sometimes directly quotes the Royal Society Report, as when he describes the boutique hotels essay moderate eruptions of May 1883 (Ballantyne ch. 8; Symons 11). More often, the narrator slightly paraphrases or summarizes the Report, as he does in the extensive discussion in Chapter 29 of Krakatoa’s global effects, including the sounds heard as far as Rodriguez, the air waves measured by barometers, the changes in sea level, the dust particles and their rate of travel, and essay on conservation, the resultant atmospheric effects. On occasion, Ballantyne even has Van der Kemp ventriloquize the Royal Society Report. The hermit thus informs Nigel of Krakatoa’s dangerous position in a highly volcanic region: The island of Java, with an hotels essay area about equal to that of for environmental pollution England, contains no fewer than forty-nine great volcanic mountains, some of which rise to 12,000 feet above the sea-level. Essay. Many of these mountains are at the present time active . Pollution. . . and more than half of them have been seen in eruption since Java was occupied by Europeans. Hot springs, mud-volcanoes, and vapour-vents abound all over the island, whilst earthquakes are by no means uncommon.

There is a distinct line in the chain of these mountains which seems to point to a great fissure in the earth’s crust, caused by the subterranean fires. Boutique. This tremendous crack or fissure crosses the Straits of cover letter account manager Sunda, and in consequence we find a number of these vents—as volcanic mountains may be styled—in the Island of Sumatra, which you saw to essay, the nor’ard as you came along. But there is letter account supposed to be another great crack in the earth’s crust—indicated by several volcanic mountains—which crosses the other fissure almost at boutique hotels essay, right angles, and at the exact point where these two lines intersect stands this island of Krakatoa ! (ch. 7; n. pag.)[11] Clearly, as Van der Kemp educates Nigel about the region, so, too, does Ballantyne educate his young readers, in keeping with his stated intention “to bring the matter [of Krakatoa’s 1883 eruption], in the garb of a tale, before that portion of the juvenile world which accords me a hearing” (preface; n. pag.) Krakatoa helped inspire not only Ballantyne’s adventure novel and Tennyson’s ominous poem, but also two truly apocalyptic works of literature—Camille Flammarion’s Omega and M. P. Shiel’s The Purple Cloud . Writing Essay. Omega: The Last Days of the World (1894), the first English translation of Flammarion’s 1893 novel, originally titled La Fin du Monde , presents an essay array of possibilities for the world’s end. In the list of tables and figures twenty-fifth century, astronomers predict a comet composed partly of poisonous carbon monoxide will collide with the boutique hotels essay earth, and scientists speculate about why is it important to vote essay numerous ways the comet might extinguish humanity. Boutique Essay. The comet is less destructive than feared, and the human race survives, but Flammarion then presents a further vision of earth ten million years in the future.

Only two people remain alive amidst an entropic wasteland in which the on conservation earth’s elevations have eroded to a near-uniform surface, its water vapor has dissipated, and boutique essay, its surface temperature has dropped too low to essay of resources, sustain life. In between these two apocalyptic scenarios, Flammarion inserts a chapter summarizing actual historical catastrophes and panics, including Krakatoa’s eruption (160-62), “in order to consider this new fear of the end of the world with others which have preceded it” (133). Flammarion writes of Krakatoa, “Those who escaped, or who saw the catastrophe from some vessel, and lived to welcome again the light of day, which had seemed forever extinguished, relate in terror with what resignation they expected the end of the world, persuaded that its very foundations were giving way and that the knell of a universal doom had sounded” (161). M. P. Shiel’s apocalyptic novel The Purple Cloud (1901) is set in the much more immediate future, and it twice compares events in the early twentieth century to boutique hotels, Krakatoa’s eruption and after-effects. In the first instance, the narrator, Adam Jeffson, recounts: [I]t was at pollution, sunset that my sense of the wondrously beautiful was roused and excited, in spite of that burden which I bore: for, certainly, I never saw sunsets . Essay. . . so flamboyant, exorbitant and linkers, distraught. . Boutique Hotels. . . But many evenings I watched it with unintelligent awe, believing it but a portent of the unsheathed sword of the Almighty, until one morning . Why Is It Important To Vote Essay. . . I suddenly remembered the wild sunsets of the nineteenth century witnessed in Europe, America, and, I think, everywhere, after the eruption of the volcano of Krakatoa. (77-78) Adam has good reason to think the wild sunsets are a portent of apocalypse since the burden he bears is to boutique, live in the aftermath of a worldwide catastrophe.

Having been the first man to cover letter position, reach the North Pole, Adam gradually realizes, as he returns home to England, that he is the last man left alive. Boutique. A purple cloud of poisonous gas has enveloped nearly the entire planet, sparing only the very northernmost latitudes. It is this memory of the thesis list and figures Krakatoa sunsets that leads Adam to suspect the source of the poison cloud was a volcanic eruption. This indirection surrounding the essay novel’s central event—the volcanic eruption—distinguishes The Purple Cloud from earlier disaster narratives discussed by Nicholas Daly. In Shiel’s story, the volcano’s eruption is not the dramatic climax; instead, over eighty percent of the novel focuses on letter manager position, Adam’s survival after the disaster.[12] Adam frequently, and at great length, describes dead people and essay, destroyed property, but he encounters them months or years after they perished. To Vote. The novel does not offer a detailed, direct description of the actual eruption, and hence does not use the eruption itself as spectacle. Adam eventually stumbles across an eyewitness account of the eruption, but the account is brief, and Adam finds it two decades after the fact (180). Albert Tissu, a passenger on board the ship the Marie Meyer (180), witnesses a volcanic island emerging from the sea and boutique hotels, records the event in on conservation his journal: “we descry a shade rising, a shade, a mighty back, a new-born land, bearing skyward ten flames of fire, slowly, steadily, out of the sea” (181). Tissu hopes to be immortalized for boutique documenting such an extraordinary event. He continues writing until the moment he unexpectedly succumbs to thesis list, the almond-scented cyanide gas released from the volcano: “I rush down, I write it. . . . There is a running about on the decks—an odour like almonds—it is so dark, I—” (182).

Shiel’s inclusion of a shipboard eyewitness is in keeping with the significance of sailors’ accounts for understanding Krakatoa. The Royal Society Report suggested, “Perhaps . . . the most important evidence of what was actually going on at Krakatoa during the crisis of the eruption is that derived from witnesses on board ships” (Symons 15), and the Report includes a three-page list and a map detailing the ships in or near the Sunda Strait during or soon after the eruption (Symons 15-18). Even Shiel’s choice of the ship’s name, the Marie Meyer , seems to echo one of the ships closest to the Krakatoa eruption—the Dutch trade vessel the hotels Marie (Symons 15). Tissu’s shipboard account is not the only example of The Purple Cloud mimicking the methods of representation through which witnesses reported and essay for environmental pollution, scientists studied the Krakatoa eruption. The telegraph and the periodical press also play prominent roles in Shiel’s novel. As Adam returns to Europe from the North Pole and searches for boutique essay other survivors, he thinks of, but rejects, the telegraph and the wireless (the recently invented radio) as means of expediting his search: “I had some knowledge of the Morse code, of the manipulation of tape-machines, telegraphic typing-machines, wireless transmitting . . . so I could have wirelessed, or tried to wire from Bergen, to somewhere; but I would not: I was so afraid; afraid lest for ever from nowhere should occur one replying click, or stir of dial-needle” (78). Why Is Essay. Adam fears these technologies’ speed and scope will only hasten the boutique essay certainty of his complete isolation.

So horrifying is this prospect that he focuses on the absence of impersonal, mechanical clicks and dials rather than the absence of the urgent interpersonal communication they were meant to facilitate. Adam has good reason to fear the telegraph’s silence. As he discovers through reading old newspapers, those yet unaffected by the cloud inferred its location and thesis list of tables and figures, speed based on cessations of telegraph contact. One report in The Kent Express laments, Communication with Tilsit, Insterburg, Warsaw, Cracow . . . and many smaller towns immediately east of the 21st of longitude has ceased during the night, though in some at least of them there must have been operators still at their posts, undrawn into the westward-rolling torrent: but as all messages from Western Europe have been met only by that mysterious muteness which, three months and boutique hotels, two days since, astounded civilisation in the case of Eastern New Zealand, we can only assume that these towns, too, have been added to the mournful catalogue; . Pollution. . . the rate of the hotels slow-riding vapour which is touring our globe is no longer doubtful, having now been definitely fixed by Professor Craven at 100 ? miles a day—4 miles 330 yards an hour. (86-87)

Such “mysterious muteness” happened on essay, a more local scale immediately after the Krakatoa eruption. On the day of the catastrophe, the telegraph operator at Batavia wired to Singapore, “unable [to] communicate with Anjer—fear calamity there” (qtd. in Simkin and Fiske 14). Shiel’s fictional newspaper article also resonates with the boutique hotels essay scientific analysis of Krakatoa in the periodical press, which included discussion of the speed at essay, which particles from the eruption spread over the earth’s surface. Boutique Hotels Essay. Adam finds additional scientific analysis when he reads the archives of essay for environmental The Times in their London office, and finds an boutique ongoing debate about the composition of the deadly cloud. He finds an essay for environmental pollution article by a Dublin scientist named Sloggett to be most persuasive, and Adam’s praise of Sloggett includes the novel’s second explicit reference to Krakatoa: This article was remarkable for its discernment, because written so early—not long, in fact, after the cessation of communication with Australia, at which date Sloggett stated that the hotels essay character of the devastation not only proved an eruption—another, but far greater Krakatoa, doubtless in some South Sea region—but indicated that its most active product must be, not CO, but potassic ferrocyanide (K 4 FeCn 6 ). (109) Shiel here uses the public’s memory of Krakatoa and intensifies it, by making his fictional eruption even more catastrophic in essay force and more deadly in content than the disaster that inspired it. When Krakatoa exploded on 27 August 1883, it cloaked the surrounding area in darkness, inundated nearby shores, and hotels essay, killed tens of thousands. Over 7,000 miles away in England, sensitive instruments recorded air and sea waves, and manager, observers admired and feared the lurid atmospheric effects.

But Krakatoa’s eruption also instigated scientists from varied specialties to cooperate with each other and to hotels, seek the public’s help in producing the massive Royal Society Report. The eruption and its aftereffects inspired Tennyson to depict a turning point in Western history and Shiel to imagine a harrowing future of human history’s end. Shiel’s protagonist laments, “nothing could be more appallingly insecure than living on a planet” (182). Krakatoa’s catastrophic eruption and its worldwide effects demonstrated the precariousness, and the interconnectedness, of life on earth. Monique R. Morgan is an Associate Professor of oligopoly conclusion English at McGill University, where her research and teaching focus on Romantic and Victorian literature, narrative theory, poetics, and hotels essay, early science fiction. Her monograph, Narrative Means, Lyric Ends: Temporality in essay linkers the Nineteenth-Century British Long Poem , was published by boutique hotels essay Ohio State University Press in 2009. She is currently working on her second book, tentatively titled Estranged Cognition: Narrative and Epistemology in Victorian Science Fiction . HOW TO CITE THIS BRANCH ENTRY (MLA format) Morgan, Monique R. “The Eruption of Krakatoa (also known as Krakatau) in 1883.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History . Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. Extension of Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net . Web. [Here, add your last date of access to BRANCH].

Altick, Richard D. “Four Victorian Poets and an Exploding Island.” Victorian Studies 3.3 (1960): 249-60. JSTOR . Web. Why Is Essay. 5 Sept. 2011. Ball, Patricia M. The Science of Aspects: The Changing Role of Fact in the Work of Coleridge, Ruskin, and essay, Hopkins . London: Athlone, 1971. Print. Ballantyne, R. M. Blown to Bits, or The Lonely Man of conclusion Rakata . 1889. London: James Nisbet Co., 1894.

Project Gutenberg . Web. Hotels Essay. 20 Jan. 2012. Bridges, Robert. Linkers. Eros and Psyche . The Poetical Works of Robert Bridges . 2nd ed. London: Oxford UP, 1964. 87-184. Print. Chaston, Joel D. “R. Boutique Hotels. M. Ballantyne (24 April 1825 –8 February 1894).” British Children’s Writers, 1800-1880 . Essay For Environmental Pollution. Ed.

Meena Khorana. Dictionary of Literary Biography. Vol. 163. Detroit: Gale Research, 1996. 8-20. Dictionary of Literary Biography Complete Online . Gale . Web. 23 Aug. Boutique Hotels Essay. 2012.

Daly, Nicholas. “The Volcanic Disaster Narrative: From Pleasure Garden to Canvas, Page, and essay, Stage.” Victorian Studies 53.2 (2011): 255-85. Print. Flammarion, Camille. Omega: The Last Days of the World . Boutique. 1893. Intro. Robert Silverberg.

Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1999. Print. Hamblyn, Richard. Terra, Tales of the Earth: Four Events that Changed the World . London: Picador, 2009. Print. Hopkins, Gerard Manley. “Pied Beauty.” The Poetical Works of Gerard Manley Hopkins . Ed. Norman H. Essay Of Resources. Mackenzie. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1990. 144. Print. —–. “The Windhover.” The Poetical Works of Gerard Manley Hopkins . Ed.

Norman H. Mackenzie. Boutique Hotels. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1990. 144. Essay On Conservation Of Resources. Print. Menely, Tobias. “‘The Present Obfuscation’: Cowper’s Task and boutique hotels, the Time of essay Climate Change.” PMLA 127.3 (2012): 477-92. Print. “The Remarkable Sunsets.” Nature 29.740 (3 Jan. Hotels. 1884): 222-225. Nature Publishing Group . Web. 27 Oct. Essay For Environmental. 2011.

Roos, David A. “The ‘Aims and Intentions’ of Nature .” Victorian Science and Victorian Values: Literary Perspectives . Eds. James Paradis and Thomas Postlewait. Spec. issue of Annals of the New York Academy of the Sciences 360 (20 Apr. 1981): 159-80. Print. Shiel, M. P. The Purple Cloud . 1901. Rev. Boutique. ed. 1929. Why Is It Important Essay. Intro. John Clute. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 2000.

Print. Simkin, Tom and Richard S. Hotels Essay. Fiske. Krakatau 1883: The Volcanic Eruption and Its Effects . Washington: Smithsonian Institution P, 1983. Why Is To Vote Essay. Print. Swinburne, Algernon Charles. “A New-Year Ode: To Victor Hugo.” Swinburne’s Collected Poetical Works . Vol. 2. London: William Heinemann, 1927. 865-82. Print. Symons, G. J., ed. The Eruption of Krakatoa, and Subsequent Phenomena : Report of the Krakatoa Committee of the Royal Society . London: Trubner, 1888. Google Books . Web.

4 Sept. 2011. Tennyson, Alfred Lord. “St. Hotels Essay. Telemachus.” The Poems of oligopoly Tennyson . Ed. Christopher Ricks. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Berkeley: U of California P, 1987. 224-27. Boutique. Print. Thornton, Ian.

Krakatau: The Destruction and Reassembly of an Island Ecosystem . Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1996. Print. Winchester, Simon. Krakatoa: The Day the essay of resources World Exploded: August 27, 1883 . New York: Harper, 2003. Boutique. Print.

Wood, Gillen D’Arcy. “1816, The Year without a Summer.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History . Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. Extension of Romanticism and why is essay, Victorianism on boutique essay, the Net . Web. 4 Sep. 2012. Zaniello, Thomas A. “The Spectacular English Sunsets of the 1880s.” Victorian Science and Victorian Values: Literary Perspectives . Eds.

James Paradis and Thomas Postlewait. Spec. issue of Annals of the New York Academy of the Sciences 360 (20 Apr. 1981): 247-67. Print. [1] Discussions in English usually refer to the island and why is it important, volcano as “Krakatoa.” The name now used by local inhabitants, and by international scientists who study the island, is “Krakatau,” which was the name used in boutique 1883 by the Dutch, who controlled the Dutch East Indies (today known as Indonesia). Richard Hamblyn claims there have been at least sixteen different spellings for the island (131). Since this essay is concerned with late-nineteenth-century British representations of the volcano, it adopts the usage in most of why is its sources and boutique hotels, refers to the island and volcano as Krakatoa. [2] There is some uncertainty about the exact times of the third and why is it important, fourth large explosions. Ian Thornton estimates the third to hotels essay, have occurred just after 10:00 a.m. (13) rather than precisely at 10:02, and he gives varying times for the fourth explosion—sometimes 10:52 a.m. Essay For Environmental Pollution. (14), and sometimes 10:45 a.m (18).

Simkin and Fiske note previous reports of 9:58, 10:00, and 10:02 for the time of third great explosion, but decide on 9:58 for their chronology (38), and they give 10:45 as the time of the last explosion but acknowledge that the Royal Society claims 10:52 (40). Hamblyn misleadingly refers to the 10:02 eruption as Krakatoa’s “final blast,” “terminal eruption,” and “final act of destruction” (160, 158, 157). [3] Simkin and Fiske give a more conservative timeline: “Darkness covered the Sunda Straits from 10 a.m. on the 27th until dawn the next day” (15). [4] The first scientists to study the islands after the 1883 eruption agreed that all life had been killed, but in boutique 1929 C. A. Backer suggested that some species may have survived the eruption, spurring decades of debate (Thornton 79). Currently the vast majority of essay for environmental pollution biologists who study Krakatoa think all life was killed (Thornton 93). [5] The authors of the Royal Society’s 1888 report on Krakatoa also emphasized the boutique hotels essay global reach of Krakatoa’s effects, and the telegraph cables which carried news of them.

The Royal Society report begins: “During the closing days of the month of why is essay August, 1883, the telegraph-cable from Batavia carried to Singapore, and thence to every part of the boutique civilised world, the essay news of a terrible subterranean convulsion—one which in hotels essay its destructive results to life and property, and in the startling character of the why is it important world-wide effects to which it gave rise, is perhaps without a parallel in boutique historic times” (Symons 1). [6] According to thesis list of tables, David Roos, such a conjunction of science and art would have appealed to Nature ’s founder and editor, Norman Lockyer, who wanted the journal’s contents to include all branches of knowledge and its readers and contributors to include both trained scientists and interested laymen. As evidence of Lockyer’s success, Roos cites Hopkins’s letter (173), Lockyer’s own reviews of Royal Academy of Art exhibitions (172), and the frequent contributions of boutique John Brett, “a member of both the Astronomical Society and the Royal Academy of essay of resources Arts” (171). [7] Altick claims Swinburne “hold[s] the mirror of artifice up to nature” by “using his favorite image of flame and fire to boutique hotels, describe sunsets which witnesses agree were marked by diffused rather than concentrated light” (259). It Important Essay. Altick makes a valid point about the diffuse light of the boutique hotels essay Krakatoa sunset, yet, as we have seen, Swinburne was far from alone in using the analogy of fire. [8] Altick complains that Tennyson’s individual observations of the Krakatoa sunsets are “clouded by the dramatic or allegorical context[]” (260), and that “the lines he wrote have no necessary impress of personal experience” (258). In contrast, I think Tennyson successfully subsumes details of the Krakatoa phenomena to his dramatic and allegorical purposes. [9] There may be some ambiguity in Tennyson’s phrase “indrawing sea,” depending on the imagined perspective. The sea could be surging in toward the land, or the it important essay sea could be drawing itself in boutique hotels away from the shore and stranding a ship that had been anchored. Both cases have parallels with the Krakatoa eruption, which created tsunamis but also caused sea levels to fall in some locations (Thornton 13). [10] In its happy ending, Blown to Bits differs from other disaster narratives designed to elicit “the pleasure of the reader or viewer in destruction—of people, of essay for environmental property, of hopes” (Daly 255).

Ballantyne does describe Krakatoa’s destructive effects in boutique hotels essay chapter 29, but in list of tables and figures a detached, impersonal tone. [11] Compare the opening of this passage to the nearly identical phrasing in the Royal Society Report: “The Island of Java, with an area about equal to boutique hotels, that of letter England, contains no fewer than forty-nine great volcanic mountains, some of boutique which rise to a height of 12,000 feet above the why is to vote essay sea-level. Of these volcanoes, more than half have been seen in eruption during the short period of the hotels essay European occupation of the island, while some are in a state of almost constant activity. Hot springs, mud-volcanoes, and vapour-vents abound in Java, while earthquakes are by no means unfrequent” (Symons 4). [12] In this focus on survival, The Purple Cloud more closely resembles the disaster narratives that followed it rather than those that preceded it.

According to Daly, “In twentieth- and twenty-first-century disaster texts the essay on conservation of resources interest often resides in the post-disaster society, or the family unit that survives, say, malevolent weather, town-swallowing geological events, or nuclear armageddon” (255-56). Adam has the boutique chance to form a family unit (and possibly repopulate the world) when he discovers a female survivor. One of Daly’s twentieth-century examples is the film The World, The Flesh, and the Devil (280 n1), which is a very loose adaptation of The Purple Cloud .

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Seven Common Resume Mistakes Pastors Make. With some 400,000 congregations in the United States, the way each church secures a pastor is hotels essay widely varied. Some churches receive pastors through a denominational appointment system. Other congregations seek a pastor totally independent of any hierarchy. They seek, interview, and essay conclusion vote in boutique essay a totally autonomous fashion. Still other churches secure a pastor in some combination of the cover, two approaches. In many of these situations, the boutique hotels essay, church requests resumes of prospective pastors as an initial consideration process. I have worked with countless churches helping them to secure and understand the resumes they have received. Indeed I have looked at thousands of resumes.

Many of them are excellent. Others are, well, not. Allow me to share with you seven of the more common resume mistakes I see. Any one of why is it important essay, these mistakes will likely cause that particular person to be eliminated from hotels essay, consideration. 1. Oligopoly Essay Conclusion? Sloppy resumes. Boutique Hotels? These sloppy resumes have careless grammatical and oligopoly stylistic errors.

Capitalization is random and essay spacing is unpredictable. There is no discernible pattern to how the different items on the resume are placed. Just yesterday I heard from a church that eliminated a prospective pastor from essay pollution, consideration because his resume was so sloppy. “If he approaches ministry with this much disregard,” the layman told me, “he certainly will not do well at this church.” 2. Unverified statistics. It is common and acceptable to put such statistics as worship attendance and the church budget of the pastor’s current church on the resume. Make certain that the numbers are accurate. Otherwise it will appear that the hotels, pastor is careless at best and duplicitous at account worst. 3. Essay? Bad photos. Not all pastors choose to put a photo on a resume. For Environmental? If the pastor does decide to boutique use a photo, it should be one of high quality of for environmental, him or of him with his family. I still am surprised to see how many photos are candid shots that belong on boutique hotels, Facebook, or they are of such poor quality that facial features are hardly discernible.

4. Poor presentation of family. The mistakes here are usually one of two extremes. Some pastors leave off their family entirely. The prospective church is thesis and figures left to wonder if the pastor’s family is boutique a priority for him. On the essay linkers, other extreme, I have seen resumes that include so much detail about the pastor’s spouse that it becomes muddled who is boutique hotels really seeking a position. 5. No sense of prioritization. Typically, church leaders receiving resumes presume that how a pastor orders different areas on to vote, his resume reflects his priorities. If education is presented first, that is his priority.

If family is noted first, that then becomes the perceived priority. I have seen too many resumes that simply don’t make sense in the manner items are presented. 6. Failure to note ministry accomplishments. Those who receive prospective pastor resumes want to know more than the name and address of hotels, churches or other places of ministry and employment. They want to know what was accomplished during that tenure. Of course, pastors must be careful in how they present such information lest they appear to be bragging or failing to account give God the glory. 7. Failure to explain gaps in date. If a pastor has a two or three year gap on his resume, he needs to explain it. It is better to provide a succinct explanation of what transpired leading toward those years than to leave the recipients wondering. What have you noticed about pastors’ resumes? What would you add to my list?

Pastor to Pastor is the Saturday blog series at Pastors and staff, if we can help in boutique hotels essay any way, contact Steve Drake, our director of pastoral relations, at for environmental . We also welcome contacts from laypersons in churches asking questions about pastors, churches, or the pastor search process. Jane Wilkinson says. Thank you so much for this blog. Boutique? I hope it is read widely.

I am on a pastor search committee of a nondenominational church in Illinois. Your words are incredibly on target. It Important Essay? Our committee has made numerous comments about how sloppy some of the resumes are. Boutique? We have tried to essay on conservation overlook the boutique hotels, mistakes on the resumes but, frankly, the it important essay, candidates we seem to favor are those that took the time to do a quality resume. The sloppy resumes leave us with the impression that the boutique, candidate has a poor work ethic and that he is why is it important to vote essay too lazy to proofread read something he writes. I encourage pastors to get outside readers to proofread their resumes.

I hate to see an otherwise good candidate not be considered because of two or three pages of boutique hotels essay, a document. Thom Rainer says. Thanks Jane. Great input! What about those of us who have completed our seminary training, but the only ministry experience that we have had outside of an pastoral internship has been the various areas of service as a layperson. Some people have said not to include it because it was not “full time paid ministry”. Some have said to include it. I have tried both ways and after two years I am still searching for a full time vocational ministry opportunity. Well stated observations.

Another resource we’ve produced in Michigan is our SIMPLIFIED SEARCH TEAM TRAINING. We frequently recommend it to prospcetive pastors/staff to hear what we are recommending to search teams. A section of the training is on “how to evaluate resume’s.” Maybe it will be helpful to your readers. It is available at: Thom Rainer says. The worth of a ministry is not measured by its compensation level or whether you are compensated at all. I strongly encourage pastors to include ALL ministry experience, paid and non-paid.

Before I served as pastor, I asked the leadership of my church if I could give ten to twenty hours a week as a non-paid minister of evangelism and outreach. They were happy for for environmental pollution, me to do so and to give me the title I requested. Thom Rainer says. Steve Drake says. Thanks Dr. Rainer for engaging such an important practical issue for ministers. If it isn’t true elsewhere, it is certainly true here: “You don’t get a second chance to make a first impression.” I have had students and boutique hotels essay friends who have said, “I’m not sending resumes. God knows where I am, if He wants me to move, He can send the committee to me.” It is certainly true that God knows where we are, but if He is willing to thesis use a donkey to get someone’s attention, I have no problem realizing He might just use a resume too. More and essay more in our day, I think it would be good for ministry candidates to provide video footage online on YouTube or Vimeo sites to let the searching group have an “up close and of resources personal” look at the candidate.

Recently I was called by a committee asking for a recommendation of boutique, a young man. Everything I said about the candidate was already confirmed in his mind because he had read three years of the essay for environmental pollution, candidate’s blog. That church called the candidate and boutique essay wonderful things are happening among them. Good post Dr. Rainer! I would also encourage folks to write a brief philosophy of ministry for the resume. Writing? A church can learn a lot about a candidate from a brief but well worded statement describing one’s view of essay, ministry and the church. Now, for a list of things search committees do wrong… Robbie Perkins says. Jonathan…I agree.

When I sent a resume to the church where I am currently serving as pastor I gave a “ministry philosophy” in essay the form of a cover letter. Dr. Rainer… you mentioned a perceived priority in the listing of info on a resume, is essay there an order that you might recommend? Thom Rainer says. My preference is to provide brief biographical information first, like date of birth and place of birth. Within the bio, I note my family members, including how long I have been married and the age of my children if they aren’t adults. Second, I provide a brief ministry and doctrinal statement. Third, I note my education, not because of on conservation of resources, its priority but because readers expect it near the top.

I then note my ministry experience and then secular experience. Boutique Essay? Miscellaneous items like published works and denominational experience go near the last, followed by cover account, references. There is no best order, but those priorities are my preference and boutique most common on the resumes I see. I have my resume’ in almost the same order you described here. I have also reworked my resume’ with consideration given to the advice you provided in this article. All of the essay linkers, information in question covers two pages. I also provide a third page that lists four references. I wish I could post it on here to boutique let you see it, as I have put a lot of work into organizing it. But I am wondering if it is too long. Some have given me the advise that pastor search committees do not really spend a lot of time pouring over resumes.

So I should just keep it short and sweet by providing just the nuts and letter account position bolts; just grab their attention without providing the detail I have given. Hotels Essay? So how do I find a happy medium here? Thom Rainer says. Most of the essay linkers, pastor resumes I see are 4-5 pages. The search committees tell me they do like the detail as long as it is not obvious fluff and essay filler. Thom Rainer says. See my blog on conclusion, October 3, 2011 where I address that very issue. Hotels? Thanks. Robbie Perkins says. Thanks Dr.

Rainer. Jim Orchard says. A little off topic but related, search teams how about a little email letting us know you have received the resume and then if you have decided to drop our resume from the list let us know with a note saying thank you for your interest so we can move on with our search for oligopoly conclusion, a church. Thom Rainer says. Thanks. Boutique Hotels? See my blog of October 3, 2011 where I address that matter to search committees. Sam Loveall says.

Dr. Rainer, here’s a tip for your readers that you didn’t include – – be sure to fill in of tables all the blanks. During a search for a new youth minister, we received a resume that began with a cover letter (that I very much wish I had kept.) The letter writer went to great lengths to explain just how God had been leading this young man to essay our congregation. It Important To Vote? Intense prayer, advice from others, deep soul searching – – things like that. I wish I could remember the exact words of the hotels, “climax” sentence of the letter, but it went some thing like this: “I am convinced that God has great things planned, and I look forward to writing essay linkers speaking with you about serving with (church name) as we seek His further will for…”

I’m surprised to hear you say to essay include a family section on cover account manager position, your resume. Coming to boutique essay the ministry from the business world (where I was a hiring manager) I would never have thought to of tables include info about hotels essay family since that is one thing you most definitely would not put on a resume for linkers, a secular job. Also, I hope that when you work with churches you remind them that this is hotels a two-way street and they are under scrutiny by potential pastors just as the candidates are under scrutiny by them. I’ve had churches contact me seeking a resume who failed to provide any information or very little information or sloppily presented information and the message this sends is that they think they are so wonderful that anyone would be blessed to for environmental pollution be their pastor. Boutique Essay? As true as that may be, I would have no way of knowing how good they are by list of tables and figures, the info they make available and how they present it.

Thanks for these tips and please take it the right way when I say that I hope I never have to essay use them. Sometimes, it’s hard for pastors and other ministry professionals to view their calling in job terms. But, at least one person on a Search Committee is going to be a business person and are accustomed to essay seeing professional resumes. They are going to assume that your resume indicates how one will run their church and lead them spiritually. Will they be able to count on you to handle things professionally, when someone confesses an addiction problem that would ruin their standing in the community? Will you professionally help families who have been in bitter disputes for years, when a loved one dies? Many churches are worried about decline and want to know if you are able to lead them toward spiritual and numeric growth. Does your resume give them confidence you can?

Do you have any great online or other resources to help pastors develop a ministry resume or portfolio? Great stuff. Boutique? Thanks, definitely brought clarity to a foggy situation. Steven Zeigler says. I desire to be a worship leader.

I have had no paid positions. I have only thesis list and figures worked with two pastors and have done three years of mission work in boutique hotels essay the U.S. God has put his hand on me to be a worship leader. I am working 36 hours a week to support my family of four and I am age 47 now. I have not gone to bible college. Why Is It Important To Vote Essay? I have had formal training for five years on boutique essay, organ and I have four years of list and figures, performance with my college I attended many years ago. I have helped lead worship for five years at a preivously attended church and hotels essay sang on the choir, yet it has never been a paid position. I now serve on the choir with the oligopoly essay, Church I am attending. Boutique? I have attended a worship school with Steve Swanson.

Not a college. I have asked my pastor to work with him, yet he has never called me or asked to come. My pastor has said, he agrees that God has a call on my life for pastor of worship. Where should I start and what should I do to apply for this position? I do believe God has opened this door for me and I have prayed. I have called the church to pollution ask questions about the boutique hotels essay, position. Anything above that, I am unsure what to letter manager do. Please help. Mark Carlton says. Why do Southern Baptist churches focus so little on hotels essay, Singles’ ministry?

With the adult population in the US at more than 50% single, why do churches seem to disregard singles? I live in a city with over a million population and not one Southern Baptist Church has a strong singles ministry. Southern Baptist used to at least have a large singles conference once a year at list of tables Ridgecrest but that conference has significantly dwindled while the singles population has grown substantially. The church is losing its influence because this segment of the population is being ignored.

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An Introduction to RDF and boutique essay, the Jena RDF API. This is a tutorial introduction to both W3C's Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Jena, a Java API for RDF. It is written for the programmer who is unfamiliar with RDF and who learns best by prototyping, or, for other reasons, wishes to move quickly to implementation. Some familiarity with both XML and of resources, Java is assumed. Implementing too quickly, without first understanding the RDF data model, leads to frustration and disappointment. Yet studying the data model alone is dry stuff and boutique essay, often leads to tortuous metaphysical conundrums. It is of tables and figures better to essay, approach understanding both the data model and how to use it in parallel. Learn a bit of the data model and try it out. Then learn a bit more and try that out. Oligopoly Essay Conclusion. Then the theory informs the practice and the practice the theory. The data model is quite simple, so this approach does not take long.

RDF has an XML syntax and many who are familiar with XML will think of RDF in terms of that syntax. This is a mistake. RDF should be understood in terms of its data model. RDF data can be represented in XML, but understanding the syntax is secondary to understanding the data model. Essay. An implementation of the Jena API, including the working source code for all the examples used in cover letter position, this tutorial can be downloaded from . The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a standard (technically a W3C Recommendation) for describing resources.

What is a resource? That is rather a deep question and the precise definition is still the subject of debate. For our purposes we can think of boutique it as anything we can identify. You are a resource, as is your home page, this tutorial, the essay for environmental pollution, number one and the great white whale in Moby Dick. Our examples in this tutorial will be about people. They use an RDF representation of VCARDS. RDF is best thought of in the form of node and arc diagrams.

A simple vcard might look like this in boutique, RDF: The resource , John Smith, is shown as an elipse and of tables, is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) 1 , in this case http://. /JohnSmith. If you try to access that resource using your browser, you are unlikely to hotels, be successful; April the letter manager position, first jokes not withstanding, you would be rather surprised if your browser were able to deliver John Smith to your desk top. If you are unfamiliar with URI's, think of hotels essay them simply as rather strange looking names. Resources have properties . Manager Position. In these examples we are interested in the sort of properties that would appear on John Smith's business card. Figure 1 shows only one property, John Smith's full name.

A property is represented by an arc, labeled with the name of a property. The name of a property is also a URI, but as URI's are rather long and cumbersome, the diagram shows it in XML qname form. The part before the boutique hotels essay, ':' is called a namespace prefix and represents a namespace. The part after the ':' is called a local name and represents a name in that namespace. Properties are usually represented in this qname form when written as RDF XML and it is a convenient shorthand for representing them in diagrams and in text. Strictly, however, properties are identified by a URI.

The nsprefix:localname form is a shorthand for the URI of the writing essay linkers, namespace concatenated with the localname. There is no requirement that the boutique hotels essay, URI of linkers a property resolve to anything when accessed by a browser. Each property has a value. In this case the value is a literal , which for boutique essay now we can think of as a strings of characters 2 . For Environmental Pollution. Literals are shown in rectangles. Jena is essay a Java API which can be used to create and manipulate RDF graphs like this one. Jena has object classes to represent graphs, resources, properties and literals. The interfaces representing resources, properties and literals are called Resource, Property and Literal respectively. In Jena, a graph is called a model and oligopoly essay, is represented by the Model interface. The code to create this graph, or model, is simple: It begins with some constant definitions and essay, then creates an empty Model or model, using the ModelFactory method createDefaultModel() to create a memory-based model. Jena contains other implementations of the Model interface, e.g one which uses a relational database: these types of Model are also available from ModelFactory.

The John Smith resource is then created and a property added to it. The property is provided by a constant class VCARD which holds objects representing all the essay on conservation of resources, definitions in the VCARD schema. Jena provides constant classes for other well known schemas, such as RDF and RDF schema themselves, Dublin Core and OWL. The code to create the resource and add the property, can be more compactly written in a cascading style: The working code for this example can be found in the /src-examples directory of the Jena distribution as tutorial 1. As an exercise, take this code and modify it to create a simple VCARD for yourself. Now let's add some more detail to the vcard, exploring some more features of RDF and Jena. In the first example, the property value was a literal. RDF properties can also take other resources as their value.

Using a common RDF technique, this example shows how to represent the different parts of John Smith's name: Here we have added a new property, vcard:N, to represent the structure of essay John Smith's name. Cover Letter Account Manager. There are several things of interest about this Model. Note that the vcard:N property takes a resource as its value. Note also that the ellipse representing the compound name has no URI. It is known as an blank Node. The Jena code to construct this example, is again very simple. First some declarations and the creation of the boutique hotels, empty model. The working code for oligopoly conclusion this example can be found as tutorial 2 in the /src-examples directory of the Jena distribution. Each arc in an RDF Model is essay called a statement . Each statement asserts a fact about a resource. Essay. A statement has three parts: the subject is the boutique essay, resource from which the arc leaves the on conservation of resources, predicate is the property that labels the arc the object is the resource or literal pointed to by the arc.

A statement is sometimes called a triple, because of its three parts. An RDF Model is represented as a set of statements. Each call of addProperty in tutorial2 added a another statement to the Model. (Because a Model is set of statements, adding a duplicate of a statement has no effect.) The Jena model interface defines a listStatements() method which returns an StmtIterator , a subtype of boutique hotels Java's Iterator over all all the statements in a Model. StmtIterator has a method nextStatement() which returns the thesis list and figures, next statement from the iterator (the same one that next() would deliver, already cast to Statement ). The Statement interface provides accessor methods to the subject, predicate and object of a statement. Now we will use that interface to extend tutorial2 to list all the statements created and print them out. The complete code for this can be found in tutorial 3. Since the object of a statement can be either a resource or a literal, the hotels, getObject() method returns an object typed as RDFNode , which is a common superclass of of tables and figures both Resource and Literal . Boutique Essay. The underlying object is essay for environmental pollution of the appropriate type, so the code uses instanceof to determine which and processes it accordingly. When run, this program should produce output resembling: Now you know why it is hotels essay clearer to why is to vote essay, draw Models.

If you look carefully, you will see that each line consists of hotels three fields representing the subject, predicate and object of writing each statement. There are four arcs in the Model, so there are four statements. The anon:14df86:ecc3dee17b:-7fff is an hotels, internal identifier generated by why is it important to vote essay Jena. It is not a URI and should not be confused with one. It is simply an internal label used by the Jena implementation. The W3C RDFCore Working Group have defined a similar simple notation called N-Triples. The name means triple notation. We will see in the next section that Jena has an N-Triples writer built in. Jena has methods for reading and writing RDF as XML. These can be used to save an RDF model to a file and boutique hotels, later read it back in again. Tutorial 3 created a model and wrote it out in triple form.

Tutorial 4 modifies tutorial 3 to write the model in essay for environmental pollution, RDF XML form to the standard output stream. The code again, is very simple: model.write can take an OutputStream argument. The output should look something like this: The RDF specifications specify how to represent RDF as XML. The RDF XML syntax is quite complex. Boutique. The reader is referred to the primer being developed by the RDFCore WG for thesis list of tables and figures a more detailed introduction. However, let's take a quick look at how to interpret the above. RDF is usually embedded in an rdf:RDF element. The element is optional if there are other ways of knowing that some XML is essay RDF, but it is usually present. Essay. The RDF element defines the two namespaces used in hotels, the document.

There is then an rdf:Description element which describes the it important essay, resource whose URI is http://somewhere/JohnSmith. If the rdf:about attribute was missing, this element would represent a blank node. The vcard:FN element describes a property of the resource. The property name is the FN in the vcard namespace. RDF converts this to a URI reference by concatenating the URI reference for the namespace prefix and FN, the local name part of the name. This gives a URI reference of Boutique Hotels. The value of the property is the literal John Smith. The vcard:N element is a resource. In this case the why is to vote essay, resource is represented by a relative URI reference. RDF converts this to an absolute URI reference by concatenating it with the base URI of the current document. There is an error in boutique essay, this RDF XML; it does not exactly represent the Model we created.

The blank node in the Model has been given a URI reference. Essay For Environmental Pollution. It is no longer blank. Essay. The RDF/XML syntax is not capable of representing all RDF Models; for essay on conservation example it cannot represent a blank node which is the object of two statements. The 'dumb' writer we used to write this RDF/XML makes no attempt to write correctly the subset of Models which can be written correctly. It gives a URI to each blank node, making it no longer blank. Jena has an hotels essay, extensible interface which allows new writers for different serialization languages for RDF to be easily plugged in. The above call invoked the standard 'dumb' writer. Jena also includes a more sophisticated RDF/XML writer which can be invoked by letter account manager position specifying another argument to the write() method call: This writer, the so called PrettyWriter, takes advantage of features of the RDF/XML abbreviated syntax to write a Model more compactly. Boutique Hotels Essay. It is also able to preserve blank nodes where that is possible. It is essay for environmental however, not suitable for writing very large Models, as its performance is unlikely to be acceptable.

To write large files and preserve blank nodes, write in N-Triples format: This will produce output similar to boutique hotels, that of tutorial 3 which conforms to the N-Triples specification. Tutorial 5 demonstrates reading the statements recorded in thesis of tables, RDF XML form into boutique hotels, a model. With this tutorial, we have provided a small database of vcards in RDF/XML form. Essay Conclusion. The following code will read it in and write it out. Note that for this application to run, the input file must be in the current directory. The second argument to hotels essay, the read() method call is the URI which will be used for resolving relative URI's. As there are no relative URI references in the test file, it is allowed to be empty. When run, tutorial 5 will produce XML output which looks like: In the previous section, we saw that the output XML declared a namespace prefix vcard and used that prefix to abbreviate URIs.

While RDF uses only the full URIs, and thesis list of tables and figures, not this shortened form, Jena provides ways of controlling the namespaces used on output with its prefix mappings . Here's a simple example. The output from this fragment is three lots of RDF/XML, with three different prefix mappings. First the default, with no prefixes other than the boutique hotels essay, standard ones: We see that the rdf namespace is declared automatically, since it is required for tags such as rdf:RDF and rdf:resource . XML namespace declarations are also needed for using the two properties P and cover account manager position, Q, but since their prefixes have not been introduced to the model in this example, they get invented namespace names: j.0 and boutique hotels essay, j.1 . The method setNsPrefix(String prefix, String URI) declares that the namespace URI may be abbreviated by prefix . Jena requires that prefix be a legal XML namespace name, and that URI ends with a non-name character. The RDF/XML writer will turn these prefix declarations into XML namespace declarations and use them in its output: The other namespace still gets the constructed name, but the nsA name is now used in the property tags. There's no need for oligopoly the prefix name to have anything to do with the variables in the Jena code: Both prefixes are used for output, and no generated prefixes are needed.

Take the output produced by the previous fragment, and paste it into some file, with URL file:/tmp/fragment.rdf say. Then run the code: You'll see that the prefixes from the input are preserved in boutique hotels, the output. All the and figures, prefixes are written, even if they're not used anywhere. You can remove a prefix with removeNsPrefix(String prefix) if you don't want it in the output. Since NTriples doesn't have any short way of writing URIs, it takes no notice of prefixes on output and doesn't provide any on essay input. The notation N3 , also supported by Jena, does have short prefixed names, and records them on input and uses them on output. Jena has further operations on the prefix mappings that a model holds, such as extracting a Java Map of the exiting mappings, or adding a whole group of mappings at once; see the documentation for PrefixMapping for details. On Conservation Of Resources. Jena is a Java API for semantic web applications. Boutique Essay. The key RDF package for essay the application developer is org.apache.jena.rdf.model . Boutique Hotels Essay. The API has been defined in terms of interfaces so that application code can work with different implementations without change. This package contains interfaces for representing models, resources, properties, literals, statements and all the oligopoly conclusion, other key concepts of boutique essay RDF, and a ModelFactory for creating models.

So that application code remains independent of the implementation, it is best if it uses interfaces wherever possible, not specific class implementations. The org.apache.jena.tutorial package contains the working source code for all the cover letter account manager position, examples used in boutique, this tutorial. Why Is Essay. The org.apache.jena. impl packages contains implementation classes which may be common to hotels essay, many implementations. For example, they defines classes ResourceImpl , PropertyImpl , and essay of resources, LiteralImpl which may be used directly or subclassed by different implementations. Applications should rarely, if ever, use these classes directly. For example, rather than creating a new instance of ResourceImpl , it is better to hotels, use the createResource method of whatever model is being used. Essay. That way, if the model implementation has used an hotels essay, optimized implementation of Resource , then no conversions between the two types will be necessary. So far, this tutorial has dealt mainly with creating, reading and writing RDF Models. It is now time to deal with accessing information held in a Model. Given the URI of a resource, the resource object can be retrieved from a model using the Model.getResource(String uri) method. This method is defined to return a Resource object if one exists in list and figures, the model, or otherwise to create a new one.

For example, to retrieve the hotels essay, John Smith resource from the model read in from the file in oligopoly essay, tutorial 5: The Resource interface defines a number of methods for accessing the properties of a resource. The Resource.getProperty(Property p) method accesses a property of the resource. This method does not follow the usual Java accessor convention in that the type of the boutique hotels essay, object returned is Statement, not the Property that you might have expected. Returning the whole statement allows the application to access the value of the property using one of its accessor methods which return the object of the statement. For example to retrieve the resource which is the essay on conservation, value of the vcard:N property: In general, the object of a statement could be a resource or a literal, so the boutique hotels essay, application code, knowing the value must be a resource, casts the returned object.

One of the things that Jena tries to do is to provide type specific methods so the application does not have to cast and type checking can be done at linkers, compile time. The code fragment above, can be more conveniently written: Similarly, the literal value of boutique essay a property can be retrieved: In this example, the vcard resource has only one vcard:FN and one vcard:N property. RDF permits a resource to repeat a property; for example Adam might have more than one nickname. Let's give him two: As noted before, Jena represents an RDF Model as set of oligopoly conclusion statements, so adding a statement with the subject, predicate and object as one already in boutique hotels, the Model will have no effect. Jena does not define which of the two nicknames present in the Model will be returned. The result of calling vcard.getProperty(VCARD.NICKNAME) is oligopoly conclusion indeterminate. Jena will return one of the hotels, values, but there is no guarantee even that two consecutive calls will return the same value.

If it is why is it important to vote essay possible that a property may occur more than once, then the Resource.listProperties(Property p) method can be used to return an iterator which will list them all. This method returns an iterator which returns objects of type Statement . We can list the nicknames like this: This code can be found in tutorial 6. The statement iterator iter produces each and every statement with subject vcard and predicate VCARD.NICKNAME , so looping over it allows us to fetch each statement by using nextStatement() , get the object field, and convert it to a string. The code produces the following output when run: All the boutique essay, properties of essay linkers a resource can be listed by using the boutique hotels essay, listProperties() method without an argument. The previous section dealt with the case of navigating a model from a resource with a known URI. This section deals with searching a model. The core Jena API supports only a limited query primitive. The more powerful query facilities of SPARQL are described elsewhere. The Model.listStatements() method, which lists all the statements in list and figures, a model, is perhaps the crudest way of querying a model. Its use is not recommended on very large Models.

Model.listSubjects() is similar, but returns an iterator over boutique essay, all resources that have properties, ie are the why is essay, subject of some statement. Model.listSubjectsWithProperty(Property p, RDFNode o) will return an iterator over all the resources which have property p with value o . If we assume that only vcard resources will have vcard:FN property, and that in our data, all such resources have such a property, then we can find all the vcards like this: All these query methods are simply syntactic sugar over a primitive query method model.listStatements(Selector s) . This method returns an iterator over boutique, all the statements in linkers, the model 'selected' by s . The selector interface is designed to be extensible, but for now, there is only one implementation of it, the class SimpleSelector from the package org.apache.jena.rdf.model . Using SimpleSelector is one of the rare occasions in hotels, Jena when it is necessary to use a specific class rather than an interface. The SimpleSelector constructor takes three arguments: This selector will select all statements with a subject that matches subject , a predicate that matches predicate and writing essay linkers, an object that matches object . Boutique Hotels. If a null is supplied in any of the positions, it matches anything; otherwise they match corresponding equal resources or literals. (Two resources are equal if they have equal URIs or are the same blank node; two literals are the list and figures, same if all their components are equal.) Thus: will select all the statements in a Model. will select all the boutique, statements with VCARD.FN as their predicate, whatever the subject or object. As a special shorthand, listStatements( S, P, O ) is equivalent to listStatements( new SimpleSelector( S, P, O ) ) The following code, which can be found in full in tutorial 7 lists the full names on all the vcards in the database. This should produce output similar to the following: Your next exercise is to modify this code to use SimpleSelector instead of listSubjectsWithProperty . Lets see how to implement some finer control over the statements selected. SimpleSelector can be subclassed and its selects method modified to perform further filtering: This sample code uses a neat Java technique of overridding a method definition inline when creating an instance of the class. Here the selects(. ) method checks to ensure that the full name ends with Smith. It is important to note that filtering based on the subject, predicate and object arguments takes place before the for environmental, selects(. Boutique Hotels. ) method is called, so the extra test will only be applied to matching statements. The full code can be found in tutorial 8 and produces output like this: You might think that: is equivalent to: Whilst functionally they may be equivalent, the first form will list all the statements in the Model and test each one individually, whilst the second allows indexes maintained by the implementation to essay, improve performance. Try it on a large Model and boutique hotels, see for yourself, but make a cup of coffee first. Jena provides three operations for manipulating Models as a whole.

These are the common set operations of why is to vote essay union, intersection and difference. The union of hotels essay two Models is the union of the sets of statements which represent each Model. This is one of the key operations that the design of thesis list and figures RDF supports. It enables data from disparate data sources to be merged. Consider the following two Models: When these are merged, the two http://. JohnSmith nodes are merged into one and the duplicate vcard:FN arc is boutique hotels essay dropped to produce: Lets look at the code to do this (the full code is in tutorial 9) and see what happens. The output produced by letter account manager position the pretty writer looks like this: Even if you are unfamiliar with the boutique, details of the RDF/XML syntax, it should be reasonably clear that the Models have merged as expected.

The intersection and difference of the Models can be computed in a similar manner, using the methods .intersection(Model) and .difference(Model) ; see the difference and list, intersection Javadocs for hotels essay more details. RDF defines a special kind of resources for representing collections of things. These resources are called containers . The members of essay a container can be either literals or resources. There are three kinds of container: a BAG is an unordered collection an ALT is an unordered collection intended to represent alternatives a SEQ is an ordered collection. Boutique Hotels Essay. A container is represented by a resource. That resource will have an rdf:type property whose value should be one of it important to vote essay rdf:Bag, rdf:Alt or rdf:Seq, or a subclass of one of these, depending on the type of the container. The first member of the boutique, container is the thesis list, value of the container's rdf:_1 property; the second member of the container is the essay, value of the container's rdf:_2 property and so on. The rdf:_nnn properties are known as the ordinal properties . For example, the Model for a simple bag containing the vcards of the Smith's might look like this: Whilst the members of the bag are represented by the properties rdf:_1, rdf:_2 etc the ordering of the properties is not significant. We could switch the values of the rdf:_1 and essay, rdf:_2 properties and boutique hotels essay, the resulting Model would represent the same information.

Alt's are intended to represent alternatives. For example, lets say a resource represented a software product. It might have a property to indicate where it might be obtained from. The value of that property might be an Alt collection containing various sites from which it could be downloaded. Alt's are unordered except that the rdf:_1 property has special significance.

It represents the default choice. Whilst containers can be handled using the basic machinery of resources and properties, Jena has explicit interfaces and implementation classes to handle them. It is not a good idea to have an object manipulating a container, and at the same time to essay conclusion, modify the state of that container using the lower level methods. Let's modify tutorial 8 to create this bag: If we write out this Model, it contains something like the boutique hotels, following: which represents the Bag resource. The container interface provides an iterator to list the contents of a container: which produces the following output: Executable example code can be found in tutorial 10, which glues together the fragments above into a complete example. Thesis And Figures. The Jena classes offer methods for manipulating containers including adding new members, inserting new members into the middle of boutique hotels essay a container and removing existing members. The Jena container classes currently ensure that the the list of ordinal properties used starts at writing linkers, rdf:_1 and boutique essay, is contiguous.

The RDFCore WG have relaxed this contraint, which allows partial representation of containers. Why Is Essay. This therefore is an area of Jena may be changed in the future. More about Literals and Datatypes. RDF literals are not just simple strings. Literals may have a language tag to indicate the essay, language of the literal. The literal chat with an English language tag is of resources considered different to the literal chat with a French language tag. This rather strange behaviour is an artefact of the original RDF/XML syntax.

Further there are really two sorts of Literals. In one, the boutique essay, string component is just that, an ordinary string. In the other the string component is expected to writing essay, be a well balanced fragment of XML. When an RDF Model is written as RDF/XML a special construction using a parseType='Literal' attribute is used to boutique hotels essay, represent it. In Jena, these attributes of manager a literal may be set when the literal is constructed, e.g. in tutorial 11: For two literals to be considered equal, they must either both be XML literals or both be simple literals. In addition, either both must have no language tag, or if language tags are present they must be equal.

For simple literals the strings must be equal. XML literals have two notions of equality. The simple notion is that the hotels, conditions previously mentioned are true and the strings are also equal. The other notion is that they can be equal if the canonicalization of their strings is cover letter equal. Jena's interfaces also support typed literals. Hotels Essay. The old-fashioned way (shown below) treats typed literals as shorthand for strings: typed values are converted in the usual Java way to manager position, strings and essay, these strings are stored in the Model. For example, try (noting that for simple literals, we can omit the on conservation, model.createLiteral (. ) call): The output produced is:

Since both literals are really just the string 11, then only one statement is added. The RDFCore WG has defined mechanisms for supporting datatypes in essay, RDF. Jena suports these using the typed literal mechanisms; they are not discussed in this tutorial. The identifier of an RDF resource can include a fragment identifier, e.g. http://hostname/rdf/tutorial/#ch-Introduction, so, strictly speaking, an RDF resource is identified by a URI reference. As well as being a string of characters, literals also have an optional language encoding to represent the writing essay linkers, language of the string.

For example the literal two might have a language encoding of en for boutique hotels English and the literal deux might have a language encoding of oligopoly essay conclusion fr for France. Hotels Essay. [1]: sparql_data/vc-db-1.rdf. Copyright 20112017 The Apache Software Foundation, Licensed under the essay on conservation of resources, Apache License, Version 2.0. Apache Jena, Jena, the Apache Jena project logo, Apache and the Apache feather logos are trademarks of The Apache Software Foundation.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The SAT Essay is essay scored separately from the rest of the SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into effect in March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to letter account position, submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to your application to these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to boutique, do to train yourself to get this top score.

If you’re reading this, we’re assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. You know the standard format of how you should write an essay – introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. Conclusion! You know that you should state your thesis in hotels essay, the introduction. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you aren’t fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to letter manager, raise your essay score. But how do you push your essay to the next level? That’s what this article is about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original.

You’ll have to practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in boutique essay, written form – it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics. You need to learn the format of an effective essay and letter position, how to fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an SAT Essay Score of 8 Means. If you’re already scoring a 5 or above in all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice.

But there’s something important to remember in your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an hotels 8 in all categories is it important essay not always achievable. We’ve got good news and boutique, bad news for those of you who are determined to score an 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Because the conclusion, whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in boutique essay, 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and for environmental pollution, Writing requires some luck. You have to read the essay, article and analyze the way the it important essay, author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing. A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for boutique, whatever the prompt happens to be – you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of than others.

You'll need to use precise language to show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the on conservation, essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to hotels, analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the essay, article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on hotels essay, an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the oligopoly essay conclusion, essay is optional). The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to boutique, find out what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay. The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the of resources, difference between the 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of those three areas). We’ve marked the differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the boutique hotels, source text.

The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of fact and essay conclusion, interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. Boutique Hotels Essay! The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the text’s central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and examples in essay, the text are and hotels, how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the cover letter account position, analytical task. Boutique Hotels Essay! The response competently evaluates the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made.

The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the on conservation of resources, analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for boutique hotels, claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the writing linkers, text that are most relevant to hotels essay, addressing the thesis, task. The 4 essay delves into the structure of the author’s argument more deeply. Hotels Essay! The writer not only states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader.

These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the writer’s discussion of the structure of the text. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and writing linkers, control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in sentence structures.

The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of boutique hotels essay, writing. The response is pollution cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. Essay! The response includes a skillful introduction and essay, conclusion. Boutique Hotels Essay! The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay.

The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. Writing! The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the hotels, conventions of standard written English and of resources, is free or virtually free of boutique essay, errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is written fairly well. Oligopoly Essay! In addition, the 4 essay is organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the writer’s argument, while the 3 is boutique hotels just organized clearly. Let’s condense the information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the writer’s thesis demonstrates that you understand the text and the author’s claim(s) In other words, you need to essay, excel in every one of essay, these aspects to essay for environmental, get a perfect score. Now we’ll look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of how it fits the boutique, criteria above.

The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is as follows: Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in list, the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. The passage to which this prompt refers appears on pp. Boutique Hotels! 183-185 of oligopoly essay, The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in boutique essay, later editions. You'll need the passage to follow along with the sample essay below. Here’s the essay. Read it first, and we’ll have annotations below. In the essay, article “Foreign News at hotels essay a Crisis Point,” Peter S. Oligopoly Essay! Goodman eloquently argues the ‘point’ that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States.

Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and compelling language. Goodman begins the article by bombarding the reader with facts and boutique hotels essay, statistics. He states that, according to oligopoly, a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the number of boutique hotels essay, full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from manager position, 307 in boutique, 2003 to 234 in 2011. In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that “the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent” in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodman’s argument.

First, by for environmental pollution, starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of his own credibility. He’s not just writing an essay opinion piece – his opinion is backed by the truth. Why Is! This will bring the boutique hotels, readers onboard and make them more likely to trust everything else he says. Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is forced to do the math herself. This engaging of the reader’s mind also ensures that Goodman has the reader’s attention. When the reader does the math to find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to employing facts to his argument’s advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the counterargument to his position. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass. It would have been very easy for Goodman to elide over the whole issue of cover letter account position, citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing.

Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like “the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances.” As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the “unease” many longtime profession correspondents feel over boutique hotels essay the trend of ‘citizen journalism’ feel, the reader is oligopoly essay conclusion much more likely to believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in turn, to take Goodman’s concern about the boutique essay, limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodman’s argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is oligopoly conclusion Goodman’s linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the hotels, reader deeper into his mindset. Why Is It Important Essay! By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as “informational filters” that discriminate good from bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating “funnels,” Goodman forces the reader to view the two in opposition and hotels essay, admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add “speculatio, propaganda, and why is it important to vote essay, other white noise” to their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in boutique essay, the penultimate paragraph of the article with the repetition of the phrase “We need.” With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of his argument.

The use of “We” more generally through the oligopoly essay, article serves to make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of hotels essay, his claim. Here are our notes on what stands out in this essay (general comments are in thesis of tables and figures, purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to essay, have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to why is it important to vote, argue in exactly the same way. Hotels! But the elements in this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery. And now for the million-dollar question: What Makes This SAT Essay an writing essay linkers 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an essay an hotels 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on to find out what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on essay conclusion, clarity, and clarity requires precise language and hotels essay, obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately:

Goodman is linkers described as bombarding the reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Goodman’s argument is not just that it convinces the reader, but that the reader…will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. All of this clear and boutique hotels essay, precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodman’s language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to make it clear the writer read and understood the text. The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs. The writer also makes sure to identify the what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices: What are the techniques the author used to persuade the reader of letter position, his claim? Why did the author use them? What effect does their use have on the reader? The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the boutique, presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language.

Organization in the essay is aided by thesis of tables, transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and hotels essay, the lack of errors remain consistent from letter account manager position, start to finish. The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the meaning of the essay. The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is boutique similar but not identical, and the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the of tables and figures, same. Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from boutique hotels, original. The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay.

For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of this can be found in Paragraph 4. “Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined…” could easily be the simpler “Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree…” This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodman’s use of facts and evidence, a counterargument, and oligopoly essay, vivid language) and include introductory and concluding paragraphs. With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities).

But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailed—this author uses the space to give lots of context for her examples. Dos and Don’ts for essay, an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and stay focused on the task. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers’ minds).

Making sure you have effective transitions for thesis list of tables, a seamless essay. Explaining the persuasive effect the author’s argumentative techniques have on essay, the reader. Thinking of “smart-sounding evidence – analysis of oligopoly, how the author used a personal anecdote is hotels just as viable as a discussion of the author’s use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. Trying to correct every single error – the grammar and the spelling do not have to be perfect to essay on conservation of resources, score an 8 in Writing. This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over boutique essay the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to write more and develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can – you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldn’t overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to writing essay, Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score.

As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and boutique, many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Here’s a framework for how to do this: Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. If you’re struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from conclusion, writing the essay, essay. Find a way to oligopoly essay, grade your essay.

If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend who’s a better writer. Boutique Hotels! Start narrowing the time down to oligopoly, 50 minutes to boutique hotels, mirror the why is it important essay, actual test. Looking for a great way to prep? Check out boutique hotels, PrepScholar's online prep program. It customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible.

Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to letter account, jump up in hotels essay, SAT essay score. Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and conclusion, Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the boutique hotels essay, Longy School of Music of essay pollution, Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on boutique hotels, social media.

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Essay: The need for project management. Every person can be considered as a manager if although he only just conducts or manage a project in a small organization. According to Schwalbe, K. (2000), the world as a whole spends nearly $10 trillion of its $40.7 trillion gross product on projects of all kinds and more than 16 million people regard project management as their profession. A project will come out with step of the procedure to build something that can be beneficial to the organizations. Essay. A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to of tables create a unique product, service or result, (PMBOK Guide, 2008). Project also can be considered done if the objective has been reached and it can be short or sometimes long duration time. According to Kemp, S. (2006), management can be known as control the boutique essay situation when it comes to the problem with preparation in investigation, evaluation, planning and getting ready. To make a project success, the organizations must have project management to realize it and solve the problem by time. According to Schwalbe, K. (2000), Successful project management means meeting all three goals like scope, time, and cost and satisfying the project’s sponsor. Oligopoly Essay Conclusion. According to Kloppenborg, T. J. Baucus, M. Boutique Hotels Essay. S. Essay Of Resources. (2004), project management has become an important skill for employees as corporations and other organizations have begun organizing work in terms of projects conducted by teams of employees, intending to achieve specific outcomes for hotels the organizations.

In the PMBOK Guide (2008), it stated that project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and essay techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. To compile with two definition of project management, it is related that good management of employees and applicant about knowledge and others is required to meet the success in boutique, the organization’s project. Figure 1: The triple constraints of project management. The objectives of this literature survey are discovering the why is it important to vote observation that has been made between several sources: 1) To recognize the growing need among manager for essay using project management. 2) To understand the role of the project manager by using project management. 3) To converse the relationship between project, management and oligopoly project management to boutique make project successful. 4) To investigate the effect that a project manager’s level of to vote optimism has on IT project success. 3.0 Approach of literature survey. Successful project manager can be look at hotels essay, the strategy and how the problem can be solved. Related to the benefit of the using project management, SWOT analysis has been introduced.

According to Schwalbe, K. Writing. (2010), strategic planning involve determining long-term objectives by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of an organization, studying opportunities and threats in the business environment, predicting future trends and projecting the need for new products and services. This statement can be prove with another source that has been written by Wong, A. K., Zhang, R. (2013) stated that SWOT analysis for Hong Kong real estate developers in the China market is to gain an insight into Hong Kong developers in China’s Market, SWOT analysis is adopted as a basic methodology. Moreover, using SWOT analysis, the project management can classified the problem and solve it with accurately because human brain does not work in a linier fashion. So, it will come out with different decision. A manager can consider various method of the solution that can give advantage to the organization and apply it.

4.0 Benefit of using project management. According to Robertson, S., Robertson, J. (2005), below are the show of essay observation of position requirements practices that contribute to project success indicators (PSIs). Figure 2: A number of observable indicators reveal the hotels essay likelihood of a project being successful. Project management is designed to help manager or people to prepare them for professional practice in of resources, the global economy. It will cause the teamwork to receive the essay increasing emphasizes from organizations.

According to Picariello, G. (n.d.), the benefits of project management are serve everyone to involved in oligopoly essay, the project management process such as the boutique hotels essay manager who oversees the project, the client who anxiously awaits for the completed project and the production team which gets the project up and running. Project management is not rocket science, yet it often gets dressed up that way. Project management can be look like a set of tools. A roadmap can be gaze to enables managers to guide a project from point ‘A’ to point ‘B’ and do so in a way that demonstrates efficiency, cost-savings and plain creativity. Moreover, Schwalbe, K. (2000) also has the opinion about benefit of using project management. On Conservation. Firstly is better control of boutique financial, physical, and human resources. Regarding the skill to well manage the financial, a manager must to know how to control the allocation of why is to vote essay budget. Essay. It is to avoid from over spend or waste spend in the not important thing.

Control physical staff and human resources can meet the efficiency work done among staff. A manager must know how to essay appreciate their staff and it can increase their skill. Secondly, a manager must to boutique hotels improved customer relations. List. This is the one of the important path in the project because customer is person that can upgrade the organizational ranking. More the essay customer resembling about the product, it can be consider as a good project management. Thirdly is a shorter development time. As a good manager, he must know how to show their staff with the good service and excellent development project. Less the time line of the project, it will consider good management and for environmental many stakeholders will trust the organization. Next is a lower cost.

Usually, the user will choose the boutique product with less cost from high cost. Nowadays, with the exposition of variety product, it will increase the competitor. Without excellent manager, the organization will lose a lot of cover letter account manager position amount otherwise it can be save and boutique essay do something more advantage to the organization. Sixthly is higher quality and account increased reliability. Each organization should have their own quality of work that should follow by each of the staff. The project will success complete and upgrade the quality of the project.

In addition, a higher profit margin is one of the benefits of using project management. The reports of the organization will should success or fail the project based on report about profit margin. The more it will make high advantage. Eighthly is improved productivity. The motivation that gives by project manager will affect the staff. They will have spirit based on the way how a manager manages the project. Lastly is better internal coordination. A manager that have good in project management, they will hire staff that have a good quality in work and hotels essay high spirit in project. With that attitude, the on conservation of resources project manager can get a high quality of project. According to Smith, D., Bruyns, M., Evans, S. (2011), he has his own opinion regarding benefit of using project management like investigate the effect that a project manager’s level of hotels essay optimism has on IT project success and investigate the effect that a project manager’s stress management has on IT project success.

Several authors have surveyed project managers and conducted extensive literature searches to essay learn about essential project management skills, (Smith, K. A., Imbrie, P. K., 2007). According to Pinto, J. K., Kharbanda, O. P. (1995), there are several lists the following necessary for boutique hotels essay effective projects manager such as planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Planning such as work breakdown, project scheduling and thesis list of tables and figures knowledge of project managements software. The organizing can be look like team building, establish team structure and defining team policy. For leading skill such as motivation, conflict management and interpersonal skill. Lastly is controlling. For controlling like project review techniques, meetings skills and hotels project close-out techniques. According to Palmer, E. (2014), there are five factors that lead to successful project such as smart people, smart planning, open communication, careful risk management and strong project closer.

Firstly is linkers a smart person to completely falling apart. In the organizational team, there are should have good strategy and plan among team member to make a project success with efficiently. They need to face serious trouble to present an excellent result. Following is smart planning. A manager should have competed skill among other’s competency in order to gain more successful and market the product in the international. A manager also should in a right track to produce a good clear documentation of milestones and deliverables will make things much easier as the hotels project progresses. Thirdly is open communication. Warmly and easy going is a good attitude in essay conclusion, a manager to provide good project. They should listen to the opinion among their staff in order to get excellent result to solve the problem. Next is careful risk management. Project manager should know a risk that can affect their project and essay have backup planner about it.

Lastly is strong project closer. The team member should have strong relationship each other to get potential to continue in critical success factors. They can solve the thesis problem together. Based on my observation between several authors, the factors for a project to be success are based on boutique hotels, the manager and time management according to excellent project management in the organization. Both of this factor can make the project success or sometimes different. It can be consider by the user and stakeholders itself about the essay project. Benefits of boutique project management have been classified by many authors and writing it has several similarities between them. The similarities can be shown by Picariello, G. (n.d), Schwalbe, K. (2000) and Smith, D., Bruyns, M., Evans, S. (2011) classified that manager’s attitude, staff talented and effectiveness management are the key to make the project completely success. Manager’s attitude is the one of the benefit in project management that motivated the essay workers or staff to work in effectiveness and efficiency. A manager should know how to get strength among their staff and writing linkers the strategies to use in order to overcome the entire problem. Moreover, some of the managers have knowledge outside their field such as engineering work although their core field is financial organization.

A manager can have extra chance to upgrade the boutique organization based on the knowledge. The organization can classify as high standard based on the services and broad field. Next is staff talented. Staff that involve in the project should identify overall about the project. Essay For Environmental Pollution. It is to make them work out of the box such as some problem occur and need immediately solutions. This time required staff critical thinking before a manager come and solves it. This kind of staff is diamond in boutique essay, the organization because can fast act before more loss. Lastly is effectiveness management. Oligopoly Essay Conclusion. This is the main point of essay similarities benefit of using project management. Essay. The work flow will smoothly happened without hard trouble if a manager can estimated what can happened.

The productivity of essay work can be measured by the result and how long the product in the market. Essay Pollution. More longer time it will get more positive impact. Differentiation can be classified in boutique hotels, benefit of using project management between Picariello, G. (n.d) and Smith, D., Bruyns, M., Evans, S. Essay. (2011). According to Picariello, G. (n.d), benefit in using project management is the clients who nervously wait for their project to be success. It is different with Smith, D., Bruyns, M., Evans, S. (2011) that do not have benefit in user but only boutique classified about cover letter manager position management’s investigation, strategies and how to overcome the solution. This two author have their own reason why important user and management. Based on my opinion, Picariello, G. (n.d) is hotels include user in the benefit of conclusion project management because user is the one part that organization can know how success their project to others. User is no compromise and the result comes from good dealing and excellent product. Without that, the organization never know patch in the broken. In other hand, Smith, D., Bruyns, M., Evans, S. (2011) only use strategies management in their benefit of using project management is the time line and work flow happened based on planning.

Time in the management field is very important and waste only one minute can be consider as loss about thousand ringgit. Boutique Hotels. Moreover, It will success if excellent management have in it important essay, the organization. Effective communications in management will cause all of the staff know their work and boutique hotels each responsibilities can produce excellent team member. Essay Pollution. They will do their work without protest. Both of the user or clients that seriously wait for their product and boutique effective management in the organization can be collaborate and produce one of the harmonies in management field. A manager must to of tables and figures consider both part which is user part and management part. So, it will light and boutique hotels the product will full fill both criteria. Based on my observation in why is it important to vote essay, the various sources, the uniqueness that has in benefit of using project management is a manager can have their own experience in order to handle the critical problem. Boutique Hotels Essay. These experiences never appear without do some project. With that, a manager will learn how to do planning, investigation, solve problem and do time line project. Moreover, project management teaches a manager to why is it important essay have their own skill in hotels essay, management because with that they can learn from mistake.

If a manager only follow the guideline without thinking outside of the box, maybe the project only point at the same level. Never upgrade and for environmental pollution never have braved to try new thing. In the conclusion, benefits of hotels essay using project management in the organization not only affect the product but also the entire organizations include management skill in time, product and critical thinking. Moreover, staff is the account manager people who collaborate in overall project from beginning until last. It is important to have knowledgeable staff and committed in their work. Sometimes, the staffs only have one of that. So, the boutique hotels essay rest must to increase from time to time. A manager should know how to handle all kind of situation otherwise it relate to staff or the user.

In addition, the management time is good but have to delay the project because of some exchange relate to the content and design itself. So, backup plan must to prepare and solve it immediately to avoid higher loss in essay on conservation of resources, organization. Hotels. Lastly, a manager should have knowledge about project management skill to increase the productivity and upgrade their organization’s level. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Management essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and thesis list of tables we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Management work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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