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Business Intelligence: Building Your First Cube. I like to introduce people to Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services by creating a simple cube that contains a sampling of their own data. I have to be careful when I do this, though, because I have been pushed out of my chair on more than one occasion when new users got excited about what they were seeing and wanted to war 1, dive right in to explore the data in ways they never before thought possible. Whether you have data of your own you want to explore more easily or a data-hungry user community to support, you'll find SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS) provides the tools. This article is the third installment of a series; the first two articles appeared in the August 2009 issue and are available at technet.microsoft.com/magazine/ee263919.aspx. This series will help you develop a better understanding of what in the world descriptive, business intelligence (BI) by dbq essays war 1 using the components available in Microsoft SQL Server 2008 as you build a simple BI solution. Because I'll be referring to concepts and terminology introduced in the previous two articles, I recommend you take the time to review those articles first if you haven't read them already. In Planning Your First BI Solution, I explained the advantages of building a data mart compared with retrieving data directly from a corporate database.
I also provided instructions for downloading the sample databases you'll need in order to follow the steps described in these articles. Then Derek Comingore, in Building a Data Foundation for short obama speech, a BI Solution, explained how to use Integration Services to populate a data mart with data from your corporate database. In this article, I'll show you how to on world, build a cube based on a similar data mart design. My first article summarized the reasons to consider moving data out of your corporate database and into a structure called a data mart. While querying a data mart certainly has its benefits, and is probably sufficient for some scenarios, there are additional benefits to be realized by repackaging that data one more time into a structure called a cube. In fact, the data mart exists as an intermediate stop as the data makes its way to its ultimate destination in the cube, so it's still important in the overall solution. An added benefit of building a cube to world is a descriptive, house your data is that you can centralize the business rules for calculations that you can't easily store in a relational data mart. Furthermore, the structure of the cube makes it much easier to write queries to compare data year over year, or to create cumulative values such as year-to-date sales. War 1? Moreover, you gain the makefile assignment ability to transparently manage aggregated data in the cube. To improve query performance in a relational data mart that contains a lot of data, database administrators often create summary tables to prepare data for queries that don't require transaction-level detail. SSAS creates the logical equivalent of war 1, summary tables (called aggregations) and keeps them up-to-date.
In this article, I'll continue the write coursework scenarios introduced in the first article. These scenarios define the basic analysis objectives for the BI solution you're building throughout this series. The solution must be able to show which sales channel is more profitable for on world war 1, Adventure Works, Internet Sales or Reseller Sales, and whether sales trends indicate that demand is growing or declining for certain products. Your source data for the BI solutions is the AdventureWorksDW2008 database, which applies the dimensional modeling and ETL principles described in Derek's article. You can download the sample databases used to build the solution for Adventure Works from write introduction CodePlex at msftdbprodsamples.codeplex.com/Release/ProjectReleases.aspx?ReleaseId=18407. With a data mart available as a source, you're ready to build an dbq essays Analysis Services 2008 database. Preparing Your Analysis Services Database.
Your first step is to short obama speech, create a project in Business Intelligence Development Studio (BIDS). Launch BIDS from the Microsoft SQL Server 2008 program group, click File | New | Project. In the New Project dialog box, select Analysis Services Project. In the Name text box, type ssas_TECHNET_AW2008 and, if you like, change the location for your project. Click OK to dbq essays on world, create the project. Now add a data source to how to a academic, define the connection string for your data mart. In Solution Explorer, right-click the Data Sources folder and click New Data Source. In the dbq essays Data Source Wizard, click Next on the Welcome page if it hasn't been disabled. On the Select How to in the descriptive narrative essay, Define the Connection page, click New to set up a new connection. In the Connection Manager, the default is the SQL Server Native Client, which is correct for on world, this project, though you could also use an OLE DB or .NET provider to access other types of data. To define the connection, type the name of variable assignment, your server in the Server Name text box or select it from the drop-down list, then select AdventureWorksDW2008 in the database drop-down list and click OK.
When you're back in the Data Source Wizard, click Next. Dbq Essays On World War 1? On the a academic Impersonation Information page, select Use the on world war 1 service account option. In The Is A Narrative? The service account is used to read data from the source when loading data into your SSAS database and dbq essays on world war 1 must have read permissions to do so. Click Next and then Finish to dissertation science, complete the war 1 wizard. Next, you create a data source view (DSV) as an abstraction of the tables (or views) from the data source you want to write coursework, use to define dimensions and dbq essays cubes.
You can make changes to the DSV without modifying the underlying data source, which is handy if you have only on boy with a toy grenade, read permissions to the data mart and can't make changes at dbq essays on world war 1, the source. In Solution Explorer, right-click the hand grenade Data Source Views folder and dbq essays then click New Data Source View. Click Next on the Welcome page if necessary. On the Select a data source page, select the data source you just added to the project and click Next. A Toy? Add objects to the DSV by double-clicking each table or view you need. To create a DSV that helps you answer the BI questions posed at the beginning of this article, add the following tables to the DSV: DimDate, DimProduct, DimProductCategory, DimProductSubcategory, FactInternetSales and FactResellerSales. War 1? While you're learning how to work with SSAS, it's a good idea to start with a simple DSV like this one. You can always add more tables later if you need to support other questions with your BI solution. Click Next in write the Data Source View Wizard when you've finished adding tables and then click Finish. I recommend you simplify the on world names of your tables by selecting each one in the Tables pane of the DSV designer and write coursework removing the Dim and Fact prefixes from the FriendlyName property of on world, each table. The wizards you use to create dimensions and cubes will then use the value in makefile assignment the FriendlyName property to assign names to dbq essays, objects.
The complete DSV is shown in Figure 1 . In addition to changing a table's properties in the DSV, you can define logical primary keys or logical relationships between tables if the physical source does not have them defined already. SSAS won't be able to display data correctly without these definitions in place physically in the data layer or logically in the DSV. Introduction? You can also add a named calculation, which is like adding a derived column to on world, a view, or replace the table object with a named query, which is similar to in the world essay, creating a view. In preparation for building the date dimension in SSAS, you need to add two named calculations to the Date table -- Quarter and dbq essays on world Month -- to concatenate the year column with the quarter and month columns. Otherwise, data will not roll up correctly by month, quarter and year when you want to makefile variable assignment, view summarized data. Dbq Essays On World? To add the named calculation for Quarter, right-click on the Date table in either the designer or the in the descriptive narrative essay Tables pane and click New Named Calculation. In the Column Name text box, type Quarter. In the Expression text box, type the following expression: 'Qtr ' + convert(char(1), CalendarQuarter) + ' ' + convert(char(4), CalendarYear)
Click OK and now repeat these steps to add the dbq essays on world named calculation for Month, using the following expression: left(EnglishMonthName, 3) + ' ' + convert(char(4), CalendarYear) Notice that the a toy hand Date table in the designer (shown in Figure 2 ) displays your named calculations with a calculator icon to differentiate them from columns physically in the table. Dbq Essays On World War 1? You can review the effect of adding the short named calculations by right-clicking the dbq essays war 1 table and clicking Explore Data. A new window opens in BIDS to short obama speech, display the data from the source table. On World War 1? When you scroll all the way to the right, you can see the obama values for the named calculations. You should always use the Explore Data command to dbq essays on world war 1, confirm that the named calculations display the way you intend before you proceed to building your dimensions. Defining Dimensions in Analysis Services. After adding dimension tables to the DSV, you're ready to create dimensions in the SSAS database. As a reminder, you use a dimension to essay hand grenade, store information about business entities, such as people, places and things.
To be able to on world war 1, answer the BI questions posed at the beginning of this article, you need to create dimensions for Date and assignment Product. To add a dimension to the project, launch the Dimension Wizard by right-clicking the Dimensions folder in Solution Explorer and selecting New Dimension. On the Select Creation Method page, keep the default selection to on world war 1, use an existing table because your DSV includes the on boy with a toy hand DimDate table. For those situations when you might build a simple database based on war 1 a small transactional table that includes dates, you might not build out a data mart and can instead use one of the other options on this page to generate a time table in the data source or on the server. Figure 2 Date Table with Named Calculations. In either case, you supply a beginning date and dissertation science an end date for on world war 1, the data in dissertation science fiction the transactional table.
SSAS can create and populate a physical table in the data source it will use to populate the dimension maintained in the SSAS database, or it can simply maintain the dimension exclusively in the SSAS database. You might choose to generate the physical table when you need to be able to support relational queries to the data source. Click Next to continue. On the Specify Source Information page, select Date in the Main Table dropdown list. Dbq Essays On World War 1? Note the Key Column is DateKey. The key column must uniquely identify each record in the table so that SSAS can correctly aggregate or group data when returning query results. Then, in the Name Column dropdown list, select FullDateAlternateKey. SSAS uses the dissertation fiction name column as a label to display to the user instead of displaying the key column. On the Select Dimension Attributes page, you choose attributes to include in the dimension, which you use to define hierarchies or additional grouping labels.
Whether you include all attributes from the dbq essays on world war 1 dimension table depends on the types of questions you want to support in your BI solution. Add only as many as you need to on boy with hand, ensure SSAS performs optimally, to avoid consuming storage space unnecessarily and to avoid confusing users with too many options. For this dimension, select Calendar Year, Quarter and Month. Click Next and dbq essays on world war 1 then click Finish. Science? To ensure that each attribute can be uniquely identified, update the KeyColumn property. By setting this property to the key columns, you ensure that Month sorts correctly in numerical sequence rather than alphabetically by month name, which is the default sort order.
To update the KeyColumn property, select Month in the Attributes pane on the left. In the Properties window, click the on world KeyColumns property and then the ellipsis button. In the Key Columns dialog box, click the left arrow to clear the current assignment and then double-click CalendarYear and MonthNumberOfYear. Now assign a label to this attribute by clicking the ellipsis button in the NameColumns property box. Select EnglishMonthName, and click OK. Repeat these steps to set the what in the is a narrative KeyColumns property of the Quarter attribute to dbq essays war 1, CalendarYear and CalendarQuarter and to dissertation fiction, set the NameColumns property to Quarter. The dimension now appears in Solution Explorer as Date.dim and dbq essays on world the dimension designer (shown in Figure 3 ) displays in the main workspace area in BIDS. Figure 3 Date Dimension Shown in the Designer. You can see the dimension with its associated attributes, including the short key attribute, in the Attributes pane on the left.
If you decide later to add more attributes, you can drag them one by dbq essays one from the Data Source View pane to the Attributes pane. You use the Dimension Wizard only when starting a new dimension, but can make any necessary changes later in short obama speech the dimension designer. Now use the Dimension Wizard to create the dbq essays war 1 Product dimension, using Product as the essay with hand grenade main table and EnglishProductName as the name column. Because the Product dimension is a snowflake schema, the wizard includes an additional page to confirm that you want to on world war 1, include the what related tables, ProductSubcategory and ProductCategory. Next, add the Color and Size attributes to the dimension. Notice that the wizard automatically selects the key columns for dbq essays on world, the snowflake tables, Product Subcategory Key and Product Category Key. You need to add in the corresponding name columns for these attributes, but must first finish the wizard so you can modify the attribute properties.
When the dimension designer displays, select Product Category Key in the Attributes pane. In the Properties, locate the Name property and change the write essay name to war 1, Category. Scroll down in the Properties window to locate the NameColumn property. Click in the property text box to display the ellipsis button, click the button, select EnglishProductCategoryName, and click OK. Speech? Now repeat these steps to dbq essays, rename Product Subcategory Key to Subcategory and to assignment, specify EnglishProductSubcategoryName as its name column. Last, rename the Product Key attribute as Product. Notice the blue wavy line that appears under the dimension name, Product, in the Attributes pane. War 1? When you hover your cursor over this line, a warning message appears, Create hierarchies in non-parent child dimensions. How To A Academic? This message is an example of the dbq essays war 1 best practices warnings built into SSAS 2008 to speech, help you build an SSAS database correctly.
Return to dbq essays on world war 1, the Date dimension designer, either by clicking the applicable tab in the document workspace or by double-clicking Date.dim in Solution Explorer, and you'll see the same warning there. Adding a hierarchy to a dimension is considered a best practice for several reasons, in particular for user-friendliness and optimization purposes. More specifically, a hierarchy provides a navigation path for users to follow from summarized to detailed data. Moreover, it can improve query performance by enabling SSAS to compute and store aggregations in advance of user queries. For example, if the user wants to see reseller sales by year and a hierarchy in the Date dimension defines the rollup path from the essay with hand grenade key attribute (Date Key) to the Calendar Year attribute, SSAS can calculate the sales data by year during processing and then put the results into permanent storage.
This storage of aggregations avoids the need to compute each year's sales at query time and is the key difference between retrieving data from a relational data mart or from a multidimensional database like SSAS. To add a hierarchy to the Date dimension, drag the Calendar Year attribute from the Attributes pane to the Hierarchy pane in the dimension designer. After you add the first attribute, a hierarchy object appears with a new empty level below the dbq essays on world attribute you just added. Add the Quarter and Month attributes to the hierarchy by dropping each one into the space for science fiction, the empty level. Next, rename the hierarchy by right-clicking Hierarchy, then clicking Rename and typing Year. Although you've added a hierarchy, a warning still appears for the Date dimension. Hover your cursor over the line to see a new warning, Avoid visible attribute hierarchies for attributes used as levels in user-defined hierarchies. This message suggests you prevent users from viewing an dbq essays attribute by itself when that attribute has been included in a hierarchy. In other words, a user should only be able view the attribute when navigating within the hierarchy. What In The World Narrative? In my experience, this decision is really one you should make in conjunction with users. If you decide to heed this warning, select Quarter in dbq essays on world the Attributes pane and what in the world descriptive essay then, in the Properties window, change the dbq essays AttributeHierarchyVisible value to False.
Another warning appears on the hierarchy itself. How To Write A Academic? In this case, the dbq essays message cautions that a performance problem might arise because attribute relationships are missing between one or more levels of the hierarchy. Attribute relationships are used by SSAS to a toy, optimize query performance and aggregation design, to reduce the amount of storage required for dbq essays, a dimension, and to speed up database processing time. Click the Attribute Relationships tab in the dimension designer. (Note that this tab is available only if you're using Analysis Services 2008.) By default, all attributes relate directly to the key attribute, Date Key. To optimize the design by on boy a toy hand reassigning relationships, drag the Month object to the Quarter object, and then drag the Quarter object to the Year object. The relationship in the designer now correctly represents the many-to-one relationship between each level from left to right, as shown in Figure 4 . Figure 4 Attribute Relationships. Next, add a hierarchy to the Product dimension called Categories that contains Category, Subcategory and Product from top to bottom.
After you create the hierarchy, you'll find you don't need to fix the attribute relationships between levels because the foreign key relationships between the tables are already defined in the DSV. However, you can set the AttributeHierarchyVisible property value to False if you like. Now your project contains two dimensions that have hierarchies and attribute relationships correctly defined. As you learn more about dimension design, you'll find there are several properties available for dbq essays on world, tuning performance and controlling specific behavior in the user interface. Also, you'll likely have several more dimensions in more complex BI solutions. Makefile Assignment? However, at this point, you have mastered the dbq essays on world war 1 basics of dimensions and have what you need to continue building a usable solution by creating a cube.
Just as you use the Dimension Wizard to start the process of defining your dimensions, you use the on boy with hand Cube Wizard to begin creating your cube. In Solution Explorer, right-click the Cubes folder, click New Cube and then Next on the Welcome page if applicable. On the dbq essays on world war 1 Select Creation Method page, keep the default option. (You'd use the other two options when you have a design you want to create manually or with a template, then have SSAS generate tables in the data source based on that design, which you'd need to introduction, populate with data using Integration Services before you could browse your cube.) Click Next. On the Select Measure Group Tables page, choose Internet Sales and Reseller Sales and click Next. (Measure group tables are synonymous with fact tables.) The wizard then displays all the numeric columns found in the selected measure group tables. In keeping with the simple approach you've taken thus far, clear all the war 1 measures by clearing the Measure check box at the top of the page, and fiction then select the following measures from on world war 1 each group (Internet Sales and Reseller Sales): Order Quantity, Total Product Cost and Sales Amount.
You can also rename measures on this page. Just right-click on the measure name and type the how to write essay new name, but make sure each measure name is unique. The measure name should be short, but not so short that it's cryptic. Rename the measures in the Internet Sales group as follows: Internet Order Quantity, Internet Cost and dbq essays Internet Sales. Likewise, rename the Reseller Sales measures as Reseller Order Quantity, Reseller Cost and Reseller Sales. Click Next. On the Select Existing Dimensions page, the dissertation science fiction wizard displays the dimensions you've already created. Click Next.
If there are any tables in the DSV that are not yet referenced as a measure group table or by an existing dimension, the Select New Dimensions page will display to allow you to dbq essays on world, quickly add any other dimension you might need. In this case, clear Internet Sales and Reseller Sales as you don't need these tables created as dimensions. Write? (Although technically these are measure group tables, the presence of sales order numbers in the tables would allow you to create dimensions to support reporting or analysis of dbq essays on world, sales by sales order number.) Click Next, rename the cube as Sales, and click Finish. Congratulations! You've successfully built a simple cube! The cube designer displays the measure groups and the dimensions added to the cube in the panes on the left, and the source DSV on the right, as shown in Figure 5 . Figure 5 Cube Designer Showing Measure Groups and short obama speech Dimensions. The first step to take after building a cube is setting the FormatString property of each measure to make it easier to view values in the cube browser. The quickest way to do this is to view the measures in a grid. In the toolbar of the cube designer, click the fifth button from the dbq essays on world war 1 left to toggle from Tree View to Grid View. In Grid View, you can use the makefile assignment Ctrl key to select several measures at once. Dbq Essays? First, select Internet Order Quantity and Reseller Order Quantity. In the Properties window, in the FormatString dropdown list, select Standard.
Then select all remaining measures to set the FormatString property to Currency. A powerful feature of short obama, SSAS is the ability to add calculations using the Multidimensional Expression language (MDX). If you can write formulas in Excel, you can create calculations in your cube using simple MDX expressions. For more complex expressions, you'll need to spend some time learning about MDX through study and lots of practice. Remember that one of the on world war 1 design goals of this solution is to measure profitability by sales channel. How To Write? The cube now includes the measures you need to calculate profitability: Internet Cost, Internet Sales, Reseller Cost and Reseller Sales. The difference between sales and cost is the gross margin, but that calculation provides absolute dollars, which isn't useful for on world, comparison between channels. In addition to gross margin, you need to calculate the gross margin percentage by dividing gross margin by the sales amount. Dissertation Science? In the dbq essays on world cube designer, click the Calculations tab, the third tab from the left.
Then click the New Calculated Member button on the toolbar, the short speech fifth button from the left. In the Name text box, type [Internet Gross Margin]. The brackets are required when the name includes spaces. In the Expression text box, type [Internet Sales] - [Internet Cost], and then, in the Format String drop-down list, select Currency. Now repeat these steps to add the calculations shown in Figure 6 . Figure 6 Adding Calculations to the Cube. Deploying an Analysis Services Database from BIDS. Thus far, although you have built the objects necessary to create an SSAS database on the server, the dbq essays database itself doesn't yet exist.
The design tasks you perform in BIDS produce XML files that must get deployed to the server. Once those files are deployed, you can process the database, which executes the commands necessary to build the storage structures defined by the XML files and to write, populate those structures by executing queries to the specified data source. On World War 1? Within BIDS, you start all of these activities by right-clicking the project in Solution Explorer and then clicking Deploy. The Deployment Progress window opens to show you each step it performs and whether that step succeeds or fails. After you have deployed a project, you can still make changes in the designers. Just deploy the project again as previously described to move your changes to the server and launch processing.
If prompted that your database will be overwritten, click Yes if you're certain you're the only person making changes to the database. Sometimes the change you make won't trigger the command to process the database after deployment. In this case, just right click the dimension or cube you changed, then click Process, and Run. If you process a dimension using the Process Full option (which is required if you make a significant structural change to the dimension), you might also need to process the cube. At each stage of development, as long as you have successfully deployed and fiction processed the solution, you can review your progress from the user's point of view. Dbq Essays On World War 1? In the cube designer, click the Browser tab. The pane on the left displays the objects in coursework introduction the SSAS database in a metadata tree (shown in Figure 7 ). The top node of the dbq essays on world tree is the cube. Expand the Measures node and the folders it contains to view all of the measures available, and then expand the Order Date and Product nodes to view the attributes in these dimensions.
Figure 7 Sales Cube Metadata Tree. You might be wondering why the cube contains Due Date, Order Date and Ship Date when you created only one Date dimension. These cube dimensions are called role-playing dimensions because they represent different logical versions of the same dimension. They appear automatically in the cube when you include the short obama Date dimension because the fact table contains three different foreign key columns that all relate back to the single table on which the Date dimension is based to track the order, shipping and due events separately. (If these role-playing dates aren't useful for analysis, you can delete any you don't need on the Cube Structure page of the designer.) To view cube data, you drag objects from the metadata tree to dbq essays on world, the grid in the center of the short speech designer. Start by dragging Internet Sales to the area labeled Drop Totals or Detail Fields Here. Then repeat this process to add Internet Gross Margin Pct, Reseller Sales and Reseller Gross Margin Pct to the grid. With the dbq essays results of this simple query now visible in the cube browser (as shown in Figure 8 ), you can see that Internet Sales are significantly more profitable than Reseller Sales. Figure 8 Query Results in the Cube Browser. World Is A Descriptive Narrative? You can continue exploring these results by dragging attributes to on world, the sections of the grid for what in the is a descriptive, rows, columns or filters, which collectively are called axes, or by dragging attributes and on world measures off the grid.
The process of adding objects to the axes to refine the query is called slice and dice by BI users and is a very fast way to query data without writing any code. For example, to slice by year, drag Order Date.Year to write, the section labeled Drop Row Fields Here. Because Order Date.Year is a hierarchy (as indicated by the pyramid-shaped icon), you can drill down to slice by quarter by expanding one or more of the years. Similarly, you can dice by war 1 category by dragging Categories to the columns axis above the measures. After you place objects on rows or columns, you can filter the list of items by clicking the arrow in makefile assignment the caption. To remove Components from the dbq essays on world grid, click the arrow in the Category caption, clear the Components check box and click OK. Next, to simplify the view, drag Internet Sales and Reseller Sales off the grid. You can now easily compare the coursework introduction profitability of the Internet and Reseller channels by year and quarter and by product category, as shown in Figure 9 . Figure 9 Profitability of dbq essays on world war 1, Sales Channels by Year and Quarter and by Category. Variable? By default, the cube is accessible only by the server administrator. However, once your cube is dbq essays on world war 1, deployed to the Analysis Server, you can set permissions to grant users access to it, enabling them to use their favorite tool to browse the what in the world cube. Dbq Essays On World? Microsoft Excel 2007 is a popular choice for interactive browsing, but you can also use Reporting Services to write coursework introduction, distribute reports based on cube data, as I'll explain in war 1 a future article.
Now that you've built a small database using the write coursework introduction sample AdventureWorks data, you should apply what you've learned to your own data by building a simple cube. If you have a simple design and a relatively small data set (containing less than a few million rows, for example), you can build a database without going to the effort of building and maintaining a data mart. Just set up a data source view to dbq essays war 1, query the source using named queries that structure the data as closely as possible to a star schema. When your data source has new data, you can simply do a full process of your SSAS database to write essay, keep it current with your data source. If you have more data to put into a cube, you should read more about SSAS in dbq essays Books Online and other resources as this article explains only the very basic points you need to know to build a simple cube. For example, at on boy with, the beginning of this article, I mentioned that one benefit of SSAS is aggregation management, but to on world, explain more about that subject is beyond the scope of what world, this article.
You can learn more about aggregations and other advanced topics by dbq essays on world reading Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Analysis Services Step by Step (Microsoft Press, 2009), recently published by a good friend of mine, Scott Cameron, who started his business intelligence career with me many years ago. Now that you've built your first cube, keep enhancing your skills so that you can develop more advanced cubes and take full advantage of the Microsoft BI platform.
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Dbq essays on world war 1 – CAPTOR
Revision to war 1, the Charge and Membership of UCWEP. UNIVERSITY POLICY ON WRITTEN ENGLISH PROFICIENCY. REVISED and what is a descriptive narrative essay, SUPERSEDED BY S03-14. ACADEMIC SENATE POLICY #S01-14. (Formerly F87-14); revised by F93-14. The following revised Committee Charge and on world war 1, Committee Composition were approved by the Academic Senate at short obama speech, its meetings of February 20, 2001 and November 6, 2001: The development of dbq essays war 1 student writing skills is both central to the mission of the University and dependent on the full and active participation of faculty from all segments of the academic community. Although major responsibility for teaching English composition has historically resided within the English Department, the University's written English requirements apply to students, spanning a broad spectrum of academic majors and interests.
The University Committee on Written English Proficiency (CWEP) was established to encourage and support broad and effective faculty participation in write introduction the teaching and assessment of student writing. Towards these ends, the committee sponsors a wide array of dbq essays services and activities in support of curricula and programs that foster the teaching, learning and write, assessment of written English; these services, activities and war 1, programs should be sensitive to the needs of a multi-cultural diverse student population. In The World Essay. Furthermore, the committee endorses the principle that test development, procedures and instruments should reflect thoughtful and humanistic consideration of all people, be sensitive to the multi-cultural and ethnic diversity of our students, and to the extent possible be valid, reliable and free of bias. This document describes the war 1 formal University Program in Written English Proficiency and highlights the special role and responsibility of instructors of speech undergraduate and graduate composition courses. CWEP has the responsibility for promoting all-university participation in war 1 encouraging writing proficiency of undergraduate and graduate students at San Francisco State University. For this reason, it is important that no modifications to existing policy on undergraduate written English proficiency and/or to existing procedures in the implementation of undergraduate and dissertation fiction, graduate written English proficiency be made without prior consultation with CWEP. Similarly, any recommendations that CWEP may make for substantive policy changes must be submitted to the appropriate standing academic committees (e.g., EPC, APC, CRAC, GEC) and to the Vice President for Academic Affairs and/or his/her designee. Recommendation for routine procedural modifications must be submitted to dbq essays, the chair of the Academic Senate.
Many committees and programs are concerned primarily or secondarily with written English proficiency. It will be important for CWEP to maintain formal consultation (i.e., sharing of agendas and notices and other methods of communication) with such committees and programs (e.g., APC, GEC, the Graduate Council, AUCIP, WID, and the English Composition Program). Other committee chairs considering issues that are likely to be go before CWEP shall consult with the chair of essay with CWEP whenever relevant issues arise and/or shall forward copies of meeting agendas and minutes to CWEP on a regular basis. Chairs may request a liaison to attend the meetings, when needed, or ask to meet with the entire committee. The specific functions of CWEP include:
Recommend substantive and/or procedural changes in the implementation of the undergraduate written English proficiency requirements to the Dean of dbq essays Undergraduate Studies and to official policymaking bodies in how to write essay accordance with established University policies, procedures and practices; Recommend substantive and/or procedural changes in on world the implementation of the graduate written English proficiency requirements to the Dean of the Graduate Division and to official policymaking bodies in accordance with established University policies, procedures and practices; Act as substantive policy consultant on undergraduate and graduate written English proficiency to appropriate standing academic policy committees (e.g., APC, CRAC, EPC, GEC) and to the Vice President for speech Academic Affairs or his/her designee; Act as routine procedural consultant in the implementation of undergraduate and graduate written English proficiency to the Dean of Undergraduate Studies, the Dean of the Graduate Division and the Vice President for Academic Affairs or his/her designee; Serve as subject-matter resource and liaison to faculty members and/or department/ program chairs who seek assistance in developing writing components in their programs. The committee, on its own or jointly, may sponsor and consult on the following kinds of activities to on world, strengthen, enhance, and improve student writing proficiency across the in the is a narrative curriculum in dbq essays war 1 both undergraduate and graduate programs: Workshops focusing on such topics as grading, holistic evaluation, pedagogical strategies, and in the world is a descriptive narrative essay, other competency areas to enhance the overall quality of on world instruction in courses having a substantial written English component; Workshops for instructors interested in improving the quality of student writing across curriculum; Workshops on cultural and linguistic diversity; Development and distribution of guidelines and materials to assist faculty members in science fiction enhancing both the content and pedagogy of written communication in English. Evaluate proposals and dbq essays on world war 1, make suggestions for improvement of disciplinary writing components, including assessment procedures, upon written request from write, program faculty. Copies of dbq essays CWEP’s written recommendations will be submitted to the appropriate department chair, college dean and Dean of Undergraduate Studies and/or Dean of the world descriptive narrative Graduate Division; Submit an war 1 annual report to the Academic Senate summarizing committee activities. Recommendations for substantive policy changes must be submitted to what world descriptive essay, the appropriate standing academic policy committees (e.g., EPC, APC, CRAC, GEC) and to the Vice President for dbq essays on world Academic Affairs or her/his designee. Recommendations for routine procedural modifications must be submitted to the Vice President for essay on boy with hand Academic Affairs or her/his designee. UNDERGRADUATE WRITTEN ENGLISH POLICY. All newly admitted undergraduate students who are subject to the 48-unit General Education Program requirements must complete the appropriate written English course and test requirements listed below. 1. On World War 1. Undergraduate Entry Level Placement Tests (EPT and ESLPT): All newly admitted undergraduate students must take the California State University English Placement TEST (CSU-EPT) during their first semester of attendance at SFSU, except those with an narrative essay approved EPT test or course exemption. The results of the EPT will not affect admissions eligibility.
However, students who do not take this test during their first semester of enrollment will not be permitted to enroll in war 1 any lower division English composition courses. Approved exemptions to write, the CSU-EPT requirements are listed in the University Bulletin . In addition to taking the CSU-EPT, all non-native speakers of English who wish to enroll in ESL courses must also take the SFSU-ESLPT (English-as-a-Second Language Placement Test) before the dbq essays on world war 1 end of essay on boy with their second semester of instruction. Non-native speakers may consult the ESL Program Coordinator or the Testing Office for dbq essays war 1 the SFSU-ESLPT schedule. The SFSU-ESLPT is an enrollment prerequisite for all ESL-track written English courses. 2.Developmental Written English Instruction: Both native and non-native speakers of English who do not pass the CSU-EPT and/or the SFSU-ESLPT may be eligible for dissertation one or more of the developmental options listed below. Enrollment in these courses will depend on war 1 students' scores on introduction these tests as well as the recommendations of the dbq essays ESL Coordinator and/or the Coordinator of Writing Skills Program.
A. Short Obama. Native speakers of English: All entering freshmen who are native speakers of English and score between 142 and 150 on dbq essays on world the CSU-English Placement Test (EPT) must take English 50: Writing Skills Workshop. This courses focuses on the development of college-level sentence, paragraph, and essay writing abilities. Students who are native speakers of English and who score 141 or below on the CSU-EPT are encouraged to short, take English 49: Intensive Learning English and English 50: Writing Skills Workshop. On World War 1. This is a two-semester sequence of writing instruction that assists students in developing writing abilities to the level required for entry into English 114. B. Non-native speakers of English: Students who are non-native speakers of English, and who score below 142 on the CSU-EPT may also take the SFSU-ESLPT, to qualify for entry into ESL courses equivalent to English 114 and 214.
Those whose scores on the SFSU-ESLPT are in the lowest quartile are encouraged to take English 201 and 202, a two-semester sequence of composition coursework for introduction ESL students. Units and grades earned in dbq essays on world war 1 writing courses numbered below 100 DO NOT count toward meeting graduation requirements. Successful completion of on boy a toy hand English 49 and 50 by those students needing them is an enrollment pre-requisite for English 114 and dbq essays on world war 1, 214. Students should take English 114, a foundation course in how to essay college-level composition skills, prior to completing 30 units of courses work. Dbq Essays On World. Only those students who can demonstrate one of the following are exempt: a) A passed for credit score on the CSU English Equivalency Examination (EEE); b) A score of 3,4, or 5 on either the Language and Composition or Composition and fiction, Literature examinations of the College Board Advanced Placement Program; c) Completion of an war 1 equivalent college-level course elsewhere of 3 semester- or 4 quarter-units with a grade of credit (CR) or C- or better. Taking the in the world is a descriptive essay CSU-EPT is a pre-requisite for enrollment in all English 114 courses as well as all ESL-track composition courses. Taking the SFSU-ESLPT is also an dbq essays on world enrollment prerequisite for all ESL-track written composition courses. Students who are non-native speakers of English may enroll in English 209 as an English 114 substitute, only dissertation science, if they receive a qualifying score on dbq essays on world the SFSU-ESLPT exam and the approval of the ESL Coordinator. Grading on all written composition courses will be either ABC/No Credit or Credit/No Credit, at the student's option.
English 214 is a GE Basic Subjects foundation course in composition, logic, style, rhetoric and literature. Students normally take English 214 after completing 24 semester units and what world is a descriptive narrative essay, prior to completing 60 semester units, unless they have one of the following exemptions: a) Passed for credit score on the CSU English Equivalency Examination (EEE); b) A score of 3,4, or 5 on either the Language and Composition or Composition and Literature examinations of the College Board Advanced Placement Program; c) Completion of an equivalent college-level courses elsewhere of dbq essays war 1 3 semester- or 4 quarter-units with a grade of credit (CR) or C- or better. For native speakers of English, successful completion of English 114 or its equivalent is a pre-requisite for enrollment in all 214 courses. Students who are non-native speakers of English may enroll in English 310, as an English 214 substitute, only if they receive a qualifying score on the SFSU-ESLPT examination and the approval of the ESL Coordinator. 5. Alternate 214 Courses: The existing alternate 214 courses are like English 214, fundamental writing courses in write essay which a subject matter area (e.g., music) serves primarily as a vehicle for war 1 the teaching/learning of writing and coursework, composition skills rather than discipline-specific content. On World War 1. The design and essay, pedagogy of 214 alternates should focus primarily on writing and composition skills. In order to achieve this goal, all active alternate English 214 courses shall be periodically reviewed by CWEP. Existing English 214 alternates are composition courses that are typically identified by 214-course number, but with a departmental prefix other than English. The approved alternatives to war 1, English 214 are the following:
AAS 214 EDUC 214 HUM 214 SPCH 214. AIS 214 ENG 310 LARA 214 THA 214. BLS 214 GEOG 214 MUS 214 WOMS 214. BUS 214 HIST 214 NEXA 214 WCL 214. Faculty teaching English 214 alternates must possess demonstrated qualifications and competencies to teach a written composition course.
The appointing department chair and coursework introduction, school dean, in consultation with the Dean of the School of Humanities and the Chair of the English Department, are responsible for the assessment of these qualifications before the person is assigned to dbq essays on world, teach any written composition courses. The Dean of Undergraduate Studies will serve as a liaison with department chairs and write introduction, school deans to ensure that goal, and, if necessary, to resolve conflicts. For native speakers of English, successful completion of English 114, or its equivalent, is a prerequisite for enrollment in all English 214 alternate course sections. Grading on on world all written composition courses will be either ABC/No Credit or Credit/No Credit, at dissertation science, the student's option. All undergraduate students must demonstrate upper-division written English proficiency as prescribed in University policy. War 1. To meet this requirement, students are expected to take the Junior English Proficiency Test (JEPET) after completing 48 semester units of course work, and before completing 80 semester units. To be eligible to take this examination, students are required to have passed English 114 and 214, or their equivalents. All students who are native speakers of English must take JEPET before enrolling in English 414. Those who receive a score of 6 or better will have satisfactorily completed the upper-division written English proficiency requirement. Those who receive a total score of less than 6 on the JEPET must either re-take the test or successfully complete English 414.
This course offers students extensive practice in expository writing. The successful completion of English 414 satisfies the upper-division requirement for those who do not pass the JEPET test. Students who have taken and passed an upper-division expository writing course at another institution with a grade of Credit or C- or higher may apply for a JEPET waiver. Non-native speakers of English may take either JEPET or English 410 or 411, depending on their ESLPT scores and the recommendation of the ESL Coordinator. Introduction. Non-native speakers and bilingual students who elect to take JEPET and do not pass may take English 410 or 411 only with the approval of the ESL Coordinator. Grading on all upper-division written composition courses will be either ABC/No Credit or Credit/No Credit, at dbq essays on world war 1, the student's option. EXCEPTION TO THE UNDERGRADUATE WRITTEN ENGLISH POLICY.
Students who were enrolled at San Francisco State University, or at another California State University campus, or at a California community college BEFORE FALL , 1981 , and who have maintained continuous attendance subsequent to their initial enrollment, are not subject to these written English requirements. These students will be held to the written English requirements as stated in the SFSU Bulletin in effect when they began their first term of continuous attendance. GRADUATE WRITTEN ENGLISH PROFICIENCY POLICY. All students in programs of graduate study at science fiction, SFSU must demonstrate entry-level and exit-level writing proficiency in war 1 accordance with the Guidelines to Establish English Writing Proficiency for obama Graduate Students. 1. War 1. Entry-level Writing Proficiency. All newly admitted graduate students shall demonstrate entry-level writing proficiency in English at a level consistent with the expectation for advanced work in their chosen fields of postgraduate study.
To assess the entry-level writing proficiency of newly admitted graduate students, departments shall employ one of the following evaluation options: a) Require students to take the SFSU Graduate Essay Test (GET); b) Require students to submit scores on an acceptable and nationally recognized graduate-level examination that requires an expository writing sample; c) Require students to submit to the Department Chair and/or Graduate Coordinator or Committee Chair expository writing completed in short speech one of the department's required courses during the first term of enrollment for evaluation of entry-level writing proficiency; d) Require students to take a graduate-level writing examination calling for expository prose administered and proctored by the department/program to which the student has been admitted; e) Require students to dbq essays war 1, submit for departmental review a portfolio of expository essays other expository writings, or equivalent written creative work. This assessment of speech a student's entry-level writing proficiency will be conducted prior to dbq essays on world, or during the student's first semester of enrollment in in the world descriptive narrative the graduate program. Students who pass an approved examination or successful completion of the assessment processes stipulated above will have satisfied the graduate entry-level writing proficiency requirement. Graduate students who do not demonstrate entry-level writing proficiency shall be required to remediate their deficiencies before the end of their second semester of graduate study, in a manner approved by their departments. 2. Assessment of Exit-level Writing Proficiency.
Graduate students shall demonstrate exit-level writing proficiency by one or more of the following methods: a) Writing an dbq essays on world war 1 acceptable Master's thesis; b) Writing a substantial paper in a culminating course or seminar; c) Successfully completing a comprehensive written examination administered by their department/program; d) Successfully completing a discipline-based project, creative work, or other activity that requires extensive writing. Departments that cannot certify the completion of the on boy exit-level graduate writing proficiency requirement, either before approving the Graduate Approved Program, or by exercising one of the culminating-experience options described above, shall submit a reasonable alternate plan to the Dean of the on world war 1 Graduate Division. The Written English Proficiency Committee will serve as a resource and liaison to the Graduate Council, the makefile assignment Dean of the Graduate Division, and schools, departments and dbq essays, programs in obama speech responding to on world, concerns or issues related to the entry- and makefile variable assignment, exit-level graduate writing proficiency requirements. CWEP will consist of the following members: 1. Three faculty members from the English Department, including one designated.
Member from the war 1 composition program faculty and one designated member from the ESL program faculty, elected by the English Department according to its established procedures; 2. Two faculty members from areas other than the English Department elected at-large by the university faculty; 3. One faculty member from an area other than the English Department who has experience teaching composition, elected at in the is a narrative essay, large by the university faculty; 4. One undergraduate and on world, one graduate student selected by the Associated Students; 5. Is A Descriptive. One tenured English Department faculty member invited by CWEP from one of the major feeder community colleges and who will serve as the dbq essays on world community college liaison to in the world narrative essay, CWEP; 6. One faculty member from the Learning Assistance Center, to be appointed by the Dean of war 1 Undergraduate Studies;
7. The Dean of Undergraduate Studies or his/her designee, to serve ex officio ; 8. The Dean of the what narrative Graduate Division or his/her designee, to serve ex officio ; 9. On World. One member of the Academic Affairs and to serve as staff to the committee ex officio ; 10. The ESL coordinator (or designee), to serve ex officio ; 11. The GET coordinator (or designee), to serve ex officio ; 12. The JEPET coordinator (or designee), to serve ex officio ; 13. The LAC coordinator (or designee), to serve ex officio ; 14. The Reading coordinator (or designee), to serve ex officio .
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15 Crazy College Application Essay Questions. February 10, 2014. College application essays don’t have to be a drag – and these schools prove it. They’ve created some of the most outlandish, thought-provoking and original essay questions out there. Here are the 15 schools that think outside the box, when it comes to admissions essay, with some examples of our favorite questions they’re asking on dbq essays The Common Application this year.
Now, it’s up to in the world is a narrative you to impress admissions officers with a response that measures up. Amongst the on world war 1 schools with the most create assortments were Lehigh University, Tufts University and variable, Wake Forest, though we#8217;ve decided to remain (sort of) impartial and dbq essays, list the schools with the most creatively candid questions in speech alphabetical order. Dbq Essays On World? The following 15 schools had some of our favorite imaginative college admissions essay questions begging the question: how would you answer? “You are required to spend the obama next year of your life in either the past or the future. What year would you travel to and why?” Leave it to the liberal arts colleges to come up with something thought-provoking. This private research university, located in Waltham, MA, is sure to get your creative juices flowing! “Pick a movie or novel where the on world protagonist makes a difficult choice. Do you agree or disagree with the decision he or she made?” Another private liberal arts university, Bucknell is located in the central part of Pennsylvania in the town of descriptive essay, Lewisburg. If you’re looking to bring unique perspectives to a university, this may be the one for you. “Create two questions that drive you.” This private liberal arts school, located in dbq essays on world Amherst, MA, is so outside of the write coursework introduction box, they got rid of the box (i.e. questions) all together. If you’re up for the creative challenge, seize it! “Let’s go back to on world war 1 a time when learning was pure joy.
Please tell us your favorite childhood book and why.” Also dubbed “K College” or “K,” this Kalamazoo, Michigan school produces more Peace Corp volunteers than any other U.S. academic institution! “What is your favorite riddle and why?” “Describe your favorite ”Bazinga” moment.” “You’ve just reached your one millionth hit on your YouTube video. What is the what narrative video about?” “If your name were an acronym, what would it stand for and how would it reflect your strengths and pesonality?” When it comes to originality, Lehigh definitely took the cake. Dbq Essays War 1? Believe it or not, we had to narrow our choices down to the above questions! But this Bethlehem, PA, university is how to write also known for academics and landed on dbq essays war 1 the Top Party Schools list.
Talk about well rounded! Stanford left the essay open to interpretation for makefile the scholars applying to the university, which is considered to be one of the most prestigious in the United States and the world. “Take a blank sheet of on world, paper. Do with this page what you wish. Makefile Assignment? Your only limitations are the boundaries of dbq essays on world war 1, this page. You don’t have to submit anything, but we hope you will use your imagination.” This optional “assignment” from the university, located in Forth Worth, TX, must leave a blank stare on students faces all the time. Who else wonders what types of submissions (and how many paper airplanes) they get? Competing with Lehigh, Tufts University had quite the array of unique questions, so we had to pick favorites. Tufts is known as a Little Ivy and a “New Ivy,” so we imagine that those applying to this school, which ranks amongst the top in a academic essay the nation, appreciate the chance to speak their minds via the college application essay. Learn more about war 1 Tufts University. “Winston Churchill believed ‘a joke is a very serious thing.’ Tell us your favorite joke and try to explain the joke without ruining it.” “How are apples and science, oranges supposed to be compared?”
The University of Chicago cleverly takes essay questions suggested by students. Dbq Essays? So if you find the questions a little too peculiar, blame your peers. Dissertation Fiction? If you can take on the essays, you can join the nearly 15,00 students that attend the school – which is another ranked as one of the war 1 most prestigious, both nationally and worldwide. 10. University of write, North Carolina at Chapel Hill. “What do you hope to find over the rainbow?” This public research university is consistently ranked among the highest in the United States and is one of eight original Public Ivy schools. Perhaps the answer to the essay question should be: an Ivy League education with public university tuition prices? “By the end of the college application process, you will have probably written dozens of essays and responded to a multitude of dbq essays on world war 1, questions. Use this opportunity to try something new.” If you want to become one of the 8,000 undergraduates who identify as the Fighting Irish, you’ll need to plan and strategize to impress admissions officials at this private Catholic research university.
“Describe one of your quirks and why it is part of variable, who you are.” Located in Charlottesville, VA, this public university was conceived and designed by U.S. President Thomas Jefferson. We cannot help but wonder, which side of the “tweet” or “not to dbq essays tweet” spectrum do you think he’d land? Founded in 1842, this private university is the oldest Catholic university in coursework the commonwealth of dbq essays, Pennsylvania. It was named for Saint Thomas of Villanova, but we’d advise against answering in any way that may suggest he sets your heart ablaze. That’s just #8230;awkward. “Some say social media is dissertation science fiction superficial, with no room for expressing deep or complex ideas. We challenge you to defy these skeptics by describing yourself as fully and dbq essays, accurately as possible in the 140-character limit of introduction, a tweet.” Wake Forest is a private university with its main campus located in Winston Salem, NC. The original location was in dbq essays on world Wake Forest, hence the name. What would be on short obama speech our top ten list? How about these school facts? The school has 93 percent retention rate and an 85 percent four-year graduation rate not bad! “You have been granted a free weekend next month.
How will you spend it?” “What is something about which you have changed your mind in the last three years?” You may have heard of Yale University – it’s a private Ivy League research university in on world Connecticut? It’s also the alma mater of five U.S. presidents, among countless other scholars. With a retention rate of 99 percent, we’re guessing most students don’t answer, “Going to Yale,” as what they#8217;ve changed their minds about. Perhaps which side of a legal issue you fall on would be a safer answer, especially since Yale Law School is the obama speech most selective within the United States. Every semester, Fastweb helps thousands of students pay for on world war 1 school by matching them to scholarships, grants, and internships, for which they actually qualify.
You'll find high value scholarships like VIP Voice's $5,000 Scholarship, and a toy hand grenade, easy to enter scholarships like Niche $2,000 No Essay Scholarship, and internships with companies like Apple, Google, Dreamworks, and on world war 1, even NASA!
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Chapter 3: Architectural Patterns and Styles. For more details of the dbq essays war 1, topics covered in this guide, see Contents of the Guide. This chapter describes and discusses high level patterns and principles commonly used for applications today. These are often referred to as the architectural styles , and include patterns such as client/server, layered architecture, component-based architecture, message bus architecture, and service-oriented architecture (SOA). Introduction. For each style, you will find an overview, key principles, major benefits, and information that will help you choose the on world war 1, appropriate architectural styles for your application. It is important to in the is a descriptive, understand that the dbq essays on world, styles describe different aspects of fiction, applications. For example, some architectural styles describe deployment patterns, some describe structure and design issues, and war 1 others describe communication factors.
Therefore, a typical application will usually use a combination of more than one of the styles described in this chapter. An architectural style, sometimes called an write coursework, architectural pattern, is a set of principles—a coarse grained pattern that provides an abstract framework for a family of systems. An architectural style improves partitioning and dbq essays war 1 promotes design reuse by providing solutions to frequently recurring problems. Assignment. You can think of architecture styles and dbq essays war 1 patterns as sets of principles that shape an application. Garlan and Shaw define an architectural style as: “#2026a; family of systems in terms of a pattern of structural organization.
More specifically, an architectural style determines the vocabulary of components and connectors that can be used in instances of that style, together with a set of constraints on how they can be combined. These can include topological constraints on architectural descriptions (e.g., no cycles). Other constraints—say, having to do with execution semantics—might also be part of the style definition.” An understanding of architectural styles provides several benefits. The most important benefit is that they provide a common language. They also provide opportunities for conversations that are technology agnostic. This facilitates a higher level of conversation that is inclusive of patterns and short speech principles, without getting into specifics. Dbq Essays. For example, by using architecture styles, you can talk about client/server versus n -tier. Architectural styles can be organized by their key focus area. The following table lists the essay a toy hand, major areas of dbq essays on world war 1, focus and the corresponding architectural styles.
Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), Message Bus. Client/Server, N-Tier, 3-Tier. Domain Driven Design. Component-Based, Object-Oriented, Layered Architecture. Summary of Key Architectural Styles.
The following table lists the common architectural styles described in this chapter. It also contains a brief description of each style. What Is A Descriptive. Later sections of dbq essays on world, this chapter contain more details of essay hand grenade, each style, as well as guidance to on world, help you choose the appropriate ones for your application. Segregates the system into two applications, where the client makes requests to the server. World Is A Descriptive Essay. In many cases, the server is a database with application logic represented as stored procedures. Decomposes application design into reusable functional or logical components that expose well-defined communication interfaces. Domain Driven Design. An object-oriented architectural style focused on modeling a business domain and defining business objects based on entities within the business domain. Partitions the concerns of the application into stacked groups (layers). An architecture style that prescribes use of a software system that can receive and send messages using one or more communication channels, so that applications can interact without needing to know specific details about dbq essays war 1 each other.
Segregates functionality into separate segments in introduction much the same way as the layered style, but with each segment being a tier located on a physically separate computer. A design paradigm based on division of responsibilities for an application or system into individual reusable and self-sufficient objects, each containing the data and the behavior relevant to the object. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Refers to applications that expose and consume functionality as a service using contracts and messages. The architecture of a software system is almost never limited to a single architectural style, but is often a combination of architectural styles that make up the complete system.
For example, you might have a SOA design composed of services developed using a layered architecture approach and an object-oriented architecture style. A combination of dbq essays on world war 1, architecture styles is assignment, also useful if you are building a public facing Web application, where you can achieve effective separation of concerns by using the layered architecture style. This will separate your presentation logic from your business logic and your data access logic. War 1. Your organization's security requirements might force you to deploy the application using either the 3-tier deployment approach, or a deployment of more than three tiers. The presentation tier may be deployed to coursework introduction, the perimeter network, which sits between an organization's internal network and an external network. On your presentation tier, you may decide to dbq essays on world, use a separated presentation pattern (a type of layered design style), such as Model-View-Controller (MVC), for your interaction model. Essay On Boy. You might also choose a SOA architecture style, and implement message-based communication, between your Web server and application server. If you are building a desktop application, you may have a client that sends requests to a program on the server. In this case, you might deploy the client and server using the client/server architecture style, and use the component-based architecture style to decompose the design further into independent components that expose the dbq essays on world, appropriate communication interfaces. Using the object-oriented design approach for these components will improve reuse, testability, and flexibility.
Many factors will influence the architectural styles you choose. These factors include the capacity of makefile assignment, your organization for design and implementation; the capabilities and dbq essays on world experience of your developers; and your infrastructure and organizational constraints. The following sections will help you to determine the appropriate styles for your applications. The client/server architectural style describes distributed systems that involve a separate client and server system, and a connecting network. The simplest form of variable, client/server system involves a server application that is accessed directly by multiple clients, referred to as a 2-Tier architectural style. Historically, client/server architecture indicated a graphical desktop UI application that communicated with a database server containing much of the business logic in the form of stored procedures, or with a dedicated file server. More generally, however, the client/server architectural style describes the relationship between a client and one or more servers, where the client initiates one or more requests (perhaps using a graphical UI), waits for replies, and processes the replies on receipt. Dbq Essays On World. The server typically authorizes the user and then carries out the processing required to generate the on boy with a toy grenade, result.
The server may send responses using a range of protocols and data formats to communicate information to the client. Today, some examples of the client/server architectural style include Web browser—based programs running on the Internet or an intranet; Microsoft Windows® operating system—based applications that access networked data services; applications that access remote data stores (such as e-mail readers, FTP clients, and database query tools); and tools and dbq essays on world utilities that manipulate remote systems (such as system management tools and network monitoring tools). Other variations on the client/server style include: Client-Queue-Client systems . This approach allows clients to communicate with other clients through a server-based queue. Clients can read data from and send data to makefile variable assignment, a server that acts simply as a queue to store the data. This allows clients to distribute and on world synchronize files and information.
This is sometimes known as a passive queue architecture. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications . Science. Developed from the dbq essays on world, Client-Queue-Client style, the P2P style allows the client and server to what in the is a descriptive narrative, swap their roles in order to distribute and synchronize files and information across multiple clients. It extends the dbq essays, client/server style through multiple responses to requests, shared data, resource discovery, and resilience to removal of coursework, peers. Application servers . A specialized architectural style where the dbq essays on world, server hosts and executes applications and services that a thin client accesses through a browser or specialized client installed software. An example is a client executing an application that runs on the server through a framework such as Terminal Services. The main benefits of the client/server architectural style are: Higher security . All data is stored on the server, which generally offers a greater control of security than client machines. Write A Academic. Centralized data access . Because data is dbq essays war 1, stored only on the server, access and updates to the data are far easier to administer than in other architectural styles. Ease of maintenance . Roles and a academic essay responsibilities of war 1, a computing system are distributed among several servers that are known to each other through a network. This ensures that a client remains unaware and unaffected by a server repair, upgrade, or relocation. Consider the client/server architectural style if your application is server based and will support many clients, you are creating Web-based applications exposed through a Web browser, you are implementing business processes that will be used by people throughout the organization, or you are creating services for other applications to consume.
The client/server architectural style is also suitable, like many networked styles, when you want to centralize data storage, backup, and variable assignment management functions, or when your application must support different client types and on world war 1 different devices. However, the traditional 2-Tier client/server architectural style has numerous disadvantages, including the tendency for application data and business logic to be closely combined on the server, which can negatively impact system extensibility and speech scalability, and its dependence on a central server, which can negatively impact system reliability. To address these issues, the client-server architectural style has evolved into the more general 3-Tier (or N-Tier) architectural style, described below, which overcomes some of the dbq essays on world war 1, disadvantages inherent in the 2-Tier client-server architecture and provides additional benefits. Component-Based Architectural Style. Component-based architecture describes a software engineering approach to system design and makefile variable development. Dbq Essays War 1. It focuses on the decomposition of the design into individual functional or logical components that expose well-defined communication interfaces containing methods, events, and properties.
This provides a higher level of abstraction than object-oriented design principles, and does not focus on issues such as communication protocols and shared state. The key principle of the component-based style is the use of introduction, components that are: Reusable . Components are usually designed to be reused in different scenarios in different applications. Dbq Essays War 1. However, some components may be designed for a specific task. Variable. Replaceable . Dbq Essays On World War 1. Components may be readily substituted with other similar components. Not context specific . Components are designed to a academic, operate in different environments and dbq essays war 1 contexts. Science Fiction. Specific information, such as state data, should be passed to the component instead of being included in or accessed by the component. Extensible . A component can be extended from existing components to dbq essays, provide new behavior.
Encapsulated . Components expose interfaces that allow the caller to use its functionality, and do not reveal details of the internal processes or any internal variables or state. Independent . Components are designed to have minimal dependencies on other components. Write. Therefore components can be deployed into any appropriate environment without affecting other components or systems. Common types of components used in applications include user interface components such as grids and buttons (often referred to as controls ), and helper and utility components that expose a specific subset of functions used in war 1 other components. Other common types of components are those that are resource intensive, not frequently accessed, and must be activated using the just-in-time (JIT) approach (common in remoting or distributed component scenarios); and queued components whose method calls may be executed asynchronously using message queuing and store and forward. Components depend upon a mechanism within the platform that provides an environment in which they can execute, often referred to as component architecture . Dissertation Science Fiction. Examples are the component object model (COM) and the distributed component object model (DCOM) in Windows; and war 1 Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) on other platforms.
Component architectures manage the mechanics of locating components and on boy with a toy grenade their interfaces, passing messages or commands between components, and—in some cases—maintaining state. However, the term component is often used in the more basic sense of a constituent part, element, or ingredient . The Microsoft .NET Framework provides support for on world, building applications using such a component based approach. Dissertation Science. For example, this guide discusses business and data components, which are commonly code classes compiled into on world .NET Framework assemblies. They execute under the control of the variable, .NET Framework runtime, and there may be more than one such component in each assembly. The following are the main benefits of the dbq essays war 1, component-based architectural style: Ease of deployment . As new compatible versions become available, you can replace existing versions with no impact on the other components or the system as a whole. Reduced cost . The use of third-party components allows you to write a academic, spread the cost of development and maintenance. Ease of development . On World War 1. Components implement well-known interfaces to provide defined functionality, allowing development without impacting other parts of the in the, system.
Reusable . The use of war 1, reusable components means that they can be used to spread the development and maintenance cost across several applications or systems. Mitigation of technical complexity . Components mitigate complexity through the use of a component container and short obama speech its services. War 1. Example component services include component activation, lifetime management, method queuing, eventing, and transactions. Design patterns such as the Dependency Injection pattern or the Service Locator pattern can be used to manage dependencies between components, and promote loose coupling and reuse. Such patterns are often used to build composite applications that combine and reuse components across multiple applications. Consider the component-based architectural style if you already have suitable components or can obtain suitable components from third-party suppliers; your application will predominantly execute procedural-style functions, perhaps with little or no data input; or you want to how to write a academic essay, be able to combine components written in dbq essays on world war 1 different code languages. Also, consider this style if you want to create a pluggable or composite architecture that allows you to easily replace and update individual components. Domain Driven Design Architectural Style.
Domain Driven Design (DDD) is an object-oriented approach to designing software based on the business domain, its elements and behaviors, and the relationships between them. Write. It aims to enable software systems that are a realization of the underlying business domain by defining a domain model expressed in the language of business domain experts. The domain model can be viewed as a framework from on world which solutions can then be rationalized. To apply Domain Driven Design, you must have a good understanding of the business domain you want to model, or be skilled in acquiring such business knowledge. The development team will often work with business domain experts to model the science fiction, domain. Architects, developers, and subject matter experts have diverse backgrounds, and in many environments will use different languages to describe their goals, designs and requirements. However, within Domain Driven Design, the whole team agrees to only use a single language that is dbq essays on world war 1, focused on the business domain, and how to essay which excludes any technical jargon. As the core of the software is the domain model, which is a direct projection of this shared language, it allows the team to quickly find gaps in the software by on world analyzing the language around it. Write Coursework Introduction. The creation of a common language is not merely an exercise in accepting information from the domain experts and applying it. Quite often, communication problems within development teams are due not only to dbq essays, misunderstanding the language of the makefile variable, domain, but also due to the fact that the domain's language is itself ambiguous.
The Domain Driven Design process holds the goal not only of implementing the language being used, but also improving and refining the on world war 1, language of the domain. This in turn benefits the software being built, since the model is a direct projection of the variable assignment, domain language. In order to help maintain the model as a pure and helpful language construct, you must typically implement a great deal of war 1, isolation and makefile assignment encapsulation within the domain model. Consequently, a system based on Domain Driven Design can come at a relatively high cost. While Domain Driven Design provides many technical benefits, such as maintainability, it should be applied only to on world, complex domains where the model and the linguistic processes provide clear benefits in the communication of complex information, and in the formulation of a common understanding of the domain. The following are the main benefits of the Domain Driven Design style: Communication . A Academic Essay. All parties within a development team can use the domain model and dbq essays on world war 1 the entities it defines to what in the is a descriptive narrative essay, communicate business knowledge and dbq essays requirements using a common business domain language, without requiring technical jargon.
Extensible . The domain model is often modular and flexible, making it easy to update and extend as conditions and requirements change. Testable . Science Fiction. The domain model objects are loosely coupled and cohesive, allowing them to be more easily tested. Consider DDD if you have a complex domain and you wish to on world, improve communication and understanding within your development team, or where you must express the design of an introduction, application in a common language that all stakeholders can understand. DDD can also be an ideal approach if you have large and complex enterprise data scenarios that are difficult to manage using other techniques. For a summary of on world war 1, domain driven design techniques, see Domain Driven Design Quickly at with hand, http://www.infoq.com/minibooks/domain-driven-design-quickly. Alternatively, see Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software by Eric Evans (Addison-Wesley, ISBN: 0-321-12521-5) and Applying Domain-Driven Design and on world Patterns by Jimmy Nilsson (Addison-Wesley, ISBN: 0-321-26820-2). Layered architecture focuses on the grouping of related functionality within an application into distinct layers that are stacked vertically on top of each other. Functionality within each layer is related by a common role or responsibility. Variable. Communication between layers is explicit and loosely coupled. Layering your application appropriately helps to support a strong separation of concerns that, in turn, supports flexibility and maintainability.
The layered architectural style has been described as an inverted pyramid of reuse where each layer aggregates the responsibilities and abstractions of the on world, layer directly beneath it. With strict layering, components in one layer can interact only with components in the same layer or with components from the layer directly below it. More relaxed layering allows components in descriptive narrative essay a layer to interact with components in the same layer or with components in any lower layer. The layers of an dbq essays on world war 1, application may reside on the same physical computer (the same tier) or may be distributed over separate computers ( n -tier), and the components in each layer communicate with components in other layers through well-defined interfaces. For example, a typical Web application design consists of a presentation layer (functionality related to the UI), a business layer (business rules processing), and a data layer (functionality related to essay on boy with, data access, often almost entirely implemented using high-level data access frameworks). For details of the n-tier application architectural style, see N-Tier / 3-Tier Architectural Style later in dbq essays on world this chapter. Common principles for designs that use the layered architectural style include: Abstraction . Essay A Toy. Layered architecture abstracts the view of the on world war 1, system as whole while providing enough detail to understand the roles and responsibilities of individual layers and the relationship between them.
Encapsulation . Makefile. No assumptions need to be made about data types, methods and properties, or implementation during design, as these features are not exposed at on world war 1, layer boundaries. Clearly defined functional layers . The separation between functionality in on boy each layer is clear. Upper layers such as the presentation layer send commands to lower layers, such as the business and dbq essays data layers, and may react to events in these layers, allowing data to flow both up and down between the layers. High cohesion . Well-defined responsibility boundaries for each layer, and ensuring that each layer contains functionality directly related to the tasks of that layer, will help to maximize cohesion within the layer. Write Coursework Introduction. Reusable . Lower layers have no dependencies on on world higher layers, potentially allowing them to be reusable in other scenarios. Loose coupling . Communication between layers is based on abstraction and events to provide loose coupling between layers. Examples of layered applications include line-of-business (LOB) applications such as accounting and customer-management systems; enterprise Web-based applications and Web sites, and enterprise desktop or smart clients with centralized application servers for business logic. A number of obama speech, design patterns support the layered architectural style.
For example, Separated Presentation patterns encompass a range of patterns that the handling of the user's interactions from the dbq essays on world, UI, the fiction, presentation and business logic, and the application data with which the user works. Separated Presentation allows graphical designers to create a UI while developers generate the dbq essays on world war 1, code to drive it. How To A Academic Essay. Dividing the dbq essays war 1, functionality into separate roles in this way provides increased opportunities to test the behavior of individual roles. The following are the key principles of the Separated Presentation patterns: Separation of concerns . Separated Presentation patterns divide UI processing concerns into distinct roles; for example, MVC has three roles: the Model, the View, and the Controller. The Model represents data (perhaps a domain model that includes business rules); the View represents the UI; and the Controller handles requests, manipulates the model, and performs other operations.
Event-based notification . The Observer pattern is commonly used to write coursework, provide notifications to the View when data managed by the Model changes. Delegated event handling . The controller handles events triggered from the UI controls in dbq essays on world war 1 the View. Other examples of Separated Presentation patterns are the Passive View pattern and how to essay the Supervising Presenter (or Supervising Controller) pattern. The main benefits of the layered architectural style, and the use of a Separated Presentation pattern, are: Abstraction . Layers allow changes to be made at the abstract level.
You can increase or decrease the level of dbq essays, abstraction you use in each layer of the hierarchical stack. Isolation . Allows you to isolate technology upgrades to individual layers in order to reduce risk and minimize impact on the overall system. Manageability . Separation of core concerns helps to what in the world is a, identify dependencies, and organizes the code into more manageable sections. Performance . Dbq Essays War 1. Distributing the layers over multiple physical tiers can improve scalability, fault tolerance, and performance. Reusability . Roles promote reusability. For example, in MVC, the Controller can often be reused with other compatible Views in essay order to provide a role specific or a user-customized view on to the same data and functionality. Testability . Increased testability arises from dbq essays having well-defined layer interfaces, as well as the ability to switch between different implementations of the layer interfaces. Separated Presentation patterns allow you to build mock objects that mimic the behavior of concrete objects such as the Model, Controller, or View during testing. Consider the layered architectural style if you have existing layers that are suitable for reuse in other applications, you already have applications that expose suitable business processes through service interfaces, or your application is complex and the high-level design demands separation so that teams can focus on different areas of functionality. Makefile Variable. The layered architectural style is also appropriate if your application must support different client types and different devices, or you want to implement complex and/or configurable business rules and processes. Consider a Separated Presentation pattern if you want improved testability and simplified maintenance of UI functionality, or you want to separate the task of on world war 1, designing the UI from the development of the logic code that drives it.
These patterns are also appropriate when your UI view does not contain any request processing code, and makefile variable assignment does not implement any business logic. Message bus architecture describes the principle of dbq essays on world war 1, using a software system that can receive and send messages using one or more communication channels, so that applications can interact without needing to know specific details about each other. It is a style for designing applications where interaction between applications is accomplished by passing messages (usually asynchronously) over a common bus. The most common implementations of message bus architecture use either a messaging router or a Publish/Subscribe pattern, and are often implemented using a messaging system such as Message Queuing. Many implementations consist of science fiction, individual applications that communicate using common schemas and a shared infrastructure for sending and receiving messages.
A message bus provides the ability to handle: Message-oriented communications . All communication between applications is based on messages that use known schemas. Complex processing logic . Complex operations can be executed by dbq essays on world combining a set of smaller operations, each of which supports specific tasks, as part of a multistep itinerary. Modifications to processing logic . Because interaction with the a academic essay, bus is dbq essays war 1, based on common schemas and commands, you can insert or remove applications on the bus to change the logic that is what world is a descriptive narrative essay, used to process messages. Integration with different environments . By using a message-based communication model based on common standards, you can interact with applications developed for different environments, such as Microsoft .NET and Java. Message bus designs have been used to support complex processing rules for many years. Dbq Essays On World War 1. The design provides a pluggable architecture that allows you to insert applications into the process, or improve scalability by attaching several instances of the same application to the bus. How To Write A Academic. Variations on the message bus style include:
Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) . Based on message bus designs, an dbq essays on world war 1, ESB uses services for how to a academic essay, communication between the bus and components attached to the bus. An ESB will usually provide services that transform messages from one format to another, allowing clients that use incompatible message formats to communicate with each other Internet Service Bus (ISB) . This is similar to an enterprise service bus, but with applications hosted in the cloud instead of on an enterprise network. A core concept of ISB is the dbq essays war 1, use of Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) and variable assignment policies to control the routing of dbq essays war 1, logic through applications and world services in dbq essays war 1 the cloud. The main benefits of the message-bus architectural style are: Extensibility . Applications can be added to or removed from the bus without having an impact on the existing applications. Low complexity . Application complexity is reduced because each application only needs to know how to short obama, communicate with the bus.
Flexibility . The set of applications that make up a complex process, or the communication patterns between applications, can be changed easily to match changes in business or user requirements, simply through changes to the configuration or parameters that control routing. Loose coupling . As long as applications expose a suitable interface for communication with the dbq essays on world, message bus, there is no dependency on the application itself, allowing changes, updates, and replacements that expose the same interface. Scalability . Multiple instances of the same application can be attached to the bus in order to handle multiple requests at the same time. Application simplicity . Although a message bus implementation adds complexity to the infrastructure, each application needs to support only a single connection to the message bus instead of multiple connections to essay on boy with a toy hand grenade, other applications. Consider the dbq essays on world, message bus architectural style if you have existing applications that interoperate with each other to perform tasks, or you want to combine multiple tasks into a single operation. This style is also appropriate if you are implementing a task that requires interaction with external applications, or applications hosted in different environments. N-tier and on boy with a toy hand grenade 3-tier are architectural deployment styles that describe the separation of functionality into segments in on world war 1 much the same way as the layered style, but with each segment being a tier that can be located on a physically separate computer. They evolved through the component-oriented approach, generally using platform specific methods for makefile variable, communication instead of dbq essays on world war 1, a message-based approach. N-tier application architecture is characterized by the functional decomposition of applications, service components, and their distributed deployment, providing improved scalability, availability, manageability, and resource utilization. Each tier is speech, completely independent from all other tiers, except for those immediately above and below it. The nth tier only has to dbq essays on world war 1, know how to handle a request from the n+1th tier, how to forward that request on to the assignment, n-1th tier (if there is one), and how to handle the dbq essays on world war 1, results of the how to essay, request.
Communication between tiers is typically asynchronous in order to dbq essays on world war 1, support better scalability. N-tier architectures usually have at least three separate logical parts, each located on write essay a separate physical server. Dbq Essays On World. Each part is responsible for specific functionality. When using a layered design approach, a layer is assignment, deployed on a tier if more than one service or application is dependent on dbq essays the functionality exposed by dissertation science fiction the layer. An example of the N-tier/3-tier architectural style is a typical financial Web application where security is on world war 1, important. Dissertation Science. The business layer must be deployed behind a firewall, which forces the deployment of the dbq essays on world, presentation layer on a separate tier in the perimeter network. Another example is a typical rich client connected application, where the presentation layer is deployed on client machines and the business layer and write coursework introduction data access layer are deployed on one or more server tiers.
The main benefits of the N-tier/3-tier architectural style are: Maintainability . Because each tier is independent of the other tiers, updates or changes can be carried out dbq essays on world, without affecting the short speech, application as a whole. Scalability . Because tiers are based on war 1 the deployment of layers, scaling out an application is how to write, reasonably straightforward. Flexibility . Dbq Essays On World. Because each tier can be managed or scaled independently, flexibility is obama, increased. Availability . Applications can exploit the modular architecture of enabling systems using easily scalable components, which increases availability. Consider either the N-tier or the 3-tier architectural style if the processing requirements of the layers in the application differ such that processing in one layer could absorb sufficient resources to on world, slow the processing in other layers, or if the security requirements of the layers in the application differ. For example, the presentation layer should not store sensitive data, while this may be stored in the business and data layers. The N-tier or the 3-tier architectural style is also appropriate if you want to be able to share business logic between applications, and you have sufficient hardware to write essay, allocate the required number of dbq essays on world, servers to introduction, each tier. Consider using just three tiers if you are developing an intranet application where all servers are located within the private network; or an Internet application where security requirements do not restrict the deployment of business logic on the public facing Web or application server. Consider using more than three tiers if security requirements dictate that business logic cannot be deployed to the perimeter network, or the dbq essays on world war 1, application makes heavy use of resources and you want to offload that functionality to another server.
Object-Oriented Architectural Style. Object-oriented architecture is a design paradigm based on the division of responsibilities for an application or system into individual reusable and self-sufficient objects, each containing the data and write coursework introduction the behavior relevant to dbq essays war 1, the object. Makefile Variable. An object-oriented design views a system as a series of cooperating objects, instead of a set of routines or procedural instructions. Objects are discrete, independent, and loosely coupled; they communicate through interfaces, by war 1 calling methods or accessing properties in is a essay other objects, and by sending and receiving messages. The key principles of the object-oriented architectural style are: Abstraction . This allows you to reduce a complex operation into a generalization that retains the dbq essays war 1, base characteristics of the operation. For example, an abstract interface can be a well-known definition that supports data access operations using simple methods such as Get and Update . Another form of abstraction could be metadata used to provide a mapping between two formats that hold structured data. Composition . Objects can be assembled from other objects, and can choose to hide these internal objects from other classes or expose them as simple interfaces. Inheritance . Objects can inherit from other objects, and use functionality in the base object or override it to implement new behavior. Moreover, inheritance makes maintenance and updates easier, as changes to the base object are propagated automatically to write coursework introduction, the inheriting objects.
Encapsulation . Objects expose functionality only through methods, properties, and events, and hide the internal details such as state and variables from other objects. This makes it easier to update or replace objects, as long as their interfaces are compatible, without affecting other objects and code. Polymorphism . This allows you to override the behavior of a base type that supports operations in your application by implementing new types that are interchangeable with the existing object. Decoupling . Objects can be decoupled from the dbq essays on world war 1, consumer by defining an abstract interface that the object implements and the consumer can understand. This allows you to short obama, provide alternative implementations without affecting consumers of the interface. Common uses of the object-oriented style include defining an object model that supports complex scientific or financial operations, and defining objects that represent real world artifacts within a business domain (such as a customer or an order). The latter is dbq essays war 1, a process commonly implemented using the more specialized domain driven design style, which takes advantage of the principles of the object-oriented style.
For more information, see Domain Driven Design Architectural Style earlier in how to this chapter. The main benefits of the object-oriented architectural style are that it is: Understandable . It maps the dbq essays, application more closely to the real world objects, making it more understandable. In The Is A Descriptive Narrative Essay. Reusable . It provides for reusability through polymorphism and abstraction. On World. Testable . It provides for improved testability through encapsulation. Extensible . Encapsulation, polymorphism, and abstraction ensure that a change in the representation of data does not affect the variable assignment, interfaces that the object exposes, which would limit the dbq essays, capability to communicate and interact with other objects. Highly Cohesive . Makefile. By locating only related methods and dbq essays on world features in an object, and using different objects for different sets of features, you can achieve a high level of cohesion.
Consider the object-oriented architectural style if you want to grenade, model your application based on real world objects and actions, or you already have suitable objects and classes that match the design and operational requirements. The object-oriented style is also suitable if you must encapsulate logic and data together in reusable components or you have complex business logic that requires abstraction and dbq essays dynamic behavior. Service-Oriented Architectural Style. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) enables application functionality to be provided as a set of services, and the creation of applications that make use of software services. Services are loosely coupled because they use standards-based interfaces that can be invoked, published, and discovered. Services in SOA are focused on providing a schema and message-based interaction with an in the is a, application through interfaces that are application scoped, and not component or object-based. An SOA service should not be treated as a component-based service provider. The SOA style can package business processes into interoperable services, using a range of protocols and data formats to communicate information. Clients and other services can access local services running on the same tier, or access remote services over on world war 1, a connecting network. The key principles of the SOA architectural style are:
Services are autonomous . In The Narrative Essay. Each service is maintained, developed, deployed, and dbq essays on world war 1 versioned independently. Services are distributable . Services can be located anywhere on a network, locally or remotely, as long as the network supports the required communication protocols. Science Fiction. Services are loosely coupled . Each service is independent of dbq essays, others, and can be replaced or updated without breaking applications that use it as long as the interface is still compatible. Services share schema and contract, not class . Services share contracts and schemas when they communicate, not internal classes. Compatibility is based on policy . Policy in this case means definition of features such as transport, protocol, and security. Common examples of variable, service-oriented applications include sharing information, handling multistep processes such as reservation systems and online stores, exposing industry specific data or services over an extranet, and creating mashups that combine information from multiple sources. The main benefits of the SOA architectural style are:
Domain alignment . Reuse of common services with standard interfaces increases business and technology opportunities and reduces cost. Dbq Essays On World War 1. Abstraction . Services are autonomous and accessed through a formal contract, which provides loose coupling and makefile variable abstraction. Dbq Essays On World. Discoverability . Services can expose descriptions that allow other applications and services to locate them and automatically determine the what in the narrative, interface. Interoperability . Because the protocols and data formats are based on industry standards, the provider and consumer of the on world war 1, service can be built and deployed on different platforms. Obama. Rationalization . Services can be granular in dbq essays war 1 order to provide specific functionality, rather than duplicating the functionality in number of applications, which removes duplication. Consider the SOA style if you have access to suitable services that you wish to reuse; can purchase suitable services provided by a hosting company; want to build applications that compose a variety of how to write a academic, services into a single UI; or you are creating Software plus Services (S+S), Software as a Service (SaaS), or cloud-based applications. Dbq Essays. The SOA style is suitable when you must support message-based communication between segments of the application and how to a academic expose functionality in a platform independent way, when you want to take advantage of federated services such as authentication, or you want to expose services that are discoverable through directories and can be used by clients that have no prior knowledge of the interfaces. Evans, Eric.
Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of dbq essays on world, Software. Addison-Wesley, 2004. Nilsson, Jimmy. Applying Domain-Driven Design and Patterns: With Examples in C# and NET. Addison-Wesley, 2006. For more information about architectural styles, see the short obama, following resources: