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The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture by Theodor W
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The best resume format for a functional resume strategically groups the key skills abilities of the candidate in various categories to explain his eligibility expertise for some particular job. The skill-based focus will enable you to pull the prospective employer’s attention on your strength which would in essays on the culture, turn divert the focus from your absent or flawed employment record. For example, let’s say you are applying for on world war 1, the position of on the, a sales manager in a MNC with an international market- and in such a case your functional resume would stress on short essay on generosity categories with headings like “team building leadership expertise”, “fluency in essays, foreign languages” etc. Dbq Essays On World War 1! In some of essays culture, cases, the functional resume is completely devoid of the short essay on generosity, employment history. Even if it is mentioned, it appears at culture industry the very bottom of the resume or in the next page to de-stress on its importance. When you are planning a combination resume , you have to commence with your key qualifications skills. You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to the job application here. The strategy here is to fill up 80-85% of your resume with your skills talents and the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history.
Unlike the functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here. Essay 18 -! Make sure it’s easy to essays on the, read Use bullet points and adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about your skills under same category and double-spacing before the start of another category. Use contextual keywords relevant to your job position industry. Use formal fonts and the font size should be 14 for headings and 12 for the rest. You must use strong verbs such as “managed”, “handled”, “led”, “administered”, “charted” etc. Begin the resume with summary sentence so that the hiring manager can have a blue-print of your skills abilities at properties of water a glance. Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to the relevant job opening.
Focus on culture industry quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. On Generosity! No grammar mistake or typo error is essays allowed in your resume. Don’t use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use “efficient at prothesiste handling big teams for crucial projects”. On The! Don’t use informal email ids in contact details. Don’t use chronological resume when you have big gaps in your career. Don’t include irrelevant personal hobbies. No lengthy resume. Don’t lie in your resume and be honest.
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What makes a resume format the stanford thesis, best resume format is the culture industry, manner in niveau etude, which it is drafted or framed and how much convenience it offers to on the culture, the user. It must be time saving for prothesiste dentaire, the user to use and on the culture industry, customize and should also be self-explanatory. The following are some of the contents of a resume format which truly make it ‘best’: What is the format of essay, a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to CV, it has to be professional. There are different types of CV possible depending on the purpose of its use and the expectation of the targeted audiences. Similarly, different types of CVs will have different formats. On The Culture Industry! For example, CV for applying in an IT firm would be different from a CV to apply for a marketing company. Dbq Essays! Instead of taking the risk of designing CV format yourself, it is better to download for sample CV collection.
For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of essays culture, Marketing Resume Format Templates and you can choose the best one that appeals to you and fill in the details to send it out. What kind of registrar, Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of on the culture industry, resume available. They are chronological, functional, combinational and targeted. Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the data sequentially for the employers to find them easily at the very first glance. In case you have some lapse in your work and shakespeare, study, then it is better to use a functional resume to on the, cover it up skillfully.
Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and your work history matters more than basic data. Targeted resumes are most effective and you need to spend more time preparing it. Essay! Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and some samples to make a perfect resume yourself. Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Resumes? Depending on the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. If the job requirement is for freshers only, employers would like to receive chronological resumes as the data and information about the candidate would be sequentially and on the culture industry, it would be easy to locate required information easily. But in the case of hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to have functional resumes where experience and skills get the priority. But in general, employers prefer chronological resume format.
Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to apply in of water, IT firm and then based on the job requirements, you have to form the resume that the employers would prefer the most. To write a resume, you have to collect all the culture industry, required data and information about you in dbq essays war 1, one place. On The Industry! Then you have to download some sample resumes and resume templates as per the purpose of the resume. For example, if you are applying in essay, an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for a post of HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. After downloading them, open them and start filling the details. If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and delete them. You should refer to sample resume for checking out how exactly to fill the data and information to look impressive. what are two of the Most Popular Resume Formats.
Out of the four different types of resumes we listed above, chronological and essays on the, functional are the most popular resume formats. Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of prothesiste dentaire, a couple of years. On the other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at least experience of working in two and more companies. Freshers can also use it in case the candidate has diverse skills and has done many internships in the past. There are multiple formats available in these two categories and one should download freshers and Experienced Resume Format Templates to have different variations to choose from. On The Industry! A chronological resume is the most used resumes in the world. In a chronological resume, everything is listed from the recent to the earliest format.
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The culture industry: selected essays on mass culture in SearchWorks
Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago. Until recently the art of the 1980s has often been regarded as a kind of embarrassmentexcessive, brash, contentious, too theoretical, insufficiently theoretical, overblown, anti-aesthetic, demonstrably politicalas though the on the industry decade were just too much. Cracks in this facade have appeared, to be sure. A handful of European museums mounted shows dedicated to surveying the short essay on generosity decade. Martin Kippenberger, Richard Prince, and Cindy Sherman all received major retrospectives. Perhaps most notable was the 2003 Artforum double issue dedicated to that nettlesome decade; in essays industry his opening salvo guest editor Jack Bankowsky went so far as to dbq essays on world, say that, counter to the increasingly canonized work of the 1960s and 1970s, the culture art of the 1980s was an “open wound.” 1. Artforum, March 2003 [cover] This Will Have Been (which covers the period from 1979 to 1992) neither attempts to tell a properly chronological story of the decade nor cleaves closely to the dominant art historical terms of the etude day. You will not find, for instance, a section on “appropriation” or “neo-expressionism” in either the exhibition or the catalogue.
Likewise, the historical antinomies between those two formations will not be given pride of place. On The Industry! Rather, definitively retrospective in niveau prothesiste dentaire its gaze, This Will Have Been narrativizes the decade from the position of memory and hindsightwith all of the open wounds, elisions, anachronisms, and blank spots implied therein. Unavoidably, given the industry staggering loss of life experienced as a result of the HIV/AIDS crisis, pain attends the task. Again and again in organizing this exhibition I realized that I could never approach the material at hand as if I didn’t know about AIDS, as if there were an innocent “eighties” before the disease and its attendant political crisis came into essay on generosity full view toward the end of the decade. If the 1980s is an open wound, then surely AIDS is largely responsible for causing it. This Will Have Been also contends that the eighties feel like an essays on the culture, “open wound” because of the transformations brought about by feminism. This might help to explain how in 2007, when the art world’s “year of feminism” rolled around, the 1980s was a blank spot in the historicization of feminist art. 2 The early twenty-first-century revival of feminism in the art world was both the cause and effect of two exhibitions: WACK! Art and the Feminist Revolution , which covered the period from 1965 to 1980, and Global Feminisms , which started with the of water essay 1990s. Their mutual omission of the 1980s felt bizarre, an utterly unconscious redaction of history.
Could the prevailing silence regarding the eighties vis-à-vis the recent reinvestigations of feminism also be seen as a symptom or cause of the “wound” that makes this period too difficult to discuss, too fraught to reassess? The second-wave feminism of the 1970s produced revolutionary changes in both culture at large and the microcosm of the art world. On The! It was the charge of the on world 1980s to essays industry, assimilate these changes; to properties of water, wit, when asked what the most important development of the 1980s was, Lisa Phillips, one of the most prominent curators of the period, responded quickly: “[W]omen finally got a seat at the table.” 3 In addition to the rise of women artists and arts professionals in the 1980s, the decade witnessed artwork that was deeply preoccupied with mass-media imagery and the role of the “image world” (the title of an important exhibition organized by Phillips). One result of this interest was a critical engagement with the mass media’s role in producing and maintaining the patriarchal construction of “woman.” Simultaneously, however, there were serious attempts to curtail, and even reverse, the gains of the women’s movement of the on the 1970s (e.g., the 1982 defeat of the Equal Rights Amendment and the decade’s long struggle over the sanctity of of games, Roe v. Culture Industry! Wade ). 4 During the thesis 1980s, feminism found itself in on the culture industry a squeeze play, attacked from the right by those who wished to stop its advances for social justice and challenged from within its own ranks by an increasingly theoretical and psychoanalytical version of feminism more interested in deconstructing the how and why of patriarchal forms of power than in gaining access to power within a patriarchal system. Added to this internal schism was the rise of emerging discourses of queer theory, identity politics, and postcolonial studiesall of which worked to of games, destabilize any narrative blind to the compound properties of essays industry, difference that make up our subjectivities. These new formations pressured existing discourses and practices of on sonnet 18 - shakespeare, feminism to consider class, sexuality, race, and ethnicity in ways that ultimately challenged the very category of industry, “woman” as a unitary and essay shakespeare unifying concept.
These discourses argued that gender was not the primary organizing axis of identity, contending instead that one’s subjectivity was an ineluctable mixture of essays culture industry, all these competing and registrar commensurate qualities of being. This Will Have Been ’s retrospective gaze is deeply informed by on the industry the matrix of AIDS activism and the challenges laid at war 1, the feet of Anglo-American feminism by writers and theorists more frequently associated with the early to mid-1990s. Essays Industry! This Will Have Been argues, however, that these voices and ideas were nascent at the beginning of the 1980s and, more importantly, they were also being fleshed out in works of art and in art criticism (which was remarkably robust during this period), just as they were slowly forming in the minds of writers such as Judith Butler and Homi Bhabha. This exhibition suggests that much of the art of the 1980s was involved in a shared project of expanding our understanding of identity and short subjectivity, exploring the possibility of essays on the culture, politics in a mediated public sphere, and stanford offering increasingly nuanced and complicated versions of history and memory. On The Culture! This Will Have Been presumes that works of art did not illustrate these ideas, but helped to create the conditions of possibility for both the most advanced theoretical writings of the period and the AIDS activist movement that profoundly shaped the end of the decade. These are the stakes in the ground, so to speakthe farthest parameters of essay values, this exhibition’s overall project. There are others, to be sure, but these two “events”feminism and the AIDS crisisshaped the contours of the 1980s investigated by This Will Have Been . The art of the 1980s is, from a curatorial standpoint, almost impossibly heterogeneous.
For several years, whenever I told people I was at work on a 1980s exhibition, they would invariably ask if artist “X” was in essays culture the exhibition, and frequently my answer was a polite (and anxious) “no.” Rather than giving in to the impulse toward inclusivity, This Will Have Been is structured by a partisan premise: more than any other twentieth-century decade, the 1980s enacts most fully the values of games ramifications of feminism for art, theory, and politics. Or as Craig Owens would write: “Among the most significant developments of the past decadeit may well turn out to have been the most significanthas been the emergence, in. nearly every area of cultural activity, of a specifically feminist practice.” 5 In the most explicit terms, as women artists, critics, art historians, and theorists rose to prominence, gender could no longer be taken as a given or as a neutral area of thought. Implicitly, feminist critique in the eighties often manifested itself through the essays industry registration, enactment, and belief in 18 - the mechanisms and power of desire. While the confluence of the civil rights movement, the antiVietnam War protests, the culture industry student uprisings of 1968, and the feminist movement failed to produce a full-blown political revolution, what could not be eradicated from the culture was an increasingly robust sense of agency and entitlementa belief that individuals had the dbq essays on world right to the pursuit of happiness, a pursuit that meant one’s personal desires would no longer be sublimated in on the culture the name of the family or the state. To be fully human, to properties essay, be equal, was to have the power and essays on the industry freedom to enact one’s desires (even if one failed to achieve them). So too historical coincidence places the major movements for social justice of the 1960s and 1970s in proximity to the rise of a highly mediated televisual culture. The artists represented in This Will Have Been belong to the first generation to dbq essays, have grown up with a television in the home.
They came of age in a culture shot through with visual regimes designed to promote desire across a variety of spectra: desire for objects, for lifestyles, for fame, for essays conformity, for anti-conformity. These two powerful social forcesmovements for social justice and the rise of televisionconverged and matured in prothesiste dentaire the art of the 1980s. There were hundreds, probably thousands, of artists working during the 1980s, but the ones included in essays culture industry This Will Have Been register and negotiate the of games effects of the above socio-historical phenomena. The culture born of this nexus of desire, shaped by demands for on the culture industry equality on the one hand and the image world of the mass media on the other, makes desire both the cause and the effect for much of the art in this exhibition. Sometimes the desire is essay, erotic, for objects or for bodies; sometimes the desire is for fame, for political change, for endings (e.g., of industry, humanism or painting) or for new beginnings (the emergence of on sonnet shakespeare, post-structuralism or hip-hop). But always coursing through the works chosen for this exhibition is a profound belief in the capacity of art objectsindeed, of culture in the broadest senseto signify, enact, and enable these multifarious forms of desire.
For many 1980s artists, making art was itself propelled by the desire to participate, in a transformative way, in the culture at large. This shared aspiration may be what prompted curator Ann Goldstein to refer to the 1980s as the “last movement,” the last time artists, however seemingly disparate their respective bodies of industry, work may have appeared, nonetheless held in common a set of hopes and dbq essays on world war 1 assumptions about the role of art in the public sphere. 6. Because desire is on the industry, such an stanford registrar thesis, important concept for the 1980s, it is worth an excursus into essays culture industry psychoanalysisthe methodology that has taught us the most about desire’s workings. The authors of the dictionary The Language of Psychoanalysis take pains to distinguish desire from both “need” and “demand.” Need is directed toward and satisfied by specific objects, whereas “demands are formulated and addressed to others,” and, while they can be aimed at an object, are “essentially a demand for love.” Desire “appears in the rift that separates need and demand.” 7 It is by nature about lack: one desires what one does not have.
Desire forms in “relation to on generosity, phantasy,” the realm of the imagination and the unconscious, and culture it is in these areas that desire most frequently erupts, demanding to be recognized. As such, desire perpetually finds itself in dialogue and dbq essays on world tension with reality. For Sigmund Freud, phantasy is on the, not defined as “an object that the subject imagines and aims at,” but rather “a sequence in which the subject has his [ sic ] own part to on sonnet 18 -, play and in culture which permutations of essay of games, rules and attributions are possible.” 8 It is the very porousness of phantasy, its openness to multiple subject positions simultaneously, that makes it desire’s primary modality. Importantly, for culture industry our purposes, phantasy often takes the form of “organized scenes that are capable of dramatizationusually in a visual form.” 9 During the 1980s many artists influenced by feminism not only insisted on values equal access to all aspects of civil society and social life (a focus for 1970s feminism, just as it was for the civil rights movement before it) but they also demanded equal occupation of the sites of phantasy. These artists thus claimed equality within the sphere of essays, representation, the site within which desire is on sonnet 18 -, articulated in the overlapping realms of culture and politics. As artists worked to understand an increasingly media-saturated world, decades of emphasis on abstraction gave way to increasingly figurative imagery. The return to the figure was cause for consternation for critics who felt it embodied a retrograde “return” to older forms of image-making. So too, many feminist artists and critics were troubled by the reemergence of the female nude, a genre sufficiently vexed by the burgeoning field of feminist art history. However, the essays figure did not only return in the guise of neo-expressionist painting or images of naked women. The figure was also frequently smuggled in under the critical rubrics of appropriation or identity politics, and it occurred as much in the emergent media of photography and video as it did in the historical medium of painting.
And because figuration lends itself to a more explicitly narrativizing impulse, the art of the 1980s was marbled with scenes of phantasy and desire, as the essay on generosity figure invariably invited projection and/or identification on on the the part of viewers, artists, and critics. One overwhelming effect of on generosity, this renewed deployment of the figure is that a startling array of images produced during the 1980s are concernedeither implicitly or explicitlywith a working through of essays on the culture industry, sexual difference in the face of the feminist challenge to patriarchy; this can be seen in the feminist critique of shakespeare, appropriated mass-media images dealing with the construction of gender, or in neo-expressionist painting’s recourse to a frequently naked and vulnerable body. In retrospect, these works appear less antagonistic and more as mutual attempts to essays industry, make images of the new social relations feminism was asking people to inhabit. Additionally, by essay values the end of the decade, gay and lesbian artists had permeated the contemporary art scene with works that dealt with the specificity of queer desire, as part of a more generalized demand that such desires could no longer be kept quietly out of public view. These cultural developments took place during the period when Americans elected Ronald Reagan president (twice) on the promise that he would return American politics and values to a time before the tumultuous upheavals of the 1960s and 1970s. For those interested in “family values,” such as members of the Eagle Forum, led by conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly, explorations of desire were hardly greeted as liberatory. Culture! Instead, for political conservatives, the exploration of desire on the part of women, people of color, and registrar gays and lesbians was deeply threatening. 10 Ironically, for many in the art world, the suffusion of art with the narrative and figurativeimpulses inherent to phantasywas also problematic when compared to the previous several decades of essays culture, abstraction. 11 Hence, the exploration of desire found opposition in many camps, contributing to the ongoing ambivalence with which the war 1 work of the 1980s has subsequently been considered. Such tides notwithstanding, desire as a concept, aim, and engine for making art was regularly registered in the theory and criticism of the period.
This was. particularly the case among critics who were interested in essays on the culture industry feminism and sexuality and who had turned to the discourse of psychoanalysis to think through these issues. Craig Owens wrote that the visual field was “crosshatched by desire.” 12 Similarly, in the words of Mary Kelly, “[s]ince the fascination in on world war 1 looking is essays on the, founded on separation from dbq essays war 1, what is seen, the field of vision is also, and essays culture industry most appropriately, the field of desire.” 13 For Owens and registrar thesis Kelly, like many critics and artists of the period, desire and the visual go hand in hand. Essays Culture Industry! What passes unsaid in these accounts, however, is how desire’s imbrication in the visual is most potently connoted when the short essay on generosity work in question is on the industry, figurative or representational, i.e., when it plays out in short phantasy the problems inherent to desire. (In other words, one doesn’t encounter the same talk of desire in discussions of abstraction of the 1950s, the serial production of the 1960s, or the linguistic turn in conceptual art of the 1970s.) Like “the 1980s,” desire as an essays industry, organizing principle runs the risk of dbq essays on world, being too easily generalized. Hence, with desire as their touchstone, this exhibition and catalogue are divided into four sections, each exploring a specific problem-idea. Essays Culture Industry! 14 “The End Is Near” toggles among 1980s discussions of the end of painting, the end of the counterculture, and the end of history. Here, desire is figured as a melancholic call for a break with the past, specifically the end of 18 -, modernism. Fueled by a strong desire to culture, stake out the niveau etude prothesiste dentaire new terrain of postmodernism, the artists in this section worked with an eye toward the history of art, as critical of its premises as they were deeply desirous of essays culture industry, their place within it. “Democracy” addresses the renewed interest in the street as a site for public intervention, the increasing awareness of the essay importance of the mass media, the on the industry growing prominence of South and Central American artists and stanford registrar artists of on the, color, and the pervasive commitment to the political that shaped the period.
In this section, desire is figured politically, often masquerading as a demand informed by immanent critiquea request that the powers that be remain true to their highest principles. Many of these works bear witness to artists’ attempts to short, change modes of essays culture industry, signification, much as activists attempted to change laws. Similarly much of the work in this section takes on the media as a public site as open for short contestation as the street. “Gender Trouble” elaborates on the implications of the 1970s feminist movement by culture industry gathering works that interrogate and properties of water essay ultimately expand our sense of the social construction of gender roles. In doing so these works imagined anew the role of figuration and representation. As an emphasis on, and the importance of, the concept of sexuality (as distinct from essays on the industry, gender) increased, desire frequently emerged as a way for artists to explore ideas of difference, rendering categories like “woman” heterogeneous rather than homogeneous. Artists featured in this section articulated how representation helps to construct and maintain notions of dbq essays on world war 1, gender, and on the industry many works strove to unmoor gender from bodies and locate it instead within discursive systems of power. In “Desire and essay 18 - shakespeare Longing” artists working with appropriation techniques are held in relation to the emergence of queer visibility brought on by the culture AIDS crisis. In this section, desirefor bodies and for objectsis configured most clearly. At the essay values of games same time, transformed by grief and mourning, desire became longing: for individuals lost, for a more just public sphere, and for essays on the culture a time before the crisis began. Woody Allen’s 1979 Manhattan begins with a montage of romantic black-and-white images of New York City, footage at essay values, odds with the voice-over that sputters with false starts as it proclaims the culture end of the city itself.
Just three years later, in a part of New York largely unknown to the Woody Allen set, the young graffiti and rap artists in essay Charlie Ahearn’s Wild Style ruefully pronounced the hip-hop culture they had just created to be dead as early as 1982 (dead, that is, long before its entrance into mainstream culture). Narratives of the end were pervasive, and one “end” signaled by the 1980s was the end of the cultural and political experiments of the on the culture industry 1960s. Upon the opening of the New York gallery Metro Pictures, in November 1980, Robert Pincus-Witten wrote in his diary (which was being published in Arts magazine): “The evening was essentially a happy but disquieting one: it definitely marks the death of the ‘60s.” 15 Or one could find in the New York Times the following account of Trisha Brown’s new dance, Glacial Decoy : “So now Miss Brown is using a proscenium stage, stage decor and music as well as movement that requires considerable virtuosity from her dancers. In 1981, we have finally realized that the 1960s are over.” 16. With the end of the sixties came a sense of something new as well, and of water the impulse to essays industry, name it created a flurry of pithy monikersneo-geo, appropriation, identity politics, neo-expressionismeach designed to identify both a group of artists and essay a type of essays culture, practice. Properties Essay! But the identifying moniker that was most often used, and essays on the culture most hotly debated, was postmodernism. Essay! No intellectual paradigm has been more synonymous with the culture industry decade, and essay values of games the term’s current state of disrepair speaks volumes about the general ambivalence toward art of the 1980s. The prefix “post” signaled an endbut the end of what, exactly? By mid-decade, critic Hal Foster had written cogently and essays industry persuasively of two postmodernisms. 17 One version of postmodernism was bound up with a conservative return to order that viewed modernism as a break with humanism and sought to reinstate pre-modernist ideals.
For Foster, artwork associated with this form of etude dentaire, postmodernism took shape in several ways: through the reemergence of figuration, through a return to “older” modes of artistic production (i.e., a return to on the, painting after two decades of the medium’s critical rejection by Minimalism and conceptualism) via an ahistoricizing use of pastiche, 18 and, most of all, through a belief in representation’s transparency to meaning. According to Foster, the other version of postmodernism regarded modernism as not having broken with humanism enough . Intimately linked to post-structuralism, this version of postmodernism took on the task of articulating history not as a set of facts but as a constructed narrative, and of reimagining identity not as ontological condition but as internally bifurcated and structured by language. For the thinkers and artists in this “camp,” postmodernism offered a constellation of ideas and strategies that saw representation as constructed (not transparent) and therefore as a series of codes to be dismantled in the service of critique. Although Foster clearly aligned himself with this second version of postmodernism, he implicitly argued for a productive, dialectical tension between the two forms, which in turn allowed for a persuasive (although contentious) conversation about the possibility of modernism’s end. While postmodernism was frequently offered as a eulogy for modernism tout court, in the specific context of the art world painting was the bull’s-eye of the target. Accounts of the death of thesis, painting clashed swords with the medium’s defenders in a battle waged across the culture industry pages of art magazines and journals. Some accounts of painting’s death were vitriolic (Douglas Crimp’s 1981 “End of Painting”), while others offered a recuperative gesture, seeing in the medium’s outmodedness its very possibility (Thomas Lawson’s “Last Exit Painting,” also of on sonnet 18 -, 1981).
20 Either way, Gerhard Richter spent much of 1983 painting skulls in soft focus bathed in a dreamy yellowish light. He made eight canvases of this nearly hackneyed vanitas image, a simultaneously ironic and mournful mimicry of one of Western civilization’s most loved genres. This affective mix of irony and melancholia was shared by artists as diverse as Peter Halley, Mary Heilmann, Martin Kippenberger, Sherrie Levine, and Allan McCollum, all of whom engaged in the activity of marking the end of various ideas associated with modernist painting. Heilmann’s pink-and-black paintings of 1979, musically titled Save the essays culture Last Dance for Me and All Tomorrow’s Parties , allow the color scheme of punk and new wave to devour the modernist apotheosis of monochrome painting, “killing” the historical avant-garde with the brash new modality of properties essay, punk. McCollum’s Collection of Ten Plaster Surrogates (198291) twists the essays monochrome into a form of serial mass production, making “paintings” out of plaster casts. Working a push-pull of form and content, McCollum’s Surrogates appear mass produced (they all have solid black centers and the same style of “frame”), yet each was laboriously hand-painted; furthermore, while they all look similar, each set of Surrogates is unique. Kippenberger’s 6. Preis (1987) is part of essay of games, a series of essays culture industry, paintings that announce their own “prize-winning” status, a conflation of the high-art ideal of the masterpiece with the amateur painter’s reward for juried exhibitions. Tongue-in-cheek, they also humorously skewer the artist’s desire for criticism and approbation (as each painting is judged and rewarded before it even leaves the studio) by folding each into the image of the painting itself. Both Halley and Levine reposition modernist geometrical abstraction (so many stripes and registrar thesis squares) in a dialectical relation to social conditionsbe they the conduits of power most radically symbolized by the prison system (as in Halley’s Prison with Conduit , 1981) or the essays seemingly infinite repeatability of forms and gestures (Frank Stella’s stripe paintings) that governed art in the age of mechanical reproduction (e.g., Levine’s Chair Seat: 7 , 1986). The narratives of death and ending endemic to postmodernism were attended by different political and stanford thesis psychological valences.
Art historian Yve-Alain Bois sensitively sketched such differences in his essay “Painting: The Task of Mourning” in on the industry the catalogue for the 1986 ICA/Boston exhibition Endgame . 19 Akin to Foster’s dual reading of postmodernism, Bois’s contention is that during the dbq essays war 1 1920s two responses dominated artists’ reaction to the endgame sensibility of the avant-garde: the first, a return to order, as evidenced by the post-cubist figurative paintings of essays on the culture industry, Pablo Picasso; the second, a revolutionary embrace of the end of art’s bourgeois character, as signaled by the radical paintings that emerged in dbq essays the wake of the Russian Revolution. Analogizing the 1980s and the 1920s, Bois felt that contemporary artists involved in narratives of painting’s death engaged in a form of essays on the culture industry, “manic mourning,” as a way of deferring the more psychoanalytically motivated (and linguistically based) process of niveau prothesiste dentaire, “working through” the very end being proclaimed. 21 David Salle’s Autopsy (1981) suggests something similar, as it dialectically holds together two versions of the end of modernismgeometric abstraction imagined as a decorative tile pattern and the return of the classical nude as a farcical dummyboth equally dead on arrival. And yet somehow the charge of their adjacency bestows an undeniable energy (a mixture of cruelty, irritation, and boredom that speaks, perhaps, to the intensity with which the pressures of the end were experienced by artists). On The Industry! Bois places the burden of short, working through painting’s various ends squarely on the artists. But in retrospect the culture stridency of the claims made about the regressive nature of painting indicates that the need for such a working through may have belonged more properly to niveau etude prothesiste dentaire, art historians than artists. As much as critics wanted to shed the tyranny of art historical narratives of “progress,” many nonetheless could not narrate the “return” of painting as anything other than a break in a progressive teleology.
22 Regardless, Bois ends his essay emphatically: “[T]he desire for painting remains, and this desire is culture industry, not entirely programmed or subsumed by the market; this desire is the properties essay sole factor of a future possibility of painting, that is of a nonpathological mourning.” 23. Another version of the end of modernism can be traced through the essays culture industry ongoing reception of Roland Barthes’s short, but crucial, essay, “The Death of the Author.” First published in English in the late 1960s in the small but influential journal Aspen , by the 1980s it was a de rigueur text in the postmodernist canon. Dbq Essays On World War 1! 24 Barthes’s essay posed a powerful challenge to the idea that the work of art is a self-sufficient, autonomous object possessing its own intrinsic meaning, supplied exclusively by the artist, that remains constant across time and space. Culture! Instead Barthes argued that the artist’s intentions number as one among many sources of meaning, emerging in a dialogic relation with the viewer and contingent on the shifting historical, institutional, and economic contexts of both the object and the viewer. Louise Lawler’s Living Room Corner, Arranged by Mr. and stanford registrar Mrs. Burton Tremaine Sr., New York City (1984) displaces Lawler’s authorship by naming the labor of essays on the culture, “arrangement” by others.
Furthermore, this image of a modernist painting by Robert Delaunay nestled between a television and a table lamp exemplifies Barthes’s argument about art’s meaning being produced in an ever-changing set of contexts. The affectless quality of the imagewithout vitriol or melancholyreflects an emerging sensibility shared by eighties artists who abandoned “signature styles” and other such assertions of individuality and imagined themselves instead to be agents of ideas rather than inventors. This idea (augured most deeply by appropriation, discussed later on), perhaps more than any other postmodernist idea, presented the properties of water greatest challenge to the modernist conception of essays, art (i.e., its transcendence, autonomy, and novelty) and to stanford registrar thesis, the historical idea of what it meant to be an artist (i.e., a unique subject filled with invention rather than an individual profoundly similar to others in essays their desires and practices). Discourses of the end of painting, authorship, and modernism took place alongside political and cultural attempts to dismantle the cultural revolutions of the 1960s. Essay On Generosity! Under the administrations of essays on the, Margaret Thatcher and of water essay Ronald Reagan, the attack on unions (a vestige of collectivism), the war on drugs (and the attendant soft militarization of domestic policy, specifically in African American neighborhoods), and the culture wars (in which the essays culture industry sexual liberation engendered by the feminist and gay rights movements was recast as “obscene”) 25 all signaled a desire to roll back the social and cultural advances of 1960s counterculture. At the same time, alternative and progressive segments of society also found themselves rejecting the transformation of the etude prothesiste cultural revolution of the essays on the culture 1960s and stanford registrar thesis 1970s into a “lifestyle” largely relegated to the sphere of consumer culture. Nowhere was this disdain more precisely felt than in the development of punk.
Punk’s nihilism, its extreme do-it-yourself ethos, and its consummate refusal of commercial rock and essays on the culture roll, all combined to stanford registrar thesis, resist both hippie counterculture and any kind of “co-optation” by the market. (Punk was unplayable on commercial radio.) Further, punk offered a model of artists as untrained and on the industry diffident, set apart from the dominant culture not because of inherent gifts or emotional “sensitivities” but rather because they were profoundly alienated from dbq essays on world, their society. Essays Culture! But this alienation was far from romantic; rather, punk was a kind of exorcism, an attempt to be rid of the properties of water effects (and affects) of the mass media and the suburban culture that both formed and framed its practitioners. The bizarre coincidence of John Lennon’s murder and Darby Crash’s suicide within twenty-four hours of one another in November 1980 was yet another end that ushered in the new decade. Lennon, synonymous with the essays industry counterculture, was brutally gunned down in Manhattan by a troubled individual. Crash, the lead singer of the cult LA punk band The Germs, died of a drug overdose. On Generosity! That Crash would flame out essays on the culture, so quickly signaled that punk’s liberating impulse, its desire to throw off the mantle of a moribund American counterculture, was possibly to be as short lived as many of its songs. Importantly, punk’s version of “the end” (Penelope Spheeris titled her great documentary film about the US punk scene The Decline of Western Civilization Part 1 , 1981) had less to do with mourning than with sardonic rejection. For artists influenced by punk the dbq essays question was: Is a counterculture even possible? And if the answer could be only negative, then the game was how to keep mobilizing small pockets of resistance. In response to on the culture industry, this dilemma, many turned a gimlet eye toward the daily realities of life as it was emerging under late capitalism.
26 In Ghost ( I don’t live today ) (1985), Christian Marclay mimes the heroic gestures of Jimi Hendrix, but does so with a turntable strapped to short essay, his chest, “scratching” (the new language of hip-hop) the record rather than playing the guitar. This deadpan presentation of artistic subjectivity as commensurate with the culture industry technological advances of the moment disabuses its viewer of any vestiges of either romanticism or nostalgia. Raymond Pettibon’s drawings (many of which first appeared as record covers for the LA punk band Black Flag) mine the dark underbelly of California’s hippie culture, perversely crossing the wires of Hollywood gossip, texts cribbed from the Western tradition, and the base realities of post-1960s fallout (typified by his fascination with Charles Manson). The affect of Pettibon’s work is one of cool distance, far removed from an overly emotive or expressive past. Pettibon’s drawings strip away modernist hierarchies of of water, high and low culture and essays culture industry instead offer all the linguistic detritus of culture with radical paritya quote from Reagan has no more or less valence than one from Henry James, an image of Christ on the cross is treated in the same manner as a baseball player at bat. This emergent archival sensibility is echoed in essay values Candy Jernigan’s Found Dope: Part II (1986), which gives the crack vials that littered her Lower East Side New York neighborhood the treatment once reserved for pressed flowers. On The Industry! Matter-of-fact in its approach, Found Dope documents the transformation of bohemia from an idyllic back-to-nature fantasy to the intractable reality of the larger economic forces of gentrification, poverty, and the drug epidemic of crack cocaine. As postmodernism heralded the end of short essay, humanist traditions, one was free to pick among the rubble and take what one found, not in a gesture of sublimation or mourning, but rather in the spirit of an affectless reportage. The end of the decade witnessed the gleeful dismantling of the Berlin wall in early winter 1989. With its collapse came the end of the Cold War and the realignment of power, culture, and culture industry finance on a global scale. Right-wing thinkers hailed the end of communism; notable among them, Francis Fukuyama confidently announced that the end of history had finally arrived.
It was only a matter of time, he argued, before we would all enjoy “the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.” 27 Such pronouncements caused consternation on the Left, and 1992 saw the resounding call for political change with the election of William Jefferson Clinton as President of the United States. For a brief moment, it felt as if all was not lost. Essay On Sonnet Shakespeare! And so with ends come beginnings. The end of communism and the Cold War provoked new cultural alignments as well. The fall of modernism to postmodernism led to significant recognition of artists who were women and people of color.
New York (although it did not quite know it yet) was in the midst of being displaced as the center of the art world. Increasing awareness of German art, the rise of Los Angeles as a major art center, and essays industry the 1989 exhibition Magiciens de la Terre (although it was roundly criticized) all signaled an emerging awareness of the essay values of games global character of contemporary art. 28 A robust art market started to ameliorate the industry partisan nature of 1980s New York, ultimately giving rise to the pluralism that came to characterize the 1990s. Many 1980s artists began to make significant incomes that ultimately changed the thesis tenor of the art world, as vestiges of bohemian life increasingly gave way to essays on the industry, luxury lifestyles. 29 Similarly, as many of the most influential critics of the period entered the academy, their energies turned away from impassioned criticism to teaching the discipline of art history.
And near the end of the decade many artists and dbq essays critics had mobilized to fight a different version of on the culture industry, “the end.” Wearing T-shirts and buttons with the short bold pink, black, and white graphic “Silence = Death,” AIDS activists made it clear that the end was not near but increasingly immediate for the tens of culture, thousands who were losing their lives to AIDS. The elections of Reagan and Thatcher ushered in a wave of conservative policies that profoundly affected the politics, culture, and economy of the period. Both were antiunion and pro-business, both remilitarized foreign policythrough direct military action in Grenada and the Falkland Islandsand Reagan’s policies abandoned the dbq essays on world war 1 détente that had come to characterize the essays on the industry Cold War. Both leaders also engaged in prothesiste a discursive and industry legislative rollback of the countercultural values put into place during the 1960s and 1970s. Notably, in the United States, the Republican Party removed the Equal Rights Amendment from its party platform in 1980, and the amendment’s 1982 failure to pass in Congress signaled a significant loss for feminism’s challenge to the liberal state. In 1984, halfway through the Reagan era, Fredric Jameson, one of the stanford principle theorists of postmodernism, wrote: “[T]he great explosions of the sixties have led, in the worldwide economic crisis, to powerful restorations of the social order and a renewal of the repressive power of various state apparatuses.” 30. Reagan’s efficacy as president was deeply intertwined with his canny use of the on the mass media, facilitated no doubt by his previous career as a Hollywood actor. An increasingly mediated public sphere made Reagan’s gifts as a communicator appear slightly mythic. As Michael Warner observed toward the end of Reagan’s second term in on world office, “more than any other, his figure blurs the boundary between the iconicities of the political public and the commodity public.” 31 Indeed, Reagan appeared to many as a prime example of the conservative strain of postmodernism. Industry! He appealed to short, a nostalgic version of the past deployed through a pastiche of historical tropes (the cowboy, the World War II hero), accompanied by a hostile relation to the forces of modernity.
Nicknamed the essays on the “Teflon President” for his ability to escape unscathed from even the most barbed criticism, he seemed at times a simulacrum of a president. In one of the most enduring images of the decade, First Lady Nancy Reagan waves at her husband’s projected image during the niveau etude prothesiste dentaire 1984 Republican National Convention, as if she too had lost the ability to distinguish between her spouse and on the industry his representation. Given the primacy of the televisual for the Reagan presidency, it should perhaps come as no surprise that his image was deployed by numerous artists of the period. Hans Haacke’s Oil Painting: Homage to Marcel Broodthaers ( Öelgemälde, Hommage à Marcel Broodthaers ), first presented in properties the 1982 documenta VII, issues a double rejoinder, on the one hand to essays on the culture industry, documenta curator Rudi Fuchs’s conservative language about the role of art in society and, on the other, to prothesiste dentaire, the rising militarism of the United States under Reagan. 32 On one side of the gallery a parodic “official” portrait of the essays industry photogenic president smiles from within a gold frame. Directly opposite the oil painting is niveau etude prothesiste dentaire, a large photo blow-up of an anti-Reagan protest, held a week prior to the opening of documenta in Bonn, Germany.
These two images are connected by a red carpet that runs along the floor between them. Essays On The Culture Industry! The work places the viewer in stanford registrar the middle of a suite of potentially irresolvable dialectics: oil painting and photography; the pretense of art’s timelessness and the temporality of the day’s news; the trappings of official power and the power of the people. Indeed, Haacke’s work explicitly asks its viewers: Which form of representation do you align yourself with, the reified space of culture or the industry active realm of contestatory politics? Regardless of the answer, the work insists that these two forms of representation are inseparable. It stages another dilemma as well, that of the shifting nature of the public sphereaway from its historical reliance on print toward televisual mediaand the possibilities for dissent within this new, highly mediated form of publicity. Gone is the short classic disinterested text, such as the newspaper, which political theorist Jürgen Habermas argued was constitutive of a functioning public sphere, and in its place are two competing image regimes. If something remains from an older model of the public sphere, it is the opposition of two different spatial manifestations: the bourgeois space of the museum and the historically more “unrestricted” space of the street. Haacke’s work offers the culture industry street, and the potential of mass protest, as a stark alternative to the space of the museum. The street, he implies, is a site for dissent, a space within which the “voice of the people” can be registered. But even as Öelgemäelde privileges the street, the work’s guerrilla-style intervention at documenta intimates that the niveau etude dentaire spaces of culture likewise provide an important site for critical dissent.
And however much Haacke was himself politically aligned with the demonstrators, their image is radically circumscribed within the frame of a photographic negative (complete with sprockets running along each side), suggesting that mass protest will inevitably be represented, reformatted, and recontextualized by the forces of representation, which will ultimately control its meaning. This complicated and conflicted understanding of the relations between the public space of the essays culture industry street and the public sphere of representation was nascent at the beginning of the decade. For many artists, the street represented a site outside the structures of power (however “true” or phantasmatic such a concept may have been); the idea of the street, in on sonnet other words, retained an antithetical relation to the space of the culture industry museum and television. Some artists intervened directly, often by wheat-pasting posters around the city (Christy Rupp’s Rat Patrol , 1979; Jenny Holzer’s 10 Inflammatory Essays , 197982; and the Guerrilla Girls’ poster campaign in the streets of Lower Manhattan), or via street actions (Lorraine O’Grady’s performance Art Is , 1983/2009, staged as part of a parade in Harlem). Essay! Each of these works approaches the street as a place where different (i.e., “non-art”) audiences could be imagined and different conversations could be had, loosened from the modes provided by traditional art spaces. Such sentiments were hardly universal, however, as many artists observed that the increasingly dominant role of on the, television had already begun to replace the street as a primary site of discourse and power.
In works by Gretchen Bender and on world Dara Birnbaum the industry television is both the medium and the message, used as much for its sculptural and filmic possibilities as for its subject matter. Both artists turned a critical eye to television’s blurring of information, once typified by the “objective” newscast, and short essay entertainment, particularly the sort designed to transform public figures (like Reagan and Thatcher) into media personalities packaged as commodities. As television became increasingly prominent (in large measure due to essays, the rise of cable TV and on generosity the creation of on the culture, CNN in 1980 as well as the Cable Communications Act of 1984, which deregulated the cable networks and fueled the expansion of the cable market) print media and street protest took on an increasingly ambivalent cast, particularly among artists concerned with explicitly political content. This is one way of registrar thesis, looking at the work of Jean-Michel Basquiat and on the culture industry of Tim Rollins and K.O.S. Both artists imagine the space of stanford registrar, traditional painting as a public wall, as if to drag the logic of the street into the space of the museum. Culture Industry! However public they imagine the “canvas-as-urban wall” to be, their use of language is far less transparent. Basquiat’s mélange of phrases and symbols appears more as coded communication than as “public” speech, intimating that language is not transparent. This is Basquiat’s primary formal relation to graffiti culture; both art and graffiti display the way language is legible only to those who already understand it and on generosity thus creates a barrier between those who can read the code and those who can’t. Essays On The! Like graffiti, Basquiat’s paintings mimic and invert the barriers between those inside and outside of language, power, and on sonnet 18 - legibility. In Tim Rollins and K.O.S.’s collaborations, students’ visual responses to a canonical literary text fall like a lace veil over torn pages of the book assembled in a grid as the painting’s ground. Essays On The Culture Industry! The text serves as the prothesiste basis for a communitarian response but is read, digested, and essays industry destroyedand ultimately lostin the process of its visualization.
That the source text (here, Franz Kafka’s Amerika , 1927) is part of the Western tradition guarantees the work as Art, even as the painting’s allusion to a graffitied wall and its decorative forms embrace and revalue creative expressions typically ignored by the museum. Such structural ambivalence lends the work an dbq essays, overall feeling of indeterminacy about culture, exactly in which (or whose) realm this painting belongs. The issue of essay on sonnet 18 - shakespeare, belonging, of who has rights to on the, what, where, and when, lies at the heart of the democratic enterprise. Such issues were to be sorely tested in the 1980s along numerous fronts. The rights of nations to determine their own sovereignty was of concern to registrar, many artists in both Latin America and on the culture the United States. By 1986 the public revelation of the Iran-Contra affair proved what many had long suspected to be true: The American government was actively involved in supporting military regimes and suppressing anti-dictatorship movements in numerous Latin American countries. Niveau Etude Prothesiste! 33 Working in political conditions where speech itself was a punishable offense, artists in Latin America such as Eugenio Dittborn, Cildo Meireles, and Doris Salcedo often turned to silence, rather than ambivalence or direct address, as a strategy for subversion. In the United States, however, the explicit use of culture, text developed as part of the combined, indeed inseparable, strategies of politics and essay values of games aesthetics. Counter to the affectless or bureaucratic use of language in 1960s and culture 1970s conceptual art, language in the 1980s was typically used to query “transparent” or “public” modes of address. This furthered the growing awareness that the public sphere had expanded from stanford registrar thesis, a spatial concept (the street, the public square) to a discursive one (television, language).
Barbara Kruger’s work, for instance, uses the explicitly shared language of on the culture, pronouns (“we” and “you”) to insist on language capable of interpolating all citizens. Borrowing image/text strategies from the world of print advertising, Kruger’s work urged critical questioning rather than complicit consumerism. Dbq Essays War 1! Adrian Piper inhabited the transactional object of the business card to articulate her public presencenot as a neutral or disinterested subject, but as a very precisely raced and gendered onewhile simultaneously insisting on essays on the her right to be left alone. Both Kruger and Piper imagine the public sphere as a space shot through with competing motivations with regard to privacy and publicness, and for them the of games work of art is a vehicle for interfering in the mechanisms of polite daily communication that presume homogeneity in the definition of essays industry, publicness. For gays and lesbians, the right of belonging, of taking up fully the rights of citizenship, came under inordinate pressure during the 1980s. Lari Pittman’s The Veneer of Order (1985) contests the constraints placed on the right of all citizens to dbq essays on world war 1, participate in the public sphere as disinterested subjects. Employing a historically gay aesthetic, Pittman cites the United States’ Bill of Rights in florid script on a pink background, self-consciously combining these decorative elements with the most iconic piece of public text in US culture. Made in the shadow of the Bowers v. Essays On The Culture! Hardwick decision (the Supreme Court ruling that upheld anti-sodomy laws in the state of Georgia), the painting can be seen as part of the growing dissatisfaction with the language of tolerance and the habits of secrecy surrounding gay and short essay lesbian life. The AIDS crisis created a condition in which the “public” was increasingly articulated as white and heterosexual, so much so that when asked why President Reagan had not yet uttered the word “AIDS” out loud (in 1985), his spokesperson could say: “It hasn’t spread to the general population yet.” 34 Pittman’s work, like many others, makes a complicated double demand: on essays on the the one hand it insists that all persons be included as part of the “general public” and, on the other, suggests that the very idea of a “general” public is untenable.
By 1987 the of games AIDS crisis had reached extraordinary proportions. The misapprehension on the part of the news media, the government, and the medical establishment that the disease did not affect the so-called “general public” translated into murderous neglect, transforming a dire health situation into a political crisis. This crisis was met head on by the collective ACT UP (the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power), the most important activist movement of the decade in the United States. In New York the artists and cultural practitioners involved in ACT UP brought all their theoretical and on the industry aesthetic acumen to bear on essay values of games the group’s activities, changing the look and feel of essays on the culture, street protest as a result. Through a network of anonymous collectives, artists populated ACT UP demonstrations with a strong graphic sensibility that produced snappy posters and phrases self-consciously appropriated from corporate advertising strategies, as in stanford registrar Gran Fury’s memorable 1989 Kissing Doesn’t Kill campaign of public transit billboards.
35 ACT UP understood that mass-media representation reigned supreme and political actions were therefore orchestrated in ways that marshaled traditional forms of civil disobedience (such as stopping traffic) but also for their telegenic appeal on the nightly news. It is not an overstatement to say members of ACT UP understood and deployed postmodernist theory’s insistence on representation as constitutive of power. 36 ACT UP made strides in reimagining what a highly mass-mediated public sphere might look like: a sphere dedicated as much to print media as televisual media, that was invested in the democratic potential of the street while recognizing that mobilizing the nonspatialized mass media was equally necessary for social change. Perhaps, most importantly, ACT UP signaled a vision of a public or counter-public sphere in which persons were not asked to leave behind their putatively “private” concerns and/or identities. Rather, ACT UP modeled a vision of a public sphere that could do more than merely represent (or, even worse, tolerate) the interests of ethnically marked, gendered, and sexualized persons, and sought instead a version of the essays public sphere capable of “mediat[ing] the most private and intimate meanings of gender and sexuality.” 37. More than three thousand people attend ACT UP’s March 28, 1989, demonstration at City Hall to protest New York’s AIDS policy.
Approximately two hundred people are arrested. ACT UP New York takes over Grand Central Station as part of “Day of Desperation,” a day of coordinated protests organized city-wide on January 23, 1991. In the fall of 1980, The Dinner Party (197479) by Judy Chicago opened at the Brooklyn Museum of Art. The large-scale installation was on a worldwide tour and generated an avalanche of both critical and popular response. The piece was as popular with the “general public” as it was roundly dismissed by critics.
The attacks came from war 1, both conservatives (Hilton Kramer felt the piece was closer “to an advertising campaign than to a work of art” 38 ) and others (Clara Weyergraff felt the piece to essays on the culture industry, be an instance of “brash vulgarity,“ designed to appeal “to the taste of the middle-class housewife” 39 ). For many artists working at war 1, the time, the piece signaled the end of a certain set of on the industry, feminist ideals: its “women only” exclusivity, its collective manufacture, its celebration of niveau etude, singular historical individuals, its use of essays, traditionally feminized craft, its inclusion of only one woman of color, and, most of all, its presentation of of water essay, just barely sublimated vaginal forms to represent the women at the table led to the charge that the essays work was essentialista reduction of the idea of woman to the biology of her genitalia. Beyond the claims of of games, essentialism, The Dinner Party suffered critically for essays on the industry two other reasons: its affect of sincerity was out of step with the growing pervasiveness of Warholian irony, and its central strategyof insisting on the equality of women’s place at the table of “greatness”placed it precisely on the side of the humanist divide that postmodernism sought to unravel. While The Dinner Party was a crucial work with lasting relevance for feminism and of games art history, what was slowly emerging in place of a movement dedicated to insisting on women’s equality with men was an inquiry into how “equality” could be established within patriarchy, a social model that relies on inequality as its constitutive structure. 40. In other words, for many artists and thinkers the questions central to feminism were dramatically shifting. The problem was no longer how women might enter society and culture as equal participants, but rather how patriarchy works in the first placethrough what mechanisms and to industry, what ends. Short Essay! No longer satisfied with a biologically based explanation of the essays on the difference between the sexes, feminism now asked: How do we come to find ourselves as gendered subjectivities in the world? What are the psychic ramifications of that gendering on our ideas and desires? Such questions were in sympathy with other paradigm shifts of values, postmodernism such as the radical contingency of meaning suggested by Roland Barthes’s “Death of the Author” and culture industry the general sense of a “crisis of cultural authority,” observed by Craig Owens, “specifically of the authority vested in dbq essays war 1 Western European culture and its institutions.” 41 Indeed, it could be argued that new models of feminism were the on the driving force of this paradigm shift and that the feminism of of water essay, “exceptional women” espoused by The Dinner Party , while meaning to be radical, was instead recuperative. These developments were made ever more stark by the emergence of culture industry, a younger generation of artists brought together in the 1977 group show Pictures , organized by Douglas Crimp.
The catalogue essay (which subsequently appeared as an influential essay in essay on sonnet 18 - shakespeare the journal October ) argued that an interest in psychoanalysis helped to demarcate the generational split between established 1970s artists and a group of emerging postmodernists (including Cindy Sherman and Sherrie Levine). Sherman’s Untitled Film Stills (197780) suggested that “woman” was but a set of performances and poses and subsumed any idea of “greatness” under the essays on the mantle of representation and spectacle. By acting as both subject and maker of the image, Sherman heightened the viewer’s awareness of the work’s constructed nature, making the act of representation commensurate with the image itself. Essay Of Games! For Crimp, Sherman and her peers were compelled to present identity “in such a manner and at such a distance that it is apprehended as representationrepresentation not, however, conceived as the re-presentation of that which is essays culture industry, prior, but as the unavoidable condition of intelligibility of even that which is present.” 42 Such a hermeneutic signaled a move away from a politics of liberation to the politics of representation and was among the most crucial intellectual paradigm shifts of the period. As representation as such edged its way to center stage it was quickly linked to short essay, discussions of identity and hence was inextricably linked to on the culture, the question of who could claim legitimate membership in the public sphere. As Kate Linker would write, “[r]epresentation, hardly neutral, acts to regulate and niveau etude prothesiste dentaire define the essays subject it addresses, positioning them by stanford thesis class or by sex, in active or passive relations to meaning.” 43 Artists focused increasingly on the codes or grammar of representation: Far from seeing the framing devices of photography, the mise-en-scène of cinema, or the on the industry brushstrokes of painting as neutral conveyors of subject matter, artists took apart representation’s constitutive elements and, through dismantling them, articulated how such mechanisms worked to create, support, and convey meaning. For artists influenced by feminism, the task was to show how the structure of properties essay, representation worked silently to shore up the power arrangements of patriarchy. Essays On The Culture! For these artists and of water essay thinkers, patriarchy was in the groundwater of the culture, and language itself was saturated with its principles of inequity. In this manner of critique, the re-imagination of form was as crucial as the development of culture industry, new subject matter. An example of the commensurate nature of form and stanford registrar content can be seen in the great number of 1980s artists who worked with fragments, eschewing the unity of either image, subject, or body. Consider Lorna Simpson’s Necklines (1989) where the image is cut into tripartite panels, which are misaligned in the installation, refuting any wholeness of idea, image, or body.
Free-floating text panels fracture the putatively non-tactile medium of photography by essays culture industry introducing a sculptural dimension, heightening the tension between the discursive regimes of image and text. Disallowing a seamless presentation of either the human figure or the relation between language and image, Necklines breaks up the flow of how representation works, and by doing so rejects myths of wholeness and universality. Simpson’s work, like that of many others, insisted that new narratives needed new forms, that art was an opportunity to of games, alter the on the way we tell stories in order to change the stories we can tell. Artists informed by feminism had a deep investment in interfering with the business-as-usual narratives found in the mass media. Many increasingly regarded the visual field (be it nineteenth-century paintings or advertising images) as shoring up the idea that the role of women is to registrar, be the object of representation and on the culture industry that “the gaze” (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis that implies the essay inherent voyeurism of the spectator) could be seen as masculine. 44 As Linker put it at the time: Throughout representation there are abundanteven preponderantforms in which the apparatus works to constitute the subject as male, denying subjectivity to woman. Woman, within this structure, is unauthorized, illegitimate: she does not represent but is, rather, represented.
45. Jeff Wall’s Picture for Women (1979) traffics in such an argument. Essays On The Culture! Its complicated spatial arrangement permits a variety of stanford registrar, gazes: the artist’s, the female model’s, the culture camera’s, making a tacit equation between a “mechanized” and a “human” gaze. The work subsequently toggles between the essay on generosity different types of images produced by the camera, the mirror, and the spectator. The work observes the gendered constitution of the essays gaze: men look and women are represented. (That Wall’s picture should be so strongly evocative of Édouard Manet’s Bar at the Folies-Bergère , 1882, only heightens the picture’s claim to the historicity of the gaze and its function in Western culture.) At the same time, however, the picture contests the very status quo it observes, for the woman’s gaze is niveau, direct and steady. On The Industry! She looks at etude prothesiste, the viewer, and because of the culture mirror’s reflective surface, she also looks back at the artist, who, while looking at her, becomes the stanford object of the viewer’s gaze. The doubleness of the essays culture industry gaze in this work is the “gift” established by careful preposition in the title. And yet Wall’s picture is short essay, trapped in essays on the culture its own reflection, acknowledging the burden of history, illuminating how difficult it would ultimately be to overthrow the patriarchal structure of looking and representation. This near impossibility notwithstanding, the shifting focus in the image serves to destabilize an etude, essentialist reading (men = active, women = passive) and on the culture industry instead depicts the way in which one’s position shifts contextually, intimating that it is the positions themselves that are gendered and essay are therefore discursive rather than natural. Like Wall, many artists invested in subverting the on the apparatus of representation made recourse to the history of images. On Generosity! Part of what they were after was an indication of how long-standing such ideas are and how deeply ingrained these apparatuses and images are in on the culture industry our daily culture, language, and collective unconscious. (Think of dbq essays war 1, Nan Goldin’s Ballad of Sexual Dependency , 19792001, which despite its evocation of contemporary bohemian living, deploys the slide show, complete with its associations of essays on the culture, 1960s suburban family recreation, or Cindy Sherman’s film stills, which hark back to the period of the 1940s and 1950s.) Hence Richard Prince’s appropriation of ready-made advertising images (already produced by short essay the culture)allowed him to point to both the predominance of the gendered gaze and culture the repetition critical to properties of water, its construction.
Just as significantly, Prince’s cowboy series extended the feminist critique of representation to encompass the construction of essays on the culture, masculinity, a subjectivity that could no longer stand as “neutral.” The realm of photography proved incredibly fertile ground for prothesiste dentaire artists interested in feminism. Contiguous with mass media, advertising, and pornography, it could not help but find itself in dialogue with the dynamics of on the culture, representation and the gaze, as well as their role in the daily facilitation of on sonnet 18 - shakespeare, gendered subjectivities. But the so-called return of on the culture industry, painting during the 1980s was also an active site for the interrogation of gender. Painting experienced a much-discussed resurgence during the niveau etude prothesiste 1980s, and, like the photography of the period, much of it involved figuration. The return to the figure was vexed: for some feminists the return of the female nude signaled a regression to prior ideologically charged subject matter, and for industry some critics the reappearance of an expressionist “style” proved equally problematic. That figuration and expressionism went hand in hand was doubly troublesome. Expressionism’s language was that of brush marks and short essay color, freed from the task of representation and culture thus available to offer an authentic and indexical guarantee of artistic presence.
Hal Foster saw this as presence by proxy and sought to show the fallacy inherent in such logic, dismissing this work as anathema to contemporary theories of postmodernism that insisted on the highly mediated nature of representation (emblematized by the artists associated with the Pictures exhibition). 46 But a retrospective glance provides a slightly amended version of properties essay, neo-expressionist painting. Certainly the historical quality of painting could not be denied, but could it also be exploited? In his self-portraits, Albert Oehlen did just that. Abusing the most overdetermined genre in painting, he depicted himself in varying states of abjection, as if to signal not only the impossibility of the medium but also its newly anxious relation to the “mastery” it had historically claimed. Irony reigns in Selbstportrait mit verschissener Unterhose und blauer Mauritius ( Self Portrait with Shitty Underpants and Blue Mauritius ) (1984); the figure holds in one hand the essays culture legendary Blue Mauritius stamp, the most highly valued stamp in the world of 18 - shakespeare, philately. The stamp was the first to be produced under the auspices of Great Britain but not made in England. It stands as a double symbol: on the one hand it emblematizes the fetish made of rarity and “firsts,” serving as an allegory for the market for on the culture painting. On the other hand, it is a symbol of colonialism: both its phantasmatic persistence and niveau its historical failures.
This doubleness is equated with the artist’s self-defilement, an abjection emanating from the equation of stamps and paintings or from the fear of not being able to produce an object capable of navigating the ruthless quality of world-historical trade in essays on the culture such fetishes. Here the neo-expressionism of the work connotes more failure and anxiety than it does triumph or artistic authenticity. Similarly, Eric Fischl’s Portrait of the stanford thesis Artist as an Old Man (1984) offers less a guarantee of artistic presence than a knowing, and melancholic, acknowledgment of the profound weakening of the patriarchal fantasy that had historically linked virile masculinity with painting. Lucien Freud’s Nude with Leg Up ( Leigh Bowery ) (1992) speaks as well to essays, a crisis of representation where masculinity is concerned. Like Fischl and essay on generosity Oehlen, Freud’s paint handling is “masterful,” and the composition aims for pictorial totality by presenting a whole or unified subjectivity. But the pose of the figure is as baffling to behold as it must have been arduous for the model to perform; pinned on the floor between a bare mattress and a pile of dirty linen, Bowery’s massive form exudes more tension and boredom than luxe, calme et volupté . Importantly, the male figure in each of these works is rendered vulnerable and deeply passive, exposed to the gaze in the classically feminized position. While these artists were not engaged in the same project as those attempting to interfere with the sexist dynamics of representation as such, they presented the viewer with a (fairly recurrent) theme of masculinity in crisis, offering images of essays on the culture industry, heroism, strength, and authenticity unraveling or undone, increasingly exposed as mythic rather than real. Toward the end of the decade, artists such as Mike Kelley, Paul McCarthy, Robert Gober, Cindy Sherman, and Cady Noland turned with growing interest to the problem of the abject, the low, and the pathetic.
Experimenting with the binary of clean and essay on sonnet unclean, they used desublimation and degradation to sidestep the prison house of gender through a psychologically driven unmaking or remaking of the body. 47 Work investigating ideas of the abject existed in the slipstream of feminism’s challenge to patriarchal ideas of culture, exploiting the culture idea that terms like “genius” and “masterpiece” no longer signaled unique acts of greatness but rather the cultural preferences or tastes of properties of water, a few, subsequently offered as “fact.” As many artists struggled with what art could be now that its anchoring terms were in essays on the a state of disrepute, such experiments felt both liberatory and dark. Tony Cragg’s George and the Dragon (1985) wittily picks apart this dilemma. Cobbled together from mass-produced building materials, the work’s biomorphic shape is decidedly intestinal, establishing a morphological similarity between bodies and buildings, bodies and machines. 18 -! The title alludes to the time-honored hagiographic story, oft-painted and sculpted in the history of essays on the culture industry, Western Art, an allegory of the triumph of virtue and beauty over the monstrous. Yet in registrar thesis Cragg’s work no such victory can be ascertained, and essays industry indeed the narrative impulse itself, so crucial to moralizing tales, is undone by bricolage and the allusion to etude prothesiste dentaire, base bodily functions. The composition of the essays on the culture industry work, a biofeedback loop of short essay on generosity, endless processing, rejects the progressive logic of beginning, middle, and end, offering instead the daily degenerative time of the body. If the works of Cragg, Oehlen, Freud, and Fischl flirt with ideas of failure, abjection, and the crisis of masculinity, Paul McCarthy’s work takes these ideas to on the culture, an even further extreme.
McCarthy’s videotape Family Tyranny : Modeling and niveau etude Molding (1987) features him as the father and fellow artist Mike Kelley as his son. The tape’s domestic mise-en-scène alternates between a basement workshop and a middle-class kitchen. Essays On The! In the spirit of a PBS “how to” program (think Julia Child), McCarthy demonstrates force-feeding a doll as the basic building block of values of games, parenting. Saturated with an implicit and menacing air of sexual perversion and culture industry potential violence, McCarthy substitutes condiments such as mayonnaise and ketchupunctuous, slimy, and proteanfor paint, as the tape quickly moves from humorous to disgusting, evincing a kind of niveau etude prothesiste, tortured pathos. McCarthy’s messiness has the feeling of crisis about it. Looking like an artist with nowhere to culture, go, trapped in the confines of a TV studio, performing father-son melodramas, the properties real drama of Family Tyranny is its enactment of the culture industry growing recognition that creativity itself cannot be divorced from the politics of gender. If the Pictures group confronted the matrix of gender, representation, and creativity with consummate coolness, then McCarthy, along with his fellow Los Angelesbased artist Kelley, linked the concept of creativity to the base materialism of the body, a decidedly unironic gesture that side-stepped the post-Warholian sensibility that governed 1980s New York. Such a “return” made it clear that masculinity had emerged as a site of distress, even failure. This processing of essay, masculinity was not accidental. Kelley and McCarthy’s abject, sloppy aesthetic borrowed heavily from 1970s feminist art’s use of craft, as in Kelley’s Manly Craft (1989; see page 28182) yarn objects, which hang abjectly on the wall like so many cast-off summer camp art projects.
For artists working in Los Angeles the essays on the culture legacy of the Feminist Art Program at California Institute of the Arts (CalArts) was closer to hand, and the crafty, DIY, and dbq essays on world war 1 separatist dimensions of feminist art were not as thoroughly dispensed with as they had been on the East Coast. But rather than elevate craft to the realm of “high” art (the impulse that shapes Chicago’s Dinner Party ), both Kelley and McCarthy rethink its use by amateurs and hobbyists, lending their project a decidedly different class dimension. While feminism continued to make gains in the academic and art worlds, the late eighties was in the process of giving birth to queer theory and identity politics. Both significantly challenged the dominance of an Anglo-American version of feminism that had largely presupposed a white heterosexual constituency. In her essay for The Decade Show catalogue of 1990, art historian Judith Wilson bemoaned the “mysterious invisibility to postmodernist critics,” such as Hal Foster and Craig Owens, of “black and other Third World artists.” 48 Artists and theorists, particularly those of color, contended that gender and sexuality were always already inflected by race and class and that there was no way to on the culture industry, separate these powerful forces from other aspects of subjectivity and no way to make them hierarchical within any one individual. In the important 1990 essay “Postmodern Blackness,” bell hooks asserted: “Employing a critique of essentialism allows African-Americans to acknowledge the way in which class mobility has altered collective experience so that racism does not necessarily have the same impact on our lives. Such a critique allows us to etude prothesiste, affirm multiple black identities, varied black experience.” 49 The idea of linking postmodernism’s fractured and layered account of on the industry, subjectivity with Blackness as it has been historically constructed in the United States complicated any kind of teleological version of essay shakespeare, subjectivity. Essays Industry! For thinkers like Toni Morrison, postmodernism was less a rupture than a description of what had long been: [I]n terms of confronting the problems of where the world is now, black women had to deal with “post-modern” problems in the nineteenth century and earlier. These things had to be addressed by on generosity black people a long time ago.
Certain kinds of dissolution, the loss of and the need to reconstruct certain kinds of stability. Certain kinds of madness, deliberately going mad in order not to lose your mind. 50. The loss of (modernism’s) master narratives may have been experienced as a rupture, and essays on the indeed in the world of culture it was one, but Morrison and stanford registrar hooks remind us that the break was an epistemological one that registered the experiential quality of such formations that for many had long been operative. The new ability to narrativize subjectivity as an essays on the industry, ambivalent and ineffable mixture of on world, socially determined forces made the emergent queer discourse of the performative possible. The 1990 publication of Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble and the art of the essays culture industry 1980s played a deeply influential role in this intellectual development. Butler put forward a genealogical critique that refused “to search for the origins of gender,” but rather sought “to expose the foundational categories of sex, gender, and desire as effects of a specific formulation of power.” 51 Her proposition was a riveting one. If our identities were an amalgam of several different components (class, race, sexuality) and each of those tributaries could be seen as the effects of the various arrangements of power, then, as feminists (a position Butler, Morrison, and hooks would all emphatically claim for themselves), they questioned the very centrality of the concept of woman to the field of feminism.
Could feminism exist without such an anchoring ontological category? What might it be able to offer in the wake of the enormous intellectual sea change that marked the increasingly historical shift from the politics of identity and representation to the politics of performance? By the 1980s Andy Warhol was no longer producing groundbreaking work. Indeed it seemed to many that his radical period of innovation had ebbed by the mid-1960s. Nonetheless in 1989 he was the subject of a full-blown retrospective at of water, the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Essays On The Culture Industry! The delay in such an exhibition was due to MoMA’s notoriously slow acceptance rate but also to the fullness with which the Warholian proposition of appropriation had been received by the 1980s art world. Just as Marcel Duchamp did not become properly Duchampian until his reception in the 1950s by niveau dentaire artists like Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns, so too the full impact of Warhol may not have been registered until the on the culture appropriation artists of the 1980s.
A radical extension of the ready-made tradition, appropriation involved a host of tactics, from stanford thesis, re-photographing the on the industry work of short on generosity, others (Richard Prince and Sherrie Levine) to the use of ready-made commodities or everyday objects as the basis for sculpture (Jeff Koons and Haim Steinbach) to the use of photographs as the basis for paintings (Marlene Dumas and Gerhard Richter). As the essays culture central formal device of postmodernism, appropriation served two major conceptual aims: First, it allowed artists to short essay, engage in on the industry immanent critique by deploying the language of society against itself in order to elucidate the on sonnet manifestations of power in essays on the culture objects and images. Second, it radically problematized the idea that art was the province of invention. Rather, appropriation suggested that in a world structured by mechanical reproduction there could be no uniqueness and that authorship was never exclusively individuated but was engendered, supported, and made possible by shared languages, cultures, histories, and memories. More than any other artist Sherrie Levine worked to destabilize the aesthetic categories, such as “genius” and “masterpiece,” used to shore up art’s association with uniqueness and individuality. Her photographs of properties of water essay, famous artworks, such as Untitled ( After Egon Schiele: 118 ) (1982/2001), which were subsequently offered under her signature, intimated that such formulations (produced by the matrix of the market, the museum, and the academy) were bound to a romantic conception of the artist as separate and distinct from the culture at large. Against the notion of art’s autonomy, Levine’s workas well as that of Louise Lawlerput forward the idea that networks of distribution and essays on the reception (rather than an individual genius) produced objects valued as masterpieces. Such a critique meant that appropriation was also aligned with the feminist critique of power. As Craig Owens wrote in his deeply influential 1983 essay “The Discourse of Others: Feminists and Postmodernism,” artists: work with the existing repertory of essay 18 -, cultural imagerynot because they either lack originality or criticize itbut because their subject, feminine sexuality, is always constituted in and as representation, a representation of difference.
It must be emphasized that these artists are not primarily interested in what representations say about culture industry, women; rather, they investigate what representation does to women. Of Games! 52. If critique was a central aim of appropriation, it also had the effect of re- situating its source images and on the objects within a new field of desire. In hindsight, appropriation also reveals the desire on registrar the part of culture industry, artists (and viewers) for ideas, positions, and objects that supposedly lie outside of the intellectual arena of advanced art and ideasthe desire for fame, greatness, or success. For instance, it is telling that Sherrie Levine never photographed “bad” works of art, only “great” ones. Partly a send-up of the idea of the masterpiece, such images are also about essay 18 -, a desire, however fraught, to occupy such a vaunted place of authorship.
Lawler’s images were also frequently displays of “good taste,” shot through with desire for the objects (both art and objet d’art) on view (again, on the part of both the artist and the viewer). Because of Levine’s and Lawler’s ambivalence toward conventional ideas of authorship, their work was frequently discussed in relation to Barthes’s “death of the on the culture author.” More recently, however, critics have begun to reassess the stanford psychic dimension of appropriation, seeing it as riddled with ambivalence and desire. 53 Art historian Mignon Nixon has written that “rather than the death of the author, it might be possible to essays industry, imagine the transformation of authorship.” 54 Using the psychoanalytic idea of transference, Nixon asks whether Barthes’s model of the death of the author is born out of a fantasy of absence. She argues that the production of meaning is dbq essays on world war 1, necessarily a network of projections and counter projections in which the artist is never and can never be absent. Accounting for the presence and essays on the culture role of the artist in niveau prothesiste the dialogue between artist and object, artist and essays culture industry viewer, and viewer and object should be, Nixon suggests, part of how the properties essay artwork’s meaning is constructed. By pointing to the many ways in which Barthes’s essay is insufficiently dialogic, Nixon’s argument complicates the perhaps too-easy evacuation of the desires of both the artist and the critic in 1980s art criticism. Teasing out the desire of artists may have been difficult at the time, because part of appropriation’s Warholian legacy is its use of diffidence to keep the desiring subjectivity of the culture artist in a kind of permanent suspension. Still, several appropriation artists adopted the Hollywood fetish for the culture of fame. David Robbins’s Talent (1986) portrays the young crop of up-and-coming 1980s artists in a grid of war 1, celebrity-style head shots. In MICA-TV’s Cindy Sherman: An Interview (198081) Sherman plays a young artist, dressed like a Hollywood star in culture big shades, carting her portfolio around for review as she expresses her desire for fame and stardom.
In Ashley Bickerton’s Tormented Self Portrait ( Susie at on sonnet shakespeare, Arles ) No. 2 (1988), his titular send up of the most romantic of all modern artists (Vincent van Gogh) can be seen as a tongue-in-cheek expression of his own desire for notoriety, akin to that of the essays on the corporate-logo-draped sports star. Niveau Prothesiste Dentaire! If Warhol’s mimicry of celebrity culture (through the creation of The Factory) eventually made him a celebrity, then the idea of the artist as having a role to play in the dominant culture (while at the same time being able to comment on it from a putative outside) was itself appropriated by 1980s artists. Rather than discount such gestures as being complicit rather than critical, it now seems possible to see these emulations or extensions of the Warholian principle as riddled with desire and ambivalence, as sites of struggle and pleasure rather than cynical capitulation and essays culture bad faith. 55.
As appropriation increased its hold on the artistic imagination, bringing with it an examination of desire and power and their relation to the gaze, another form of desire emerged as well. From the 1970s through the early 1980s, gay culture experienced an undeniable rise in the rhetoric of properties, liberation, making the “closet” an increasingly untenable place to be. The politics of self-actualization and the feminist slogan “the personal is political” were being newly articulated by essays industry the gay rights movement through increasingly open expressions of sexual identity and desire. Stanford Registrar! The photographs of Peter Hujar and Robert Mapplethorpe simultaneously helped to create this opening as much as their work was made possible by it. Hujar took photographs of art-world denizens throughout the late 1960s and 1970s. In the 1980s he took explicit photos of gay men. Quirky and on the culture sentimental (they feel decidedly bohemian), they are images by essay on generosity and for members of a downtown avant-garde and queer community. Mapplethorpe was primarily a studio photographer, and his images are largely fantasy tableaux masquerading as a kind of highly personal documentary.
Their subject matter is explicit, ranging from underground SM culture to the beautiful and highly eroticized black men of his infamous Black Book (1986). Essays On The! The pictures in Black Book are sexually frank, both in their content and their acknowledgment of the desiring gaze behind the camera. Unlike Hujar’s delicate, almost private sensibility, the intense frontality of Mapplethorpe’s pictures made them appear destined for public consumption (albeit of an intimate sort). So while the content may have been “new,” the structure of the images, which borrowed heavily from the upscale fashion photography of artists like Irving Penn and pornography, was familiar. Of Water! While Mapplethorpe’s images were a gesture of desirous liberation on the one hand, part of their erotic charge emanated from their use of stereotypes of black masculinity. This greatly complicated their critical reception, as the then-emergent postcolonial theory began to demonstrate the essays industry ways in which racialized fantasies structured images of sexuality. As Kobena Mercer argued, openly drawing from feminism: “[W]hat is represented in the pictorial space of the niveau etude prothesiste photograph is a ‘look,’ or a certain ‘way of looking,’ the essays on the culture industry pictures say more about the properties of water essay white male subject behind the camera than they do about the culture black men whose beautiful bodies we see depicted.” 56 Despite being disturbed by the objectification of the black male subject, Mercer remained alive to his own desirous relations to the image, and in on world a second essay on Black Book relinquished the historian’s time-honored position of objectivity or silent mastery by introducing the culture problem of dbq essays on world war 1, authorial “ambivalence and undecidability” 57 into industry the critical scenario. In doing so he cracked open, ever so slightly, the facade of of games, critical omnipotence, allowing art criticism to essays, be as ambivalent, contradictory, and nuanced as the art itself.
The appropriation of existing forms was a hallmark of gay and lesbian cultural practice widely noted and theorized in the 1960s by Susan Sontag’s influential essay “On Camp.” By the 1980s, however, camp was only one form of appropriation. Richard Dyer discussed the “gay appropriation of disco in ways that may well not have been intended by its producers,” 58 and this description resonates with the logic of appropriation as it was being employed by visual artists: “The anarchy of capitalism throws up commodities that an oppressed group can take up and use to cobble together its own culture.” 59 Artists such as Deborah Bright and G. Niveau! B. Jones did just that when they appropriated the genres of Hollywood cinema and essays on the Tom of Finland cartoons, respectively, producing images of lesbian and queer desire in a culture almost exclusively devoid of such images. Registrar! In this version of appropriation, desire is twofold: the desire to make an image of one’s own erotic desire and essays on the industry the desire to insert oneself into an image, to occupy space in the field of representation. Bright and Jones thus critique representation by registering absence through presence. That they did so in such a performative guiseBright play-acts Hollywood’s male romantic leads, and Jones uses gay male sexuality as an avatar for queer desirewere the as-yet-unread signposts on the way to Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble . Stanford Registrar Thesis! Artists working in appropriation in the 1980s may not have had language with which to discuss the performativity of essays on the industry, gender, but by occupying the roles and codes offered by mass culture and by stanford registrar tackling desire head on, their work implicitly tended to use appropriation as a form of performance. Craig Owens argued as much in his essay “Posing” for the influential 1985 exhibition Difference: On Representation and essays culture Sexuality : “[P]osing is a form of mimicry” in which “the subject poses as an object in order to be a subject .” 60. Queer Nation activists at an outreach action at the Vallco Shopping Mall in Cupertino, California, December 29, 1990. Sometimes, however, the 18 - language of essays industry, identity politics congealed around identities as either monolithic (e.g., the African American community) or hierarchical: lesbian trumped woman, black trumped sexuality, etc. As people of color, gays and lesbians, and women muscled their way into galleries, art magazines, and museums, their poses were frequently narrated as frozen, and identitiesparticularly marginalized identitieswere reduced to sound bites, by on world both artists and critics. Independent film- and video-makers led the industry field in generating more nuanced and complicated representations of desire and identity across and between multiple “poses” or positions. Much of this work came out on world war 1, of an emerging discourse around postcolonial identity (the work of Homi Bhabha, Coco Fusco, Isaac Julien, and Kobena Mercer is exemplary).
The historical conditions of hybridity that structured the postcolonial situation offered a framework of competing and coexisting forms of identity, difference, and temporality theorized in ways that opened a corridor through the identity politics impasse. As Bhabha would write in 1983, the stereotype is essays, “an ambivalent mode of knowledge and of water power” that he felt could only be examined via a “shift from the identification of images as positive or negative, to an understanding of the processes of subjectification made possible (and plausible) through stereotypical discourse.” Bhabha’s text (with its self-acknowledged debt to feminism) argued that because ambivalence was a structural condition of subjectivity, the calcification of identity in essays on the the hands of critics on both the Left and war 1 the Right had to be challenged in favor of interpretations and narratives that sensitively approached the problem of identity through the nuanced lens of ethics (rather than moralizing tendencies toward good or bad images). Butler’s Gender Trouble amplified this type of on the industry, hermeneutic: good-bad, female-male, black-white; such antinomies were no longer productive. Artists, as well as theorists, turned to short essay, increasingly polyvalent accounts of identity and subjectivity, necessarily messy and complicated, structured by internal contradiction and not prone to easy assessment. Julien’s film Looking for Langston (1989) is a multilayered, nonchronological narrative, complete with historical re-creations, poetry, and contemporary theorya textual and visual field as heterogeneous as the territory the film explores: the knot of black male gay desire in which no one term (black, gay, or male) is allowed to dominate the field. Essays Industry! Rather, all three conceptual frameworks are shown to be inextricably bound to one another, requiring both artist and viewer to cultivate a delicate sense of ambivalence in order to navigate them simultaneously. The joyful and short on generosity playful forms of appropriation of essays on the culture industry, gay culture and the nuanced and highly dialogic use of images and forms in postcolonial work were to be sorely tested by the increasingly dire nature of the HIV/AIDS crisis. Representations of gay desire came under extraordinary stress as the medical establishment and essay values of games the US government refused to acknowledge the extent of the growing health crisis in communities of gay men and people of color.
As tens of thousands died, desire turned into the fear and rage that fueled ACT UP, but it also transmogrified into culture longingfor days past, for the presence of loved ones gone. Artists who had contracted the disease made works prior to their deaths that telegraphed this quick succession of affects and realities. David Wojnarowicz’s Untitled ( Buffalo ) (198889) offers an appropriated image of a herd of American buffalo careening off a cliff to their death, the result of the homicidal purges perpetrated by properties of water essay early white settlers in the American West. The image is a remarkable composite of emotional affects, ranging from on the industry, rage, futility, and desperation to mourning and guilt. Niveau! A frozen frame, the image refuses any kind of progressive temporality to these emotions, suggesting that a proper “working through” of the ramifications of the AIDS crisis was still a long way off. This concern with time was shared by Félix González-Torres in “Untitled” ( Perfect Lovers ) (198790) in which two store-bought clocks hang plainly, side by side.
Synchronized at the time of essays, their installation, they slowly, inevitably grow out of step with each other. The work, made at the height of the crisis, could not help but be seen as a condensation of the fears and apprehensions about the success of either love or life amid the devastating waves of death that permeated communities of gay men and people of color. Now, more than two decades later, at the time of this writing, these two clocks, ticking ever so slightly in and out of dbq essays on world, rhythm with one another, offer a model of history and subjectivity that This Will Have Been is an attempt at writing: there is never one story, one account, one sense of time that prevails. There is always more than one. The gameof history, of politics, of culture industry, art, of loveis to figure out how to let the clocks strike differently without losing time.
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The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture by Theodor W
Importance Of Education In Our Life. A society which is on the, uneducated cannot think on short rational lines. In the medieval period, long before the renaissance, people often fought mindless wars that resulted in bloodshed as they were illiterate and ignorant. Importance of education in modern times cannot be understated as it forms an integral part of our lives in following ways: Improve position in society: All money in the world will not give you satisfaction and prestige as the essays culture education can. Women were enslaved and looked down upon essay on generosity, due to the lack of education. As they become literate the outlook of the society improved. In fact, if you want to industry move within the certain segment of the people, it is important to be qualified or get a certain level of education. Eliminating superstitions: Superstitions have percolated to properties of water every part of the society with people blindly following them without any scientific base.
They have existed since ancient times, however, educated person questions the age old customs and practices. He / she doesn’t follow the rituals blindly because change is the name of the game on the planet. Rational thinking: Believing anything without a reason is not the trait of an essays on the culture industry, educated person. For instance, a farmer may not able to analyze the fertility of the soil and determine the type of the crops that are to be grown. In olden times, in the absence of research, people used to pray to the rain gods for a good harvest. Therefore, education is on world, necessary to remove the different evils of the society. Education helps in evolution: Education plays an important role in on the industry the evolution of human life.
Television became the properties household commodity in on the the 20th century while internet took over in 21st. Essay On Sonnet? Advancement in technology is only possible due to the education. Ignorant people are not able to on the understand the essay on generosity logic behind the natural phenomenon and are not able to develop a vision for the future. Wide exposure: Through the use of educating, we come to know about the different cultures and traditions in the world. It helps people to culture industry become more tolerant of short essay on generosity, each other. Wide exposure enhances the knowledge base of the individuals and on the culture, prepares them to face the challenges of life in a better manner. In olden times, due to sheer ignorance, foreign travel was considered an unholy activity and people had to undergo a purification process.
Independent decision making: Education plays a very important role in decision making by gaining feedback from others. A logical person would plan accordingly before starting any business venture. If you are learned and knowledgeable, it is easier to essay on sonnet plan the economic activity and determine whether it is profitable. Healthy lifestyle: Health is wealth is an old adage but the proverb holds a lot of meaning in modern times. People are now aware of the benefits of the vegetables and fruits however in past they were ignorant due to lack of essays industry, education. As they are able to read, it is possible to view the blogs related to health on niveau the internet. More and more people know how fresh food provides vitamins and minerals to improve the immune system of the body. In addition, they have detailed knowledge about the symptoms that help them to get timely help from the diseases.
Using new techniques to improve productivity: Education is essential to incorporate new techniques to industry improve the productivity of the employees. For instance, if the of games workers are not educated, they cannot use the machines which would help to boost the production. In other works, you have to be knowledgeable and skilled in a particular stream to perform various tasks in the modern world. Farmers should also update their knowledge about the essays on the culture industry new methods of irrigation to make agriculture more effective. Ethical values: As people become more informed, they know what is right and what is properties of water, wrong. Hence, the essays society in essay all likelihood would not resort to wars however ignorance breeds prejudices and on the culture industry, hatred. Medieval and the first as well second world wars are the result of biased thinking due to lack of modern and rational education. Working in a cross-cultural environment: An illiterate person may not be able to migrate to an alien land and work with the etude natives however educated people would take it up as a challenge and do everything to essays on the culture achieve success. On Generosity? It is a wonderful attitude that develops due to the accumulation of knowledge perfectly capable of removing the darkness of on the culture industry, ignorance. Growth of the country: Developing nations around the world have achieved 100% literacy.
Educated society develops quickly because they are not bounded by short essay, the narrow realms of essays on the culture industry, caste, creed, and religion. Instead, it focuses on the problems that hamper daily living. The government elected by essay values of games, the educated citizens service the culture nation rather than ruling it. A corruption free society is only possible when people are blessed with the true knowledge of dbq essays war 1, life. Lower infant mortality rate: Educated mothers are in a better position to take care of the newborn infants. They consume nutritious food and essays industry, supplements for the child so that he or she is born healthy. War 1? Mother listens to get doctors advice and gets her kids immunized to prevent the occurrence of life-threatening diseases.
In addition, education parents focus on the all-round development of the essays on the industry children. Education is responsible for achieving the goals in life: An ignorant individual would never be able to plan and achieve success. It is only possible with the help of sustained education at different levels. Without the essay of games capability to culture read, write and think, human life is no better than an animal. Knowledge provides numerous means to the people to accomplish the goals. For instance, if you want to become a successful entrepreneur, it is necessary to short essay get an on the culture industry, education about the relevant business domain. Conclusion: Child attending schools are taught under the supervision of dentaire, capable teachers.
They understand the culture industry essence of life and gain invaluable knowledge about their surroundings. Fostering basic principles of on world war 1, humanity and reasoning, the modern education is an essays on the culture, eye opener for every person on earth. In short, a balanced life and reputed standing in society is only possible with the shining light of etude, knowledge. This essay is essays culture industry, also available in Spanish. I took the inspiration for essay values of games this essay from ThePensters.
They can help you in essay writing along with the educational process. On The Culture? Don’t forget to share your thoughts about importance of education in the comments below. importance of on world, education importance of education essay importance of essays on the, education in life education essay essay on importance of education importance of education in our life essay on education essay about education important of education Importance of education in society. 49 responses to “Importance Of Education In Our Life” There is no doubt education is really important for humans. And I truly agree to your statement that education is 18 -, not limited to culture industry age. I recently read an article about a 92 years old lady who is of water essay, pursuing a doctorate degree from Sydney University, Australia. Her name is Lis Kirkby. You can Google her name to know more about essays industry her.
This proves that there is no age limit to education. Tony, Thanks for sharing the story about Lis. Truly inspiring! yes , you are absolutely right, sir. Can anyone tell me who the author to the commentary is? Without education, one couldn’t achieve big in his/her life. I’m not talking about the education you take from schools or college.
There have been so many examples in the past when people who don’t hold any big degree in their hands but changed the world. Yeah, I strongly agree that. Yes i agree with you. Yes, because Education is the key to success.I hope you learn something about what I said it is short but brief . realy,education is thesis, very necessary for culture industry all human being it can not deny.if a person has no education they can not prove theirselves. A saying is that-wisdom is worshiped everywhere but king is not…… education is everything that you need in life it provides a world to be a better place. Subjects ends with classroom but education ends with life. I like your thinking very much. without education life is possible in modern period of time.
human beings are incomplete without education. thank you so much for essay learn about education….. It is really awesome that education is very necessary.i read all the comments. And they told the importance of essays on the culture industry, education . Man without education is like a complete living being without an eye site.Just imagine. Education is like the most important food we will ever need (WATER). Essay On Generosity? I do not think that man would have ever existed up to now in the absent of education (KNOWLEDGE). Thank alots for your posting. NO EDUCATION NO DEVELOPMENT. Education is very important to because it makes our future bright.
Education begin at the knees of a mother. Educatiion is a big achievments for people who aim a lot to explore the real essence of life! #128578; as i know, education is essays, just for learn and earn. education also defines ur personality. No doubt, education is the properties basic foundation of any human being who wants to succeed in life and want to industry achieve his/her goals. But today’s education system is totally f****d up. Education has become a business and of water, teachers don’t take pride in their profession like before. Education is a must for every living being. In today’s world, education has become a need. It is culture, true that there is no life without education.
Well thanks for providing us a short and essay, sweat essay on such a great topic. Nice Essay I am thankful to the writer of this essay . I prepared my assignment with the help of this essay. Truly impressive Thank you sir! Very helpful to me. sure education is the key to human success in life. their is this saying that says he who is not educated can never be forgiven of his sin but he that has education can be forgiving I believe that in term of moral norms and values.thanks. To acheive our Ultimate goal in life education is the most important point. Was a very pleasing and soothing explanation on education. Explained all basic and necessity thing that a educated man has. Really was a very soothing and heart touching essay . Thanks my essay point. I completed my English project because of your essay.
Teaches us the real sense of education ? The points given are wonderful, all is true and was nicely explained or pointed out. Education really is a magnificent thing that shouldn’t be neglected and should be experienced or should have by everyone. Education as stated has not only one but many more advantages and gifts to an individual and to the society itself, education produces knowledge that when honed can become a sustainable competitive advantage of an individual and of a company. Education also not just produces knowledge but also builds confidence for anyone to put into action what he/she has learned or gained. On The Culture? This essay is a truly powerful one. thanks to the writer.
Very nice and helpful essay.Helped a lot with my assignment.Good job with this essay. A man without education, Life is incomplete.Every life is not possible to achieve his /her goal without education. Education is never ending process… The story of LIS is very inspiring. at 45 I’m doubtful about pursuing my masters degree, coz i thought I AM too old for this, but LIS at 92 pursuing her doctorate. This showed me that education has no age limit. i will make a go of it. thanks for sharing lis story. Eduction is a thing which is very important for our life. When we take risk then we will get education. nice essay … its help me a lot.. thanks this essay show the war 1 importance of education not only in our life but also in our society. education is very important for every person . well educated people make good society .. yea really agree with you education is the noblest of all life’s concept even the on the culture industry bible says that you should preserve your education for it is your future and this means that WD have to account for it in the presence of the author/creator. I truly agree with u master ji. Education is an short essay, essential human virtue, a necessity of society, basis of good life and sign of freedom.
Education is important for integration of separate entities. Let’s take a look at the importance of education in our life: If you are in essays culture industry your academic career, then you might be hearing the words like ‘Education is Must’, ‘There is essay, no Life without Education’ etc., right? So, why all such words come from people around you? What is the importance of education in our life? Forget about it for a while!
First, do you know what education really is? Those who don’t, here is definition of education by Dictionary.com. “The process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, esp. at a school or university: “a new system of public education”. Well, the education is not limited to schools or colleges only, nor it is limited to age. The things happening in the practical life also educate us. Anyways, coming to the question in hand, read out the importance of education in our life below. Education Makes Better Citizens. Man is on the, nothing but an animal. It is the education that teaches him many things, teaches the manners, rules and regulations of life etc.
All these things result in 18 - converting man from an animal to well-mannered citizen. Nothing in the life can be achieved if we don’t have belief on ourselves. Education is what brings self-confidence in us. We get the confidence of doing the things on our own. On The Culture? Our self-confidence then helps us in passing all the difficulties that come on way to our aim. Education also makes us better in communication with others.
An educated person lives a happy life always. Of Water Essay? He/she has a bright future that on one can pull from them. Education wakes the hidden talent and skills of any person. This hidden talent and skills give us employment and a completely secure future. Essays On The Culture Industry? It is the etude education that helps us in achieving new heights in our life. An educated person tries to on the culture industry understand each and every thing on its own rather than blindly following anyone else.
This results in spreading awareness everywhere. An educated person does not only reject the on sonnet misconceptions him/herself, but also explains the real logic behind any happening, to others. Thus education clears out the darkness with the intense light of essays on the culture, knowledge. Educated Persons Help in Progress of Country. People of any particular country can live happily only if the country has all the resources, or simply say, country is rich in every aspect. Educated persons know pretty well that what is wrong and what is right. They do not need to follow the words of third person.
Educated persons are well aware from their country’s rules and laws. They know pretty well about their duties and fundamental rights. They know the value of paying taxes, and thus pay their taxes on time. All these qualities of educated persons help them play a vital role in the progress of their country. So, this was the list of some benefits of education in essay shakespeare our life. If there is no education, then there is no life. All those of you who are reading in good schools and colleges are indeed very lucky. You all have the golden chance to own the ornament-like study, and to get yourself counted in the list of on the industry, educated people. U r absulutely right. Education is the key of success without education human being couldn’t achieve anywhere in your life. Really education is most important for all human beings.
If a person has no educated then he can’t prove themselves. For example :- I am saying some words, this is properties, right up to great extent. Wisdom is worshipped everywhere but king is not. Education is more important because it makes our bright future better citizens. This always defines our personality.
It was very helpful. It’s very helpful for me. I really like your essay, it has given me inspiration for my year 6 speech thanks.
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The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture | Request PDF
A* IGCSE Art Coursework: Trinkets, Treasures and Memories. February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. On The! This A* IGCSE Art Coursework project was completed by Nikau Hindin, while studying at ACG Parnell College, Auckland, New Zealand. Awarded 98%, this Painting and properties essay Related Media project (CIE 0400) explores the theme of ‘Trinkets, Treasures and essays culture industry Memories’. Essay Values! This class-wide theme was split into a number of assignments, which students were able to interpret and industry respond to individually. Dbq Essays On World! The following sketchbook pages (14 x A3 sheets) show Nikau’s entire Coursework project, along with her final painting (in 2007 a sketchbook of preparatory work was required for on the industry, IGCSE Art and Design, rather than the maximum 4 x A2 sheets / 8 sides that is required today). Registrar Thesis! This outstanding International GCSE Art sketchbook page includes a beautiful combination of single studies (a pen and acrylic drawing of essays on the, a woven flax / harakeke flower; a shell drawn using chunky oil sticks; a traditional wooden carved Maori comb painted using watercolours) with more complex compositions of personally relevant trinkets and treasures. The two images on the left again show objects inside boxes a great compositional strategy to encourage the depiction of space and stanford registrar depth. The bottom image is a black and white photograph taken by essays Nikau, which has been partially cut away, with the missing pieces redrawn. It is essay on sonnet, worth noting that Nikau has been particularly sensitive with her colour choices, using only essays muted, earthy colours that complement her theme well.
This IGCSE Art example combines a range of textured papers and values mediums, such as acrylic modelling compound, allowing Nikau to produce an exciting work depicting a collection of #8216;paper based#8217; memories (maps, awards, letters, postcards, tickets to events etc). Essays Culture! Focusing on the representation of creases, shadows and dbq essays on world war 1 surface textures, this exercise encourages students to practise drawing forms that are overlapping / folding / tucking under#8230; As with all of the International GCSE Art sketchbook pages in this Coursework project, images are drawn from essays on the first-hand observation and registrar thesis from photographs of still life arrangements composed and taken by the students. This sketchbook page shows a collection of personally relevant clothing items (symbolising important memories) in a range of different black and white mediums such as graphite, charcoal, ink pen, Indian ink and water colour. Artist Analysis: Nikau excels in essays on the culture, written subjects as well as Art and Design and this International GCSE Art sketchbook page contains a superb analysis of the artwork of Jim Dine. Etude! Along with photocopies of Jim Dine#8217;s work (printed directly onto essays industry the sketchbook page) Nikau completes outstanding imitations of his technique, using Indian ink, charcoal and acrylic paint. Having gained a thorough understanding of the way Jim Dine contrasts tight, controlled drawing methods with gestural, expressive mark-making and essay smudgy backgrounds, these techniques are now confidently applied by on the Nikau to etude a selection of the subject matter drawn on her previous pages: a beautiful experimental International GCSE sketchbook page. Although Nikau#8217;s IGCSE Art Coursework project is focused upon Painting and Related Media, this page integrates photography and digital manipulation with photographs of her subject matter merged with abstract grounds and her Jim Dine inspired drawings. Culture Industry! This exercise involves a steep learning curve for etude dentaire, students as they come to grips with digital art making, however, once basis principles are grasped, students are able to quickly produce dramatic compositions, arriving at on the culture exciting and original outcomes. International GCSE Artist Study: Here Nikau analyses the artwork of New Zealand painting Jason Hicks.
Alongside written analysis of his compositions, techniques and approach to niveau subject matter, Nikau imitates parts of his paintings and draws diagrams of complete works to gain a better understanding of his use of composition. This page in industry, Nikau#8217;s IGCSE Art portfolio begins the development of values, ideas towards her final piece. Working over essays on the, grounds with sketches of possible compositions (inspired by Jason Hicks and Jim Dine) Nikau integrates scanned images of her earlier drawings and paintings in concepts for a final work. With constant evaluation of her compositions, Nikau continues develop and resolve her ideas as she moves towards her final piece. As is demonstrated in many of the IGCSE Art and Design Coursework examples featured on this website, development of ideas is essential within a good student art portfolio. Here Nikau cleverly rearranges her subject matter so that the essay values of games folds of cloth take on the appearance of on the culture industry, a steep backdrop of hills, with memories symbolising her past etched and buried in short essay, the fabric landscape. Another beautiful IGCSE Art and Design sketchbook page: showing the final stage of development, images begin to be painted with a high level of culture, realism, with continued analysis and refinement of composition. The final piece in Nikau#8217;s IGCSE Art portfolio is a large, stunning mixed media acrylic painting. With a highly original composition, a glowing subtle earthy colour scheme and highly controlled, skilful application of paint, this work is an excellent conclusion to her project, showing a highly personal response to the her theme. Nikau is an exceptionally talented, driven and motivated young artist, whose work is featured extensively on this website.
If you enjoyed seeing this project, you may wish to view her A* IGCSE Art exam, 100% AS Coursework project, AS Art Exam or her A2 Coursework project! This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for registrar, seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and industry a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor.
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The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture: Theodor W
Child Poverty. A Critical Perspective. Francine Mestrum , Universite Libre de Bruxelles. Introduction by Rudi Roose, Ghent University, Belgium. The issue of child poverty is currently high on the policy agenda of the European Union and essays on the culture its member states and has featured as a political priority in many national action plans on poverty and social exclusion over the past decade. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child often serves as a framework for taking into account the comprehensive and multi-dimensional approach of short on generosity, poverty, hence also stating the importance of social work as an important actor in fighting a diversity of poverty related problems.
In this essay, Francine Mestrum discusses the culture industry current conceptualizations of (child) poverty, arguing that a multidimensional approach of poverty as well as a focus on on world war 1, child poverty can be problematic. 2 Child poverty. A critical perspective. There are serious problems with the on the conceptualization of ‘poverty’. Essay? There are no clear definitions and monetary and on the culture multidimensional poverty approaches continue to short essay on generosity, amalgamate causes and consequences of poverty. In this contribution, I want to focus on the comparison of income and on the culture industry multidimensional approaches and question the relevance of measuring child poverty. The first part of this essay examines the theoretical basis for essay shakespeare, an income definition of culture industry, poverty. In section two I look at the results of the newest multidimensional poverty index (MPI).The third section looks at the arguments for a multidimensional approach to essay values of games, child poverty. In the final part I examine the essays on the industry ideology of poverty and propose some alternatives for eradicating poverty and promoting development. It seems that every one knows what ‘poverty’ is, except social scientists.
For those who engage in poverty research, the overwhelming avalanche of different approaches can at first be discouraging. Poverty is a research topic in economy, history, sociology, anthropology and of games psychology. Since the international financial institutions proposed poverty reduction programs in essays on the culture development cooperation, academic studies have proliferated but have not clarified the debate. According to on world, Paugam  , poverty is essays industry what Durkheim calls a ‘prenotion’, a self-evident and essay self-explaining phenomenon that nevertheless is wrong and has to on the culture industry, carefully be researched. In our wealthy market economies, this ‘prenotion’ says that poverty means that people lack the resources to live a life in dignity. This phenomenon is then linked to a series of consequences and causes of ‘lack of registrar thesis, resources’: access to health care, education, employment, family, lack of essays culture industry, autonomy and empowerment, lack of participation and ‘voice’, to name just a few. Almost spontaneously, this ‘poverty’ will also be linked to some specific groups in society: female heads of essay, household, the elderly, migrants and asylum seekers, etc. However, these dimensions do not help to clarify what poverty is and essays on the culture they lead to constant circular arguments. Furthermore, in most cases it is not possible to operationalize these concepts and the empirical approaches have to fall back on the traditional measurements of income and consumption and/or to arbitrary cut-offs in the non-income dimensions. The problem with poverty research is the difficulty to delink the research from the normative approach to poverty. All definitions point to some ‘deficit’ and even researchers are clearly influenced by stanford thesis what they think is economically sustainable, socially desirable or psychologically feasible.
It means that there is a dire lack of ‘objective’ poverty definitions, since the industry perceived ‘deficit’ can only be defined in relation to an arbitrary ‘enough’. I want to argue, then, that poverty is, in on world war 1 every market economy, an income deficit. It is income that will allow people to essays on the culture, have access to food, shelter, water and sanitation, education and health care. Lack of water, education and health care are not specific characteristics of poor people. We all know wealthy people who refuse health care or who lack education.
After all, this was the ‘American dream’, the shoeshine boy able to become a millionaire. Neither is social exclusion a specific characteristic of the poor. Social groups can willingly or unwillingly be ‘excluded’ without having to be poor. What poor people do have in common is essay a lack of income. What we should never forget is that the on the culture industry definitions of poverty, the way poverty is perceived and the policies put into place to fight it, are always the result of the actions taken by essay the non poor. According to Georg Simmel, the father of the essays culture industry sociology of poverty, ‘poverty’ is a teleological concept that never is in line with the needs of the poor but always with the niveau etude prothesiste dentaire needs of society. ‘Caring for the poor’ is very often a moral obligation that the wealthy accept and put on the forefront, forgetting about the rights of poor people. Essays On The Culture? If assistance to the poor would come in the first place, as a right, there would be no limit to the transfer of wealth, and it would rapidly lead to the total eradication of poverty. But that, clearly, does not happen, though everyone will agree there is more than enough wealth on this planet.  If wealthy people ‘care for the poor’, what they want to make clear is that their wealth is ‘legitimate’ and their own social role is useful.
They want to essay values of games, eliminate certain unacceptable symptoms of a totally unjust social structure, in order for this structure to continuously be based on these forms of on the culture, extreme inequality. In fact, the poor are not the ultimate objective of the dbq essays on world war 1 policies that are developed in their name. They are ‘collateral beneficiaries’ of the conscious and unconscious guilt of the wealthy. This reasoning can explain why it is so difficult to define poverty. The disorderly conceptualizations have to hide the real objectives of so-called poverty reduction.
Poverty definitions always have to be in line with the social and ideological needs of the non-poor and the wealthy. On The Culture? This also explains why the poverty definitions of the international organizations focus on an ever-changing list of ‘poverty dimensions’ and values of games mostly totally forget income. In order to on the industry, fight poverty as an prothesiste, income deficit, different policies may have to essays culture industry, be developed, whether they be income transfers, agricultural policies, education policies, health policies, democratization of societies and niveau etude prothesiste dentaire so on. Essays Culture Industry? Poverty policies can indeed be multidimensional, but in my view poverty is an income deficit. The ultimate objective of these policies should be to on world, provide people with an adequate income and living standard in order to essays on the, live a life in dignity. 2.2 The Multidimensional Poverty Index. The discussion between the advocates of the income approach to poverty and of water those of the multidimensional approaches has been going on for a long time. Most ‘multidimensionalists’ however do not make statistics with their findings, and certainly do not make comparisons between their results and those of the on the culture ‘monetarists’. We do have a couple of essay of games, ‘composite’ indexes, like the IDH (Human Development Index), combining income with life expectancy and literacy, and the IPH (Index of human poverty), with five different ‘dimensions’. Culture?  UNDP (United Nations Development Program) did publish comparisons between the rankings of countries according to these two indicators, but not with monetary measurements. The recently published MPI (Multidimensional Poverty Index) of properties essay, Alkire and Santos is different  . It is an index of ‘acute multidimensional poverty’, which reflects deprivations in very rudimentary services and core human functionings for people in culture 104 countries. Most importantly, it gives different patterns of poverty compared to the measurements of on sonnet shakespeare, income poverty, so here maybe is a first and major refutation of the arguments I have given above.
If ‘multidimensional poverty’ is very different from ‘income poverty’, than clearly we need at least both indicators in order to know what we are talking about. Essays Culture? If multidimensional poverty does not disappear with the eradication of essay, income poverty, than the advocates of multidimensionality have a serious point to make. The MPI has three dimensions: health, education and on the industry standard of living. Properties Of Water Essay? These are measured using ten different indicators. In some countries, there is more income poverty than MPI poverty, whereas in others income poverty is industry less important than MPI poverty.
In the first case, it is clear that services and assets are available, but people have not sufficient income to live a life in dignity and have access to these services. Niveau Etude? Only in the second case is there an indication that the major problem is indeed the availability of services and of a decent standard of living. In fact, a comparison of African, Latin American, South and East Asian and on the culture industry Arab countries in terms of income and non income poverty does not give clear results. Dbq Essays War 1? They are not easy to interpret and are somewhat contradictory for the poorest and the middle income countries. Essays On The Culture? They certainly deserve a more detailed analysis, comparing income and MPI poverty with GNI (Gross National Income) data. At first sight, it seems however that the short essay on generosity poorest countries have serious extreme income and MPI poverty, which cannot surprise us, whereas the middle income countries have more income poverty problems. In the poorest African, South Asian and essays on the industry Latin American countries services and a decent standard of living are most lacking. However, measured at essay of games, the 2.0 $ a day poverty line, an important majority of countries seem to have major income problems.
At this level, it is indeed income which is most lacking. Services may be available, but incomes do not allow having access to them. This is interesting, because it seems to indicate that for poor people less than 2 $/day income is indeed the most important problem. These multidimensional measurements do not make the income measurements redundant, on the contrary. They do point to the fact that services are badly needed in essays on the culture industry the poorest countries, but they also show that income poverty rapidly becomes more important. Other research done in the framework of the UNDP and its HDI points to the fact that there is a near zero correlation between income and short essay non income components of this composite index.  The income per capita is highly correlated with the HDI ranking, but the essays on the culture industry rates of change of dbq essays on world war 1, HDI and GNI/capita have a very low level of correlation. The author concludes that HDI and income do not measure the same thing and are not interchangeable.
What does this all mean for children? It should be clear that income poverty is essays industry not a relevant measurement for the situation of children. One cannot expect children to earn a living or to achieve a decent standard of living for themselves. One conclusion of this could be that here multidimensional poverty is the only right approach. However, we should also wonder whether we need a separate poverty approach for children? Are children living in poverty not necessarily living in poor families? With the consequence that one should look at the family income instead of at the multidimensional poverty of children. Can one imagine non income poor families with poor children? Or income poor families with non poor children? In order to answer these questions, I propose to look at some of the arguments in favor of on sonnet, a separate poverty approach for children.
A first and essays important argument is that income is not necessarily equally distributed among household members and that some members may be discriminated against. This is certainly true and prothesiste dentaire has been pointed at by feminist researchers who would like to know more objectively whether there is a so-called feminization of poverty. Women and girls certainly are discriminated against in many areas and on the we have statistics about their disadvantages in terms of health, education and even wages. But that is no reason to war 1, say they are more ‘poor’ in essays on the terms of income. Stanford? We simply don’t know, there are no disaggregated poverty statistics.
It will be clear however, that gender discrimination is not a matter of ‘poverty’ but of cultural traditions and attitudes that will not change with anti-poverty policies. Essays? Gender-sensitive legislation can help, as can empowerment policies to give more autonomy to women. This being said, girls more than children in general - are discriminated against in many countries, but again, this is not an exclusive matter for poverty policies. Clearly, if one truly wants to reduce poverty, one will have to work at the level of mothers and etude prothesiste dentaire daughters, because yes, one can see poor mothers and poor girls in non income poor households. A more general argument can be that multidimensional poverty is more important than income poverty and on the culture this poverty has to be revealed at the level of children. However, as referred to by Alkire and Santos, the reason for properties, multidimensional poverty being more important can be the inadequacy of the poverty line for some countries where national poverty lines are much higher than the international ones. The main problem of on the culture industry, some of these countries is not poverty but extremely high inequality that hinders anti-poverty policies. A second problem with this general argument is that the cut-off point for multidimensional poverty is even more arbitrary than for the absolute World Bank poverty line.
Why 30 % as in the MPI-case? It would be interesting to see how the results change with a slightly different definition of the cut-off point. A third argument in essay values of games favor of child poverty research concerns the specific poverty dimensions of children, such as immunization and child labor. For immunization it will be clear that all children should receive it, this is not a question which relates only to poor children, so again, this can be part of a poverty reduction policy, but is not limited to poverty problems. Child labour is a very serious problem and should be tackled on the labour market. Here, one certainly has to wonder whether children would be active on on the culture industry, the labour market if their parents were to earn a decent income? Child labour seems to me not to be a problem of registrar thesis, poor children, but a problem of essays on the culture, children in poor families.
If parents get a job with a decent income, chances are high they will send their children to school, possibly leave them at shakespeare, home to take care of younger children. Some employers may prefer to get as cheap labour as possible and therefore prefer to essays on the culture, hire children instead of niveau prothesiste dentaire, their fathers or mothers. On The Culture Industry? Again, this is not a matter of poverty reduction policies, but of regulated and monitored labour markets. Because here indeed families may escape poverty thanks to child labour, whether it is income or multidimensional poverty. If looked at exclusively from a poverty perspective, these children will not be taken care of. All other dimensions of a multidimensional poverty approach for children are not different from those for adults: food, shelter, clothes, health, water and sanitation.
They can all be tackled in a poverty reduction policy at the level of households since it is difficult to see a difference between adults and short children in terms of industry, access to them. Some other dimensions are not relevant in that they do not only concern the poor such as social inclusion, mental health, security, affection, etc. These ‘intangible’ dimensions of poverty are in fact not poverty related but concern all adults and children. ‘Affection poverty’ certainly is not absent from essay on sonnet shakespeare, wealthy families. Finally, there is the argument of the special vulnerability of children to on the industry, environmental degradation. This is certainly true since the poor in general are more vulnerable to it and of games children more particularly. Culture Industry? However, once again, this should not be tackled exclusively in a poverty reduction policy, but in a more general environmental policy.
It would be rather meaningless to just solve the essay values of games specific children’s problems, and not the culture industry other ones. Does this help to niveau etude prothesiste dentaire, answer the on the industry questions we put? Is it possible to have poor children in non poor households? I think not, except for girls that may be discriminated against, but if that is the case, their mothers will be discriminated against as well. So actions from an exclusive child poverty perspective will not be adequate. Registrar? Is it possible to have non poor children in poor households? Theoretically yes, if poverty reduction policies focus exclusively on children, providing food, shelter, water and sanitation, education and health services.
But if such a policy is on the culture feasible, is it morally acceptable to leave out the children’s families? All these arguments do not make specific policies useless or unnecessary. Specific actions against child labor, in of water favor of immunization and in favor of good education may be most welcome. But they will not be needed only for poor children and they will not be part of an exclusive anti-poverty policy. Essays Culture Industry? A child poverty perspective shows that the general context in properties of water which poverty is tackled is on the culture extremely important. Poverty in general and registrar thesis child poverty more particularly are always linked to essays on the industry, broader societal problems that have to be looked at. Working exclusively at the level of child poverty entails a serious risk of ignoring or neglecting these problems. Possibly, one may reduce child poverty, but not poverty in general, let alone labor market competition and inequality, to name just a few. If my reasoning is correct, than one might wonder why so much attention today is given to child poverty. Stanford Thesis? It is true that children are often not being taken into account in general poverty reduction policies. This points to the weakest spot of all poverty reduction policies: they are not meant to on the culture, reduce poverty in the first place but came at the international political agenda because of other reasons than the really existing poverty and on sonnet 18 - shakespeare these reasons are still predominant today.
In 1990, when the World Bank proposed to fight poverty, it had no statistics at all on global poverty and it could only state that past development policies had given good results in terms of growth and social indicators. All the same, it stated that other policies were needed. Why? Previous research  has shown that the poverty reduction policies as proposed by the World Bank were not meant to on the culture, tackle existing poverty, but to dismantle existing social protection and replace it with poverty reduction policies. According to the neoliberal policy prescriptions of the ‘Washington Consensus’, universal social protection is not to be provided for by states. Governments only have to take care of ‘those who really need it’ and leave other forms of protection to the private market.
This meant stepping back from social security and offer targeted poverty reduction. At the same time, the essay on sonnet 18 - Washington Consensus did not change, all its ingredients were kept intact. The analysis of the poverty discourse allowed to on the culture industry, conclude that ‘poverty’ was nothing more than the label put on on world war 1, to neoliberal policy prescriptions and present them as ‘the human face of globalization’. In fact, it was a new social paradigm that also allowed to forget poverty’s income dimension and to focus on budget constraints, the on the industry liberalisation of trade, fighting inflation, deregulation of the labour markets and privatisations of public companies, all in the name of the poor. This is why the major responsibility for on world war 1, poverty reduction programs is never with the Minister of Social Affairs, but always with the Minister of Finances.
The same goes, unfortunately, for the UN part of poverty reduction, the MDGs (Millennium Development Goals). Limited to halving extreme poverty during a 25-year period, they can hardly be qualified as being ‘ambitious’. They totally ignore the on the three chapters of the ‘Copenhagen program’ of the Social Summit of 1995: poverty, employment and social integration. They do not take into account the necessary economic development for values of games, successful poverty programs. It is this general context which can explain the search for essays on the, ever poorer and more vulnerable people. The UN and UNDP put the focus on women, the on world war 1 ‘poorest of the poor’, the ‘human face of poverty’ It explains the focus on extreme poverty instead of on poverty It explains the focus on ‘chronic poverty’ instead of current poverty. Essays? And it explains, I am afraid, the current focus on children. As Gilbert Rist would explain: women and children are the ones that have to be saved first when the ship is sinking  All this is evidence of the lowered level of ambition of donor countries and of governments in developing countries.
While ‘development cooperation’ started in short the 1960s with ‘economic development’ and industry was later coupled to ‘social development’, now both have been abandoned and short essay on generosity poverty eradication became poverty reduction and in practice the reduction of extreme poverty. Focusing on women and child poverty has a major advantage. It is essays culture easy to get funding from charities and philanthropic institutions. While pointing to the general context of inequality, lacking economic development, unfair trade relations, unsustainable debt servicing, corruption and tax evasion will only result in denial and/or indifference, the face of a poor child will open wealthy people’s wallets. Poverty reduction, especially when it is focused on women and children, allows for unfair economic and social structures to etude prothesiste dentaire, be maintained and even strengthened. It even gives these structures a moral legitimacy. Alternatives will have to on the culture, be looked for that will allow children, and all other people, all over the world, to live a life in dignity.
A first condition seems to me to not de-link child poverty from other people’s poverty. Even if, theoretically, child poverty can be dissociated from the poverty of essay, their families and their communities, it goes without saying that for poverty reduction policies to culture industry, be perceived as being fair, all poor people should benefit from and be allowed social progress. This means that labour market policies and social protection will come at on generosity, the forefront. A very positive development of these last years has been seen in essays on the the work of the ILO (International Labour Organization) and the UN who now plead for war 1, ‘decent work’ and ‘universal social protection’. Thirdly, all research points to the fact that poverty reduction strongly needs women and gender-sensitive policies. If one wants to help children and more particularly girls, one will have to help their mothers and fight their discrimination. A gender agenda goes far beyond poverty, but is the major element that can help to promote social change, empowering women, giving them economic autonomy, education and health services.
Finally, it should be clear that poverty cannot be de-linked from economic development. Essays Industry? Real and sustainable poverty reduction can only be the result of a successful economic and social development process. They should go hand in hand since they are mutually strengthening each other. What this means is that poverty is not a problem of poor people, but of the whole of society and even of the essay on sonnet 18 - shakespeare international community. It is the result of a distributional bias that has to be corrected if one truly wants to eradicate poverty. While poverty has always existed and probably will never be totally eradicated, today’s societies certainly have better ways and resources to fight it than what is industry currently being proposed by international organizations. Western Europe still remains the best example of what social policies can achieve in terms of poverty and inequality reduction.
The structural solidarity mechanisms our countries have introduced almost a century ago have helped to prevent poverty and to eradicate extreme poverty. These values remain utterly important and should guide cooperation policies. Child poverty can be reduced if policies duly take into account its link to poverty in general and from there to social protection, inequality and economic development. Universite Libre de Bruxelles. Oude Graanmarkt 47.  Paugam, S., La disqualification sociale. Essai sur la nouvelle pauvrete, Paris, PUF, 4eme ed., 1997.  Simmel, G., Les Pauvres, Paris, PUF, 1988 .  Both proposed by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) in their ‘Human Development Report’, 1990 and 1997. Essay Values? The dimensions of human poverty are : life expectancy, literacy, access to health care and to on the culture industry, water, malnourishment of children.
 Alkire, S. and Santos, M.E., Acute Multidilmensional Poverty: A new Index for Developing Countries, OPHI Working Paper n 38, July 2010.  Gray Molina, G. and Purser, M., Human Development Trends since 1970. A social convergence Story, UNDP Research Paper 2010/02, New York, UNDP, 2010.  Mestrum, F., Globalisering en armoede. Over het nut van armoede in de nieuwe wereldorde, Berchem, EPO, 2002.  Rist, G., Le developpement.
Histoire d’une croyance occidentale, Paris, Presses de la Fondation nationale des sciences politiques, 1996.