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Association for Informal Logic Critical Thinking. Conferences Publications AILACT Consultants: on IL CT Advanced Degree Programs. Derek Allen , President. Donald Hatcher , Treasurer. Organizers of sessions at APA divisional meetings: Kevin Possin (central), George Boger (eastern), Wanda Teays (pacific) 2007-2005 Maurice A. Finocchiaro, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Thesis On Dell. 2005-2001 Robert H. Ennis, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Own Responsibilities Equality And Valuing Diversity Essay. 2001-1995 co-presidents: Sharon Bailin, Simon Fraser University; 1995-1991Jonathan E. Adler, Brooklyn College Graduate School, CUNY. 1991-1989 Lenore Langsdorf, Southern Illinois University. On Dell. 1989-1987 Mark Weinstein, Montclair State University.
1987-1985 John Hoaglund, Christopher Newport University. 1985-1983 David Hitchcock, McMaster University. Dan Cohen - Although I once wrote an article entitled Argument is War and War is Hell, my interests in argumentation theory, critical thinking and informal logic try to shift the focus away from the adversarial aspects. In Arguments and Metaphors in Philosophy (2004), I explored the ways that metaphors function both in arguments and as arguments, and, conversely, the ways that arguments serve as metaphors. My more recent work has been in developing Virtue Argumentation Theory to help answer questions not just about how to argue, but when and why and with whom to argue. I completed my B.A. in Philosophy and Mathematics from Colby College in undergraduate honors 1975, the Appalachian Trail that same year, and my Ph.D. from Indiana University in 1983, before returning to Colby College in Waterville, Maine where I am now the Christian A. Thesis. Johnson Professor of and oranges essay, Philosophy and thesis, Integrative Liberal Learning. I served on AILACT's Board from 2003 to 2005, and as the Book Review Editor for Informal Logic from apples and oranges comparison essay 2002 to 2008.
Robert Ennis - Bob Ennis has been interested in critical thinking for thesis on dell company, his entire professional career, having tried to teach critical thinking when he was a high school science teacher, and having written for his PhD thesis, The Development of a Critical Thinking Test. & Essays. When he was at Cornell, he and his associates did empirical studies of children's and adolescents' grasp of thesis on dell, deductive logic, resulting in a critique of apples and oranges essay, Piaget's logic and Piaget's claims about thesis, logical thinking in adolescence . Ennis' work in critical thinking and informal logic has been in the areas of conceptualizing critical thinking, assessing critical thinking (including the writing of some critical thinking tests), problems in infusing critical thinking in subject matter areas, teaching critical thinking at the college level (including writing a critical thinking text) and argument appraisal strategy--with special attention to prejudice essays assumption ascription, subject-matter specificity, the distinction between induction and deduction, the alleged cultural bias of critical thinking, and the role in argument of thesis on dell, qualifiers like 'probably' and 'probable'. He is now working on the concepts, test validity and cause, and has recently promoted an AILACT reaction to proposals to assess critical thinking at analyse for promoting diversity, higher education levels. His articles, books, etc. are listed on his web site, http://faculty.ed.uiuc.edu/rhennis. He served as AILACT's President from 2001 to 2005, and thesis company, is currently Director of Special Projects (resulting in equality diversity a list of places for advanced study in informal logic and critical thinking on AILACT'S web site), and monitor of our listserv, AILACT-D. He was on the Cornell University faculty from 1958-1970, and company, the University of Illinois faculty from 1970 through 1994, and is now an essay letter, Illinois Professor Emeritus, living in Sarasota, Florida. Maurice A. Finocchiaro - Maurice Finocchiaro is a graduate of MIT (B.S., 1964) and UC Berkeley (Ph.D., 1969); now Distinguished Professor of on dell, Philosophy, Emeritus, at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas; author of Galileo and the Art of Reasoning (Dordrecht, 1980), Arguments about Arguments (Cambridge, 2005), and Defending Copernicus and Galileo: Critical Reasoning in the Two Affairs (Dordrecht, 2010), among other books; currently working on honors thesis, a book entitled Meta-argumentation ; former Vice-president (1986-88, 2003-05) and thesis on dell, President (2005-07) of AILACT; member of the editorial boards of Informal Logic , Argumentation , and Inquiry:Critical Thinking across the Disciplines ; and recipient of the 2008 Distinguished Scholarship Award from the International Society for the Study of apples comparison, Argumentation. James B. Freeman - James B. Freeman is Professor of Philosophy at Hunter College of on dell company, The City University of New York. He has been a regular contributor at informal logic/critical thinking/argumentation conferences for many years and is a reviewer for both Informal Logic and Argumentation . Writing Assistance. His principal publications are Thinking Logically: Basic Concepts for Reasoning (Prentice Hall, 1988, 1993), Dialectics and thesis on dell company, the Macrostructure of undergraduate psychology, Arguments: A Theory of Argument Structure (Foris Publications, 1991), Acceptable Premises: An Epistemic Approach to an Informal Logic Problem (Cambridge, 2005), and Systematizing Toulmin's Warrants:An Epistemic Approach ( Argumentation 19 (2005), 331-346). He has published a number of papers in on dell company Informal Logic , Argumentation , and various edited volumes.
He has been the Editor of the AILACT Newsletter for three years and has completed one term as AILACT Director at Large. Susan Nuccetelli - Susana Nuccetelli is co-author of How to Think Logically (Penguin Academics, Longman 2007), editor of New Essays on Semantic Externalism and Self-Knowledge (MIT Press 2003), and co-editor of Themes from G. E. Moore (Oxford 2007), Philosophy of Language: The Central Topics (Rowman Littlefield 2008), and The Blackwell Companion to for promoting equality diversity Latin American Philosophy (forthcoming Dec. 2009). Her articles on ethics, epistemology, and philosophy of language, have appeared in Analysis, Metaphilosophy, Inquiry, and other journals. She is Professor of Philosophy at St. Cloud State University, Minnesota. Michael Scriven - Michael Scriven is author of an early informal logic and critical thinking textbook, Reasoning, co-author with Alec Fisher of Critical Thinking: Its Definition and Assessment, and co-editor with Herbert Feigl and Grover Maxwell of Volumes I and II of Minnesota Studies in Philosophy of Science; and author of many journal articles and conference presentations. Currently, Director of the Interdisciplinary Doctoral Program in company Evaluation, and Associate Director of the Evaluation Center, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo; Former Member and Current Chair, AILACT Essay Prize Jury. He is a current member of the AILACT Board of Directors.
Dale Turner - Dale Turner is the Associate Dean for undergraduate thesis psychology, Academic Programs and a member of the Department of Philosophy in the College of Letters, Arts, and Social Sciences at State Polytechnic University, Pomona. He received his Bachelor's Degree in Psychology from California State University, Fullerton in 1987 and his Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of California, Riverside in on dell company 2000. His primary areas of research include argumentation and fallacy theory, the nature of deep disagreement, the honors, role of argument in public reason, and company, philosophical issues in education. Turner's work in these areas includes numerous conference presentations, journal articles, and co-editing special issues of the journals Argumentation and Informal Logic. Turner is a member of several professional organizations including the American Philosophical Association, the Philosophy of Education Society, the dissertation writing assistance, Association for Informal Logic and Critical Thinking, and the Ontario Society for the Study of Argument. He has long-standing teaching interests in critical thinking, epistemology, philosophy of education, philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and the philosophy of childhood.
He is a current member of the AILACT Board of Directors. Copyright 1983-2011 AILACT | Design from OSWD by SmallPark | Valid XHTML | Valid CSS | Last Site Update: September 6, 2011.
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To what extent should freedom of on dell speech be a guaranteed right? Basic rights, basic civil, human and political rights are the pride, cornerstone of on dell company every democracy, from America to honors thesis India, Singapore to South Africa, as set out in their various constitutions and in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. For examples, the right to live, the right to vote, the right to a life free from fear and the right to freedom of speech, have all been clearly set out as intrinsic rights which are inalienable and should be duly accorded to every human being. However, the right to freedom of speech has long been the subject of much controversy as to the extent to which this particular right should be guaranteed and to whom. Freedom of speech, like all other rights, has intrinsic value. It, in on dell company, particular, allows an individual the liberty to express his thoughts without fear of reproach, regardless of what he says. This has important implications for a country in the social and political arenas for it is only when citizens are able to freely express support for dissertation assistance legal or speak up against certain ideas, be they political policies or even social norms, that progress can be achieved. For example, in a totalitarian or dictatorial state, it is only when people are allowed to speak freely and come up with their own political parties, that there can ever be political reform and progress within a country. This is something that is widely accepted to on dell company be true and this can be seen in the global community’s support of Burma ‘s possible release of opposition leader Aung Sung Su Kyi as a move steeped in foresight and with progress in mind. Similarly, in the social sphere, it is highly beneficial to letter accord people their right to free speech because it not only breeds a more thinking, more creative societybu it also reduces dissatisfaction and may bring about social reform. If people are not allowed to speak their minds and can only company meekly accept whatever comes their way, this is not only detrimental in terms of the type of society being bred, it also gives cause for worry in that citizens may feel deprived of their rights or suppressed, and this could breed latent dissatisfaction in the country.
This latent dissatisfaction may result in violence and writing assistance legal, anger, disrupting stability within a nation. Conversely, if citizens are accorded the right to freedom of speech, this latent dissatisfaction would then have a constructive outlet and backlash would be more peaceful and less antagonistic in on dell company, nature. Analyse Own Responsibilities For Promoting Equality Diversity. This could lead to peaceful social reform, in contrast to the extreme measures that people would otherwise have to undertake in order to successfully put their point across. For example, Martin Luther King, a champion of equal rights in America was allowed to speak up for the rights of the minority, and this was pivotal in bringing about the paradigm shift away from thesis white supremacy to that of change paper equal rights for all. Hence we see that free speech can indeed improve society and enrich people. However, despite its obvious benefits, we cannot be myopic or overly optimistic by failing to recognize the propensity for such a right to be abused. As such, we see that rights are not absolute and they cease to be ‘rights’ as soon as the exercise of that right infringes on on dell the rights of another.
Hence, we cannot assess individual freedom in a vacuum and must put it into a real world context. Free speech, like any other freedom, has the potential for abuse and such abuse results in apples comparison essay, a clash of interests between societal good and individual liberty. An obvious illustration is extremism. Extremists, who hold views widely divergent from those of mainstream, conventional thinkers, are famous for inciting violence, resulting in social upheaval and hence disrupting law and order. This occurs because certain individuals choose specifically to prey on simmering feelings of resentment, which may exist beneath the surface.
This could shake the fabric of society and cause great confusion and possibly violence. This happened in Britain . In 1989, a new political party quickly gained popularity in areas north of London such as Birmingham and Westhampton. Company. Being strongly nationalist, they managed to bring to the surface racist sentiments which ultimately culminated in wide-spread racial violence, the worst witnessed in England in twenty years. Essay Formal. Hence we see that the abuse of freedom of speech threatened the thesis company, security of the country and this is equality and valuing essay, something that cannot be condoned, much less thinly veiled by the argument of it being a ‘basic right’. In such instances, it is in thesis company, the best interest of society to contain, to some extent, the right of the own responsibilities for promoting and valuing diversity essay, individual for the good of society. Thus, it is evident that while the company, intrinsic value accorded to apples and oranges essay rights is not entirely imagined, it is sometimes over-hyped and exaggerated and therefore must be taken with a pinch of salt. We cannot then blindly protect the right to free speech without properly taking stock of the wider implications of the actions of the individual. So, while it is thesis on dell, a great injustice to deny people of their basic right to freedom of speech, it is justifiable to choose to curtail the rights of some for the good of society, and to avoid the case of possibly bringing about a breakdown of societal cohesion and a disruption of law and research, order and peace.
Gender is no longer a helpful concept. Do you agree? One of the most noticeable revolutions in this century is the company, Feminist movement. The first wave which began in 1854 was a fight for women’s rights to education and to voting by the Suffragettes. Conventional wisdom has it that the feminist movement is the rise of the female and prejudice essays, the start of the road to equality of the sexes. However, on deeper analysis, it is actually the thesis on dell company, shift in attitudes of females that fueled this revolt. Sex is not the issue here. Rather, gender takes the limelight.
Gender is the behavioural traits and thesis, attitudes of the sexes, not the biological characteristics of what defines us as male or female. This statement implies that attitudes of the thesis on dell, sexes are absolutely not useful, nor is it beneficial. I do not agree with this totally. While gender may not be helpful in certain situations, it is dissertation writing assistance legal, definitely helpful in others. The idea of gender not being helpful is exemplified in situations where women take on leadership roles and have responsibilities to fulfill. Traditionally, women are perceived to be reliant on their male counterparts and are expected to be subservient to them in all circumstances. If this is not the case, they will be deemed as defiant and are likely to be outcast. However, in the modern era women are not tied to their traditionally expected gender behaviour.
Just look at company the increase in the number of females having an active role in the political arena. In the recent issue of Forbes Magazine, Ms Wu Yi, the vice premier of China , is ranked as the essay, most powerful woman in Asia . Company. Ms Wu Yi has shown her credibility and abilities when she skillfully handled the SARS scare in China , outshining the thesis, previous male health minister. The latter tried to hide the on dell company, burgeoning number of SARS victims under the proverbial carpet, much to the world’s disgust. Hence, the concept of pride & essays women being less capable than men, and always playing a less important role than men so as to be seen as submissive, is thesis, not useful in apples and oranges, the political arena as it prevents a level playing field for men and women. Secondly, gender is not useful in thesis company, defining roles for both male and female in the family unit. In the past, women were always stay-at-home mothers while men were the breadwinner, bringing home the bread and butter. Women played the role of mental support and essay, care while men took on the role of financial support and discipline. Yet, now we witness a shift in roles – a growing proportion of fathers as homemakers and thesis on dell company, an exponential increase in the number of mothers who enter the workforce. The concept of gender is not helpful here because it imposes a restriction on apples and oranges comparison men and women and on how they should carry themselves in order to on dell company fit the roles already defined for them, In fact, a ‘liquidification’ of roles allows fathers to establish a closer bond with their children and participate in their development in a more holistic manner. However, gender can be a helpful concept when it benefits the individual.
For a company that produces products, gender may be an essential concept. It gives the company some directions or some clues as to how they can better package or promote their products to cater to consumer’s demands. Take for example a beauty salon may wish to pride & target primarily women since being image-conscious is a much acknowledged mentality of the thesis company, female species. The cult of youth, especially emphasized by the media, is almost deep rooted in women due to their attitudes towards physical beauty and change research paper, “perfection”. Beauty salons target women’s consumeristic nature and thesis, idealistic aims of reaching artificial “perfection” to help them yield profits. Of course there is formal, now an increasing number of males who are image-conscious, but it is not a widespread phenomenon yet. Hence, how can anyone say that the concept of gender, which includes attitudes and thesis, behaviour, is not helpful at all? To sum it up, gender can still be a helpful concept in situations where one’s aims can be achieved. In fact, it promotes awareness of the dissertation writing legal, general behaviour of the sexes.
However, the concept of gender is thesis on dell company, not as helpful as it used to be in the past as seen from the shift in writing legal, the roles of male and female, and the increasing difference in the needs of the past and present societies. Thesis Company. One thing we all know is that the helpfulness of this concept will diminish as time goes, and this is necessary for change theory research the progress of the world. Assess the view that the appreciation of the arts is thesis, only for the rich. The view examined here is one that states that only the rich are able to appreciate the arts. Pride Prejudice Essays. Is this true or false? It depends on our definition of ‘the arts’ Furthermore, who are we referring to when we speak of the rich? It is impossible to define the arts. Is a statue of company Madonna covered with elephant dung considered part of the “arts”? Some could consider “Water lilies” by Monet a work of pride & prejudice magnificent art, but others would consider it a mediocre painting, nothing more.
However, it is the company, general opinion that the arts are composed of essay formal letter certain key aspects: namely, music, dance, painting, sculpture, and other areas. But something must be said of the arts; whichever form it takes, art transcends boundaries: social boundaries. What I mean is that everybody is able to appreciate art, but in different forms. For example, a person from the middle-to-upper classes might view the on dell company, musical “Miss Saigon” as a great work of pride & art; however, someone of a lower socioeconomic class unacquainted with musicals might not be able to appreciate it, preferring to thesis on dell listen to folk songs which the middle and analyse equality and valuing essay, high class citizen may not be able to appreciate. On Dell Company. Hence, I disagree with the above-mentioned view that only the rich can appreciate the arts. Socially, people across all social classes are able to appreciate the arts simply because the arts appeal to different people in different forms. The asrt continues to for promoting and valuing diversity essay sustain themselves because they satisfy the basic human need to express oneself – and in this expression, the arts appeal to the observer or force the observer to examine himself or the world around him.
Furthermore, everybody views a work of thesis on dell company art in a different light. Critics are divided about Rembrandt’s last self-portrait, “Self-portrait with two circles”. Does it display him in the weakness of pride his age, or does it show him seeing the truth of the world around him, stripped of its facade? Nobody can say for sure. Thus, it is this nature of art which leads to everybody being able to thesis company appreciate it: with the important qualification that they do so from different viewpoints, through different forms. Social class and wealth have no bearing on this. When we speak of the “rich”, we are not merely speaking about people with wealth: we are speaking of an entire social class. Let us examine the rich: both in the economic and social sense, as to why it is untrue that only they are able to honors psychology appreciate the arts. Economically speaking, it is conventional logic that the 18th century French aristocrat was able to take the time off his work and go into company, art galleries because he could afford to take leave from work, and could afford to pay the entrance fee into undergraduate honors thesis psychology, the gallery.
On the company, other hand, the common peasant had to toil from morning to night, seven days a week, just to feed himself. Hence, he could hardly afford to appreciate the arts, in the monetary sense. However, the fault with this seemingly logical line of thought is that while the peasant could not afford to enjoy the same art forms of the noble, he could and did enjoy other art forms: folk songs, story telling, and the like. It would be biased to assume that the letter, common peasant was culturally illiterate, simply because of his monetary status. As set out before,art can take any shape and form; lack of money need not be a barrier.
It is for this very reason that appreciation of the arts is thesis, not limited to the rich in the social sense. Going back to the above example, even if the peasant could afford to take a day off and go to & essays the art gallery (which he probably wouldn’t, but for example’s sake), he would be rejected at the door simply because he was of a lower social class. His clothes, his manner, his accent, his very demeanor – these would all be out of sync with the social codes expected by the higher social class. Hence, he would be rejected because of the snobbish mentality of this form of art. Thesis Company. There are two ways to look at this. Firstly, as mentioned above, he did not have to solely seek out dissertation writing assistance legal this avenue of art – there were other forms of art available to him. In this way, appreciation of the thesis company, arts was not beyond him. But secondly, I disagree with the snob rule that only a particular class may enjoy a particular Art form. It does not always hold true.
Some particular instances of art truly transcend boundaries. For example, Vincent Van Gogh has long been regarded as one of the paragons of art. Mixing shades and hue, and the brilliance of colour, a Van Gogh painting can be worth millions of dollars on the art market – definitely a “high class” form of Art. Apples. Yet his paintings were never intended for the rich. One of his paintings, “The Potato Eaters”, shows a group of peasants sitting round a table, eating the potatoes their labour has borne. It is definitely an unglamorous painting, its hues being dark and subdued and its mood gloomy. Nobody of the higher class at that time would find it appealing – they had no need to thesis company be reminded of the lower class, those beneath them. Yet today, this image of the fruits of true toil appeals to all, as a reminder that life is not life without hard work and its results. In conclusion, it would be absolutely misleading to say that only the rich can appreciate the arts. Undergraduate Honors Psychology. Anybody can appreciate art, and art can be seen, heard or sensed under virtually all conditions.
“The fight for gender equality is no longer important in today’s society.” Discuss. Gender equality has evolved from an ideology during the time of the famed Rosa Parks to a massive human rights movement today. The movement that took the world by storm has borne many fruits, and society has made clear progress in this aspect. The significant achievements in this field and the widespread acknowledgement of gender equality have led to a slowing down of the once fervent race. The reducing number of protests, placard marches and campaigns has raised doubts in the minds of many. Perhaps, today, in a world as developed as the one we live in, gender equality and the fight for it is no longer important.
They are wrong. On Dell. Gender equality, and the fight for it, is still, if not more, important today, than it was in the past. Indeed, the fight for gender equality has won many battles. The suffrage movement won rights for comparison essay women all across the globe. It had not only increased the value of women in society, it did the same to a woman?s sense of self-worth. The suffrage movement revealed many injustices and sought rectification and compensation. It demanded equal playing fields for both sexes, sending ripples through the many patriarchal societies, brought education to women, a right now largely recognized, and allowed women to on dell company contribute to society.
It raised a woman?s status, esteem and notion of change theory self-worth. The fight also showed considerable results in the working world, which was largely dominated by males. The fight for on dell company gender equality has decimated glass ceilings in change research, jobs across the thesis, spectrum, allowing women to take on higher societal or organizational positions. It awarded women equal opportunities, with many companies now functioning on the system of meritocracy. Today, more than 30% of high position jobs are occupied by women, compared to less than 2% in the 80s.
In the political arena, a once largely male-dominated as well, Condoleezza Rice and Hilary Clinton are among the few women charging head-on into own responsibilities and valuing, a once foreign field. Hilary Clinton ran against Barack Obama in the Democratic elections in 2008, matching him state-to-state until the end. On Dell. Clinton is own responsibilities equality and valuing essay, a stellar example of how women can contribute more than their two cents worth. Despite losing to Obama, Clinton continues to stay in the political game, aiding the Democratic representative in the Presidential Elections against John McCain. The fight for thesis company gender equality has opened up many doors, managing to even allow women to take a slice of the political pie. The success of the fight is apparent. However, today, many are questioning if maybe enough doors have been opened for women, and whether the importance of the fight has disappeared. This may ring true for developed countries, but for developing countries which are still far lacking in resources, and the courage to take on essay letter an idea seen as absurd to some, or dangerous to others, women are still at the losing end. It is only because the developed countries refuse to acknowledge this fact that it appears as if the fight for gender equality has outlived its welcome. In strict Muslim societies such as Afghanistan and Iran, backward traditions and mentalities hinder the countries’ growth. In the former, statistics have shown that less than 10% of the company, reported cases of rape have received justice.
Ridiculous clauses, such as requiring at least two adult male witnesses willing to support the rape claim, prevent many cases from even gaining access to a court hearing. This injustice has long plagued the apples comparison essay, country, with little being done to on dell company rectify it. However, this problem is also the reason for Afghanistan’s uncivilized laws, which prevent it from gaining a good standing on essays the international level. This could lead to a stagnant economy, or even worse, a stagnant economy trapped in the dogmatic principles of the company, past. In the economic domain, developed countries are no exceptions. The perception that a male has more value than a female runs deep in countries like India and China. Both countries are, today, facing an imbalanced sex ratio, that of pmr model China being one female to every 1.6 males. In China?s case, the one-child policy is the main culprit. Set during revolutionary days, the on dell, one-child policy allows each family to pmr model essay formal have onlyone child, or two, in special cases.
While this was done to combat the problem of thesis company a population growing faster than its country could support, it has brought along with it many problems. In both countries, infanticide ranks high on the causes of infant deaths. Dissertation Legal. The desire for thesis on dell a more valuable male offspring has led to increased abortion rates and cases of theory research baby girls being abandoned. The imbalance in thesis on dell, the sex ratio also has many serious repercussions. It has been linked to comparison essay increased crime rates, with men unable to find a bride, resorting to kidnapping, buying or trafficking women to on dell company fulfill their needs for companionships or carnal desires. A largely unmarried society could ironically lead to the downfall of the psychology, family unit, a component of society valued by Asians. On Dell Company. High migration rates could lead to pride prejudice essays a drastic fall in the working population, in turn resulting in a weakened economy.
It is age-old out-dated views, captured in equally old saying such as “Eighteen goddess-like daughters are not equal to one son with a hump?, that still call for the fight for thesis on dell gender equality to continue. Statistics like that fact that women make up 60%of South Korean graduates but constitute less than 25% of the working force only compound the problem. Crusaders of analyse for promoting this mission have yet to fully spread their message, with only larger communities benefiting. Thesis On Dell Company. Besides the fact that the ‘cease-fire’ could bring repercussions such as the ones faced by China and India, the essay formal letter, fight for gender equality is on dell company, also, above all, a stunning example of human spirit. Just like the heart-warming stories of Chinese natives who went out of their way to help their fellow men after the Sichuan earthquake, the fight for gender equality tore social theories, such as social Darwinism, to bits. It displays human compassion in undergraduate thesis psychology, a dog-eat-dog world, where the more fortunate gives to thesis company their less fortunate counterparts. Philosophers like Charles Darwin believed that Man is born selfish. The continued fight for gender equality proves otherwise. In conclusion, gender equality, and the fight for it, is still very important today. It will help to level unequal playing fields, giving women a voice and a place in society. It will display the full capacity of the human spirit, with both men and women, spanning the theory research, various races, jobs and on dell, social standing, joining in the biggest human rights movement of all time.
“Men and women were never meant to be equal.” Do you agree? Almost a century ago, the first feminist movement took off, where women fought for equal opportunities, respect, recognition and research paper, rights as men. Today, there are numerous prominent female figures who have taken up the roles that were traditionally dominated by men – the present Chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel, former President of Indonesia, Megawati Sukarnoputri, and present Prime Minister of New Zealand, Helen Clark, are just a few examples suggesting that the pursuit of equality of the sexes is very much feasible and realistic. Thesis. However, it remains that there are certain intrinsic qualities of dissertation writing assistance men and women that perhaps point to the disconcerting fact that men and women were never meant to be equal, and hence, the pursuit for thesis on dell equality of men and women is futile. The intrinsic and biological sexual dimorphism between the male and the female genders are numerous. Research has shown that men tend to have greater aggressive tendencies, greater muscle mass, better spatial skills and apples and oranges essay, quick arousal in response to thesis company sexual images. Furthermore, it is also interesting to note that an overwhelming majority of serial killers, psychopaths and criminals in maximum-security prisons are males. Letter. On the other hand, women tend to have weaker visualization skills, better skills of communication, verbalization and emotional empathy – it is no wonder that over 50% of the teaching workforce is composed of women. These intrinsic and biological differences between men and women ultimately lead to seemingly logical differences in on dell, the social roles of each gender. Women, who sacrifice a lot more nutrients in their bodies to bear a baby as compared to men, might naturally be inclined to play a greater role in the nurturing of the child in the family and in being homemakers.
On the other hand, men, who are blessed with better spatial skills, greater muscle mass and strength, naturally take on the role of hunting food for the family. This structure of the assistance legal, human family, men as hunters and women as gatherers, has been passed on for numerous generations and over thousands of company years. Overtime, this has resulted in men taking on far more dominant position in the societies of the world than women do. Pmr Model Essay. Additionally, women have a biological clock that prevents them from bearing a child after a little after the age of 40, when they hit menopause. This acts as the single strongest deterrent against any women who aspires to thesis company climb the corporate ladder – even half a year of maternity leave can be sufficient to disqualify a woman from theory paper a promotion. Indeed, these realities of the intrinsic differences between men and thesis on dell, women are clear evidence that men and women were never meant to thesis psychology be equal in the first place, and it is perhaps foolish to thesis consider the idea of gender equality. With all the above arguments supporting that gender equality is an impossible task, it would be hard to image any country, which enjoys full equality of the sexes in the workplace and change theory research paper, not suffer the detrimental consequences of thesis on dell falling birth rates.
Yet, such countries do exist – Scandinavian countries such as Sweden, not only have among the largest labour participation of women, they also have among the and oranges comparison essay, highest fertility rates in the developed world. How is this even possible?
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Your Ultimate APA Format Guide Generator. APA stands for the American Psychological Association, which is an organization that focuses on thesis company psychology. Analyse For Promoting Equality And Valuing! They are responsible for creating APA Style. APA Style, or APA citing, is used by many scholars and researchers in the behavior and social sciences, not just psychology. APA Style is company, a way to format citations. There are other citation formats such as MLA and Chicago, but APA is most popular in the science fields. Following the same standard format for citations allows readers to understand the types of sources used in a project and also understand their components. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is currently in its 6th edition. It outlines proper ways to organize and structure a research paper, explains grammar guidelines, and also how to properly cite sources. This page focuses on how to create APA citations.
We cite sources for many reasons. One reason is to give credit to comparison the creator of the work that you used to help you with your research. When you use another person’s research or information to help you with your project, it is important to give acknowledgement to that individual. This is one way to prevent plagiarism. On Dell! Another reason why we create citations is to provide a standard way for others to understand and possibly explore the sources we used.
To learn more about citations, check out and oranges comparison essay, this page on crediting work. Click here to learn more on how to be careful of plagiarism. There are two types of thesis citations in APA. Change Research! In-text citations are found in the body of the on dell project and are used when adding a direct quote or paraphrase into your work. Reference citations are found in the reference list, which is at honors psychology the end of the thesis on dell assignment and dissertation writing assistance, includes the full APA citations of all sources used in a project. Depending on the types of sources that you used for on dell company your project, the format you use for your citations is different for each source type. There is a certain format for books, a different one for journal articles, a different one for own responsibilities and valuing websites, and so on. Thesis On Dell! Scroll down to find the appropriate APA citation format for your sources.
Even though the structure varies across different sources, see below for a full explanation of APA in-text citations and reference citations. To learn more about APA style format, including APA’s blog, formatting questions, APA referencing explanations, click on this link for further reading on the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing information from and oranges, a source, include an in-text citation in the body of your project, immediately following it. APA In-text citations may look something like this: “Direct quote” or paraphrase (Author’s name, Year, page number). See the section below titled, In-Text or Parenthetical Citations, for a full explanation and APA format instructions. Each source used to help with the gathering of research or information for thesis on dell your project is thesis psychology, listed as a full citation in the reference list, which is usually the last part of a project. The APA citation format for each source is based on the type of source used.
Scroll down to see examples of some common source formats. Most citations include the thesis on dell following pieces of information, commonly in this order: Author’s Last name, First Initial. (Date published). Title of Source. Location of Publisher: Publisher. Retrieved from URL. To determine the exact format for analyse and valuing diversity your full APA citations, scroll down to the section titled, “Common ALA Examples.” If you’re looking for thesis company an easy way to create your citations, use BibMe’s APA citation machine.
Our APA citation maker automatically formats your citations quickly and easily. Authors are displayed in reverse order: Last name, First initial, Middle initial, followed with a period. In an APA citation, include all authors shown on a source. If using BibMe’s APA reference generator, click “Add another contributor” to add additional author names. Undergraduate Honors! Our free APA citation creator will format the authors in the order in which you add them. If your APA reference list has multiple authors with the same last name and initials, include their first name in brackets. Brooks, G. Company! [Geraldine]. (2005). March . Brooks, G. Equality Diversity! [Gwendolyn]. Thesis On Dell Company! (1949). Annie Allen . When no author is listed, exclude the author information and start the citation with the title.
When citing an entire edited book, place the names of editors in the author position and follow it with Ed. or Eds. in parentheses. See below for examples of citing edited books in honors psychology their entirety and also chapters in edited books. How to Structure Publication Dates in APA: Place the date that the source was published in parentheses after the company name of the author. Theory! For periodicals, include the thesis company month and pmr model essay letter, day as well. If no date is available, place n.d. in parentheses. How to Structure the Title in APA:
For book titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle in company your APA citation. Own Responsibilities Diversity Essay! Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Place this information in italics. End it with a period. Example: Gone with the wind. For articles and chapter titles: Only capitalize the company first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle. Legal! Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Do not italicize the on dell company title or place it in quotation marks. End it with a period. Example: The correlation between school libraries and test scores: A complete overview.
For magazine, journal, and newspaper titles: Write the title in standard form, with each important word starting with a capital letter. The Boston Globe. If you believe that it will help the reader to understand the type of honors source, such as a brochure, lecture notes, or an audio podcast, place a description directly after the title. Only capitalize the first letter. New World Punx. Thesis Company! (2014, February 15).
A state of trance 650 [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://soundcloud.com/newworldpunx/asot650utrecht. How to Structure Publication Information in APA: For books and sources that are not periodicals: Give the city and state (or city and country if outside of the U.S.) for the place of publication. Honors Thesis! Abbreviate the state name using the two-letter abbreviation. Place a colon after the thesis location. For journals, magazines, newspapers, and other periodicals: In APA format, place the volume number after the title. Italicize this information. Place the issue number in pmr model essay parentheses and do not italicize it.
Afterwards, include page numbers. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 57 (1), 79-82. If you’re citing a newspaper article, include p. or pp. before the page numbers. How to Structure the Publisher in APA: In APA format, the names of publishers are not necessary to include for newspapers, magazines, journals, and other periodicals. For books and other sources: It is not necessary to type out the thesis name of the publisher exactly as it is shown on the source. Use a brief, but understandable form of the publisher’s name. Exclude the terms publishers, company, and incorporated.
Include Books and Press if it is part of the publisher’s name. End this information with a period. Little Brown and undergraduate thesis, Company would be placed in the APA citation as Little Brown. Oxford University Press would be placed in the citation as Oxford University Press. For sources found online, after the publication information, add a period. Then, add: Retrieved from URL.
Do not place a period after the on dell company URL. If you’re citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to it. This stands for Direct Object Identifier. If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the URL as the DOI number is static and undergraduate honors, never changes. If the source you’re citing has a DOI number, after the thesis on dell publication information add a period and then doi:xxxxxxx The x’s indicate where you should put the pmr model essay DOI number.
Do not place a period after the DOI number. If you’re using BibMe’s automatic APA reference generator, you will see an area to type in the DOI number. Lobo, F. Thesis! (2017, February 23). Sony just launched the world’s fastest SD card. Mashable . Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2017/02/23/sony-sf-g-fastest-sd-card/?utm_cid=mash-prod-nav-sub-st#ErZKV8blqOqO. Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. (2016 April-June). Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and press and open Oregon State. Open Praxis, 8 (2), 123-130. doi:EJ1103945. APA Citations Format and Examples: Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published).
Title of analyse own responsibilities and valuing essay book . Saenz, B.A. (2012). Aristotle and Dante discover the secrets of the universe . Looking for an APA formatter? Don’t forget that BibMe’s APA citation generator creates your citation quickly and easily. Citations for E-Books found online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of book . Retrieved from URL. Colwin, L. (2014). On Dell! Happy all the time. . Pride Prejudice! Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=EemmBAAAQBAJlpg=PP1dq=happypg=PP1#v=onepageq=happyf=false. Notice that for e-books, publication information is excluded from the citation. Citations for company Chapters in thesis Edited Books:
Chapter author’s last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of chapter. In F.M. Thesis! Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of book (p. x or pp. x-x). Location: Publisher. Change! doi:xxxxxxx.
Longacre, W.A., Ayres, J.E. (1968). Archeological lessons from an on dell company Apache wickiup. In S.R. Prejudice Essays! Binford L.R. Binford (Eds.), Archeology in cultural systems (pp. 151-160). Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=vROM3JrrRa0C=PP1=archeology=PR9#v=onepage=archeology=false. Editor, A.A. (Ed.). (Year published). Title of edited book . Location: Publisher. Gupta, R. (Ed.). (2003). Remote sensing geology . Company! Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of article or page . Retrieved from URL. Mardell, M. (2017). Facing the robotic revolution . Retrieved from thesis, http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-39028030. Looking for an APA formatter to cite your website sources? Use BibMe’s APA citation generator!
Citations for Journal Articles found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Date published). Title of article. Title of journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:xxxxxx. Spreer, P., Rauschnabel, P.A. (2016, September). Selling with technology: Understanding the resistance to thesis on dell company mobile sales assistant use in retailing. Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management, 36 (3), 240-263. doi:10.1080/08853134.2016.1208100. Don’t forget, BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps your cite your sources quickly and easily! Our free APA citation maker is pride &, simple to use! Citations for Newspapers found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year, Month Day).
Title of article. Title of Newspaper . Thesis Company! Retrieved from URL. Khullar, D. (2017, February 22). Bad hospital design is making us sicker. The New York Times . Retrieved from https://nyti.ms/2lujQ76. Looking for an APA formatter to help you cite your newspaper sources? Check out dissertation writing, BibMe’s APA citation machine!
Our APA format generator, or APA citation builder, creates your citations quickly and easily. In Text and Parenthetical Citations. What is an APA In Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation? The purpose of APA in text and thesis on dell, parenthetical citations is to analyse equality and valuing give the reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while they’re in the middle of reading or viewing your project. On Dell Company! You may include direct quotes in the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source. Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased into pride & prejudice your own words. These are called parenthetical citations. Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include an in text citation directly following it. You also need to include the full citation for the source in thesis the APA reference list, which is usually the last item in pmr model a project. In Text Citations for Direct Quotes: In APA format, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote.
It should include the thesis page number or section information to help the reader locate the quote themselves. Buck needed to adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in pmr model essay formal Canada. Company! He states, “no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to do but loaf and be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moment’s safety” (London, 1903, p. 25). In Text Citations for Paraphrased Information: When taking an idea from another source and placing it in your own words, it is not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the source is large and you want to direct readers right to the information. At the time, papyrus was used to create paper, but it was only grown and pride essays, available in mass quantities in Egypt. This posed a problem for the Greeks and Romans, but they managed to have it exported to their civilizations. Papyrus thus remained the material of choice for paper creation (Casson, 2001).
How to Format In Text and Parenthetical Citations: After a direct quote or paraphrase, place in parentheses the last name of the author, add a comma, and on dell, then the year the source was published. If citing a direct quote, also include the page number that the information was found on. Close the essay parentheses and add a period afterwards. In APA format, if the author’s name is included in the text of your project, omit their name from the in-text citation and only include the other identifying pieces of on dell company information. Smith states that, “the Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at a work of art, but only in apples the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works” (2014, p. 82). If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text citation.
If your source has three, four, or five authors, include all names in thesis on dell company the first in-text citation along with the date. Dissertation Assistance! In the following in text citations, only include the first author’s name and follow it with et al. 1st in-text citation: (Gilley, Johnson, Witchell, 2015) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Gilley, et al.) If your source has six or more authors, only include the first author’s name in the first citation and follow it with et al. Include the year the source was published and the page numbers (if it is a direct quote). 1st in-text citation: (Jasper, et al., 2017)
2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Jasper, et al., 2017) If your source was written by a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the group’s name in full in the first in text citation. In any in text citations following it, it is acceptable to shorten the group name to something that is simple and understandable. 1st citation: (American Eagle Outfitters, 2017) 2nd and thesis on dell, subsequent citations: (American Eagle, 2017) Check out this page to honors thesis learn more about parenthetical citations. Also, BibMe’s APA citation machine creates your parenthetical citations quickly and easily. Company! Towards the end of creating a full reference citation, you’ll see the option to create a parenthetical citation in the APA format generator. The listing of prejudice essays all sources used in your project are found in thesis on dell the APA reference list, which is usually the undergraduate honors thesis psychology last page or part of a project. Company! Included in this reference list are sources you used to gather research and other information. In APA format, it is not necessary to include personal communications in the reference list, such as personal emails or letters.
These specific sources only need in-text citations, which are found in the body of your project. All APA citations, or references, are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If you have two sources by the same author, place them in order by the year of publication. Thompson, H.S. (1971). Fear and loathing in Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the American dream . Thompson, H.S. (1998). The rum diary . If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title. Dr. Suess. (1958). The cat in the hat comes back. Apples And Oranges Essay! New York, NY: Random House.
Dr. Suess. Thesis On Dell! (1958). Analyse Own Responsibilities For Promoting Equality And Valuing Diversity! Yertle the turtle. New York, NY: Random House. In an APA citation, if a source does not have an author, place the source in alphabetical order by the first main word of the title. Need help creating the company citations in your APA reference list?
BibMe’s APA formatter can help! Our APA citation machine creates your citations by entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information. Need to theory research paper create APA format papers? Follow these guidelines to produce a research paper in APA format: In an thesis APA style paper, the font used throughout your document should be in change theory Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and headings. Margins should be 1 inch around the entire document and indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard. Place the pages in the following order: Title page (An APA format title page should include a title, running head, author line, institution line, and author’s note). (Page 1) Abstract page (page 2) Text or body of research paper (start on page 3) Reference List Page for tables (if necessary) Page for figures (if necessary) Appendices page (if necessary) The title page counts as page 1. Number the pages afterwards using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4…).
What is a running head? In an APA paper, next to on dell company the page numbers, include what is called a “running head.” The running head is a simplified version of the title of your paper. Dissertation Assistance! Place the running head in the top left corner of your project and place it in capital letters. On the title page only, include the phrase: Running head. Title page example: Running head: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. For the rest of the paper or project, do not use the thesis company term, Running head. Example of subsequent pages:
QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and many other word processing programs allow you to set up page numbers and a repeated running head. Change Research Paper! Use these tools to make this addition easier for you! If you’re looking for thesis company an APA sample paper, check out the other resources found on BibMe. Using BibMe to Create Citations for your Reference List or Bibliography. Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps you generate your APA citations by entering a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information.
Background Information and History of APA: The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts. APA style format was developed in 1929 by scholars from a number of different scientific fields and backgrounds. Their overall goal was to pride & prejudice essays develop a standard way to document scientific writing and research. Since its inception, the on dell company APA Style Manual has been updated numerous times and analyse for promoting equality diversity essay, it is now in its 6th edition. The 6th edition was released in 2010. Thesis On Dell! In 2012, APA published an addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for creating APA citations for electronic resources. Today, there are close to 118,000 APA members. There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and journal publications. Some of letter their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of Applied Psychology and Health Psychology.
Our citation guides provide detailed information about all types of sources in company MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles. If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Research! Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. Remember to evaluate your sources for accuracy and thesis company, credibility.
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Why Dell Is A Must-Buy: The Comprehensive Bull Thesis - Dell Inc
7 Steps to Starting Your Own Business. This article is part of on dell company our #8220;Business Startup Guide#8221; a curated list of our articles that will get you up and running in no time! People are always asking for a list of fundamentals they can use to start their own businesses. From your business type to pmr model your business model to on dell company your physical location, there are so many variables it’s not easy to come up with a list that will work #8220;exactly so#8221; for everybody. With that being said, here are our seven steps to starting your own business. The key, regardless of what type of & prejudice business you’re starting, is to be flexible! “Know yourself, and work in a job that caters to your strengths. This knowledge will make you happier.” – Sabrina Parsons. Begin by taking stock of company yourself and your situation: Why do you want to start a business? Is it money, freedom, creativity, or some other reason? What skills do you have? What industries do you know about?
Would you want to provide a service or a product? What do you like to do? How much capital do you have to risk? Will it be a full-time or a part-time venture? Your answers to these types of questions will help you narrow your focus. This step is not supposed to dissuade you from starting your own business. And Oranges Comparison? Rather, it’s here to get you thinking and thesis planning. In order to start a successful business, passion alone isn’t enough.
You need to plan, set goals and above all, know yourself. What are your strengths? What are your weaknesses? How will these affect day-to-day operations? You could conduct a SWOT Analysis on yourself to figure this out. Some good questions to ask yourself include: What would you do if money wasn’t the problem? Is money really important? Or rather, is making a lot of it really important? If it is, you’re probably going to and oranges be cutting out on dell, a number of own responsibilities for promoting equality and valuing diversity essay options. Thesis On Dell Company? What things really matter to you? Do you have the support of your family, especially your immediate family?
They may have to make sacrifices at the beginning, so it’s important to undergraduate honors thesis psychology have them behind you. Company? Who do you admire in for promoting equality and valuing diversity essay business? Perhaps in the industry you’d like to go into? Why do you admire them? What are their likable traits? What can you learn from thesis on dell company them? Answering these questions and asking many more about yourself and your abilities isn’t necessarily going to ensure you’re successful but it will get you thinking about your goals and about what motivates and inspires you. Use this time to make sure that you are matching the pmr model letter, business you want to thesis start to change paper your personal aspirations. “The more you know about your industry, the more advantage. and protection you will have.” – Tim Berry. Once you decide on a business that fits your goals and lifestyle, you need to evaluate your idea . Thesis Company? Who will buy your product or service?
Who will your competitors be? At this stage you also need to figure out how much money you will need to undergraduate honors thesis psychology get started. Your #8220;personal evaluation#8221; was as much a reality check as a prompt to get you thinking. The same thing applies when it comes to researching your business and the industry you’d like to go into. There are a number of company ways you can do this, including performing general Google searches, going out and speaking to people already working in that industry, reading books by people from the industry, researching key people, reading relevant news sites and industry magazines and taking a class or two (if this is possible). If you don’t have time to perform the research or would like a second opinion, there are people you can go to for help, like government departments and your local SBDC. There are also a number of less traditional sources worth turning to: Advertising representatives for statistics and data on your competition or the industry in general List brokers (to get an for promoting equality diversity essay, idea of the number of thesis prospects out there) Suppliers of your industry (again to get a sense of demand and for theory research paper, market information) Students who will likely be happy to perform research for thesis on dell, you at pmr model formal, an affordable fee. Validate your business idea by creating a pitch page.
In order to identify how attractive your prospective market really is (your own desires aside for the moment), there are a few things you should consider: How urgently do people need the thing you’re selling or offering right now? What’s the market size like? Are there already a lot of people paying for this thing? For example, the demand for #8220;traditional signwriting classes#8221; is almost non-existent. How easy is it (and how much will it cost you) to acquire a customer?
If you’re a lead generation business, this may require a significantly larger investment that say a coffee shop. How much money and effort will it cost to deliver the value you would like to be offering? How long will it take to get to thesis on dell market? A month? A year? Three years? What size up-front investment will you need before you can begin? Will your business continue to be relevant as time passes?
A business that repairs exclusively iPhone 5 screens will only remain relevant so long as the analyse for promoting and valuing essay, iPhone 5 sticks around. If your business is only relevant for a specific period of time, you will also want to consider your future plans. If you like, you can even take things a step further and consider the consumer needs currently not being met by thesis on dell company, businesses in change theory research the industry. Thesis On Dell? This is a good time to take a look at potential competitors. And remember, the presence of competitors is oftentimes a good sign!
It means that the market for your product or service already exists, so you know that from the outset, you’re not flying entirely blind. While you’ve got the theory, time, learn as much as you can about your competitors, about what they provide to thesis on dell company their customers, how they attract attention, and whether or not their customers are happy. If you can figure out what’s missing before you even get started, your job will be made that much easier when you do finally set up shop. Realistically speaking, registering your business as a business is the first step toward making it real. However, as with the personal evaluation, take your time to get to know the own responsibilities diversity essay, pros and thesis cons of different business formations. If at all possible, work with an attorney to iron out the details. Pride Prejudice? This is not an area you want to get wrong.
You will also need to get the proper business licenses and permits. Depending upon the business, there may be city, county, or state regulations as well as permits and licenses to thesis on dell deal with. This is also the time to check into any insurance you may need for the business and to find a good accountant. Types of business formations include: Spend some time getting to essay formal know the thesis on dell company, pros and cons of each business formation. Paper? If you need help, we’ve got a full guide on on dell, Legal Entities, Licenses and Permits. Apples And Oranges Comparison? While incorporating can be expensive, it’s well worth the on dell company, money. A corporation becomes a separate entity that is legally responsible for the business. If something goes wrong, you cannot be held personally liable.
Other things you will need to do include deciding on own responsibilities equality, a business name and researching availability for on dell company, that name. Change Theory Paper? “Our goals can only be reached through the vehicle of a plan, in which we must fervently believe, and upon which we must vigorously act. There is no other route to success.” If you will be seeking outside financing, a business plan is a necessity. On Dell Company? But, even if you are going to finance the venture yourself, a business plan will help you figure out how much money you will need in order to get started; what needs to get done when, and where you are headed. In the simplest terms, a business plan is a roadmap—something you will use to help you chart your progress and that will outline the change, things you need to thesis do in assistance legal order to goals. Company? Rather than thinking of a business plan as a hefty document that you’ll only use once (perhaps to dissertation writing legal obtain a loan from thesis company a bank), think of it as a way to formalize your intentions. While you will potentially use your business plan as part of your pitch to investors and banks, or use it to own responsibilities attract potential partners and board members, you will primarily use it to thesis company define your strategy, tactics, and specific activities for execution, including key dates, deadlines and budgets, and cash flow. In fact, the business plan does not have to be a formal document at all if you don’t need to present your plan to outsiders. Instead, your plan can follow a lean planning process that involves creating a pitch, forecasting your key business numbers, outlining key milestones you hope to pride essays achieve, and regular progress checks where you review and revise your plan.
If you aren’t presenting to company investors, your pitch is not the traditional pitch presentation, but instead a high-level overview of who you are, the problem you are solving, your solution to the problem, your target market, and formal the key tactics you will use to achieve your goals. Even if you do not think you need a business plan, you should go through the planning process anyway. The process of doing so will help to uncover any holes or areas that have you have not thought through well enough. If you do need to write a formal business plan document, you should follow the thesis company, outline below. The standard business plan comprises nine parts, including: The Executive Summary Company Overview Products and Services Target Market Marketing and Sales Plan Milestones and Metrics Management Team Financial Plan Appendix.
If you would like detailed information on how to write a business plan to present to others, there are plenty of honors psychology online resources, including our own comprehensive guide. You will also find hundreds of sample plans for specific industries on this very website. Use them at your leisure but be prepared to adapt them to suit your precise needs. On Dell Company? No two businesses are the same! If you are simply creating a business plan in order to stimulate a discussion with potential partners and associates, you may want to consider opting for a #8220;startup plan,#8221; also known as a feasibility plan. As your business grows you can flesh out the sections as you see fit. In contrast to the standard plan and the startup plan, is the operations or annual plan. This type of plan is used for internal purposes and primarily reflects the undergraduate honors thesis psychology, needs of the members of the company. This type of plan is not intended for thesis on dell, banks and outside investors. You will use it either to plan your company’s growth or expansion, or to set company-wide priorities.
If the latter is true and you are using the plan in order to direct your internal strategy, you are creating a strategic plan, a type of plan that will include a high-level strategy, tactical foundations of the strategy, specific responsibilities, activities, deadlines and budgets, and a financial plan. Change Research? Depending on the size of your venture, you may need to seek financing from an “angel” or from thesis on dell company a venture capital firm. Research Paper? Most small businesses begin with private financing from credit cards, personal loans, help from the on dell, family, and so on. Apples And Oranges Comparison Essay? As a rule, besides your start-up costs you should also have at least three months’ worth of thesis on dell your family’s budget in the bank. Pmr Model Letter? In order to finance your company, you will need to match the company’s needs to the appropriate financing option. On Dell? The main types of investment and pmr model essay letter lending options include: For in-depth information on getting your business funded, see our complete guide on thesis on dell, how to research paper get your business funded, which includes detailed information on each of the on dell company, above-mentioned funding options.
Note: A beautifully fleshed-out business plan does not guarantee you will get funded. Theory Paper? In fact, according to Guy Kawasaki, the business plan is one of the least influential factors when it comes to raising money. To stand a realistic chance of getting hold of the funds you need before you can get started, you’d be better off first focusing on your #8220;pitch.#8221; Not only on dell, will it be easier to fix because it contains less, but you’ll also get feedback on it—most investors don’t bother reading the full business plan, though they may still expect you to have it. It’s also much easier to undergraduate thesis psychology turn a pitch into a business plan than it is to pare back on your plan. You’ve done it—or, just about. Your business plan has been laid out, the money is in the bank, and you’re ready to thesis on dell go. You’ve got a long list of things you need to analyse own responsibilities for promoting equality do: Find a location. Negotiate leases.
Buy inventory. Get the phones installed. Have stationery printed. Hire staff. Thesis? Set your prices. Throw a grand opening party. Each of essay formal these steps will need to be thought through carefully. Your business location will dictate the type of on dell company customer you attract, what types of promotions you can run, and how long it will take you to grow. While a great location won’t necessarily guarantee your success, a bad location will almost always guarantee failure. As you’re thinking about where you want to set up shop (including the city and formal letter state), consider the following:
Price —Can you realistically afford to be where you want to be? If not, or if you’re cutting it fine, keep looking. Visibility —Will people easily be able to find you? Will they see your promotions and offers? Are you in thesis the center of town or further out? How will this affect you? Access to analyse for promoting equality diversity parking or public transportation —Can people easily find you from thesis on dell company available parking options and change research paper transportation routes? If they have to look too hard, they may give up. Distribution of thesis competitors —Are there many competitors close to you?
If so, this may be a sign that the location is premium for the clientele you wish to prejudice attract. It may also mean you do no business. Consider carefully how you wish to approach this type of thesis on dell situation. Local, city and state rules and regulations —Look into regulations, as areas may be more stringent than others. Ensure there are no restrictions that will limit your operations or that will act as barriers to your store.
Your marketing will set the research, stage for the future of thesis your store. It will set expectations, generate hype (if done well), bring business in from day one and ensure that people know where you are and what they can expect from change theory research paper you. Thesis Company? Your store’s layout , design and placement of your products will decide not only the overall atmosphere of the store, but what products people see and undergraduate honors psychology buy. Consider the areas you want well lit; how you will display products (if necessary); what various colors will make people feel, and how people will move through your store. There are reams of literature on why we buy what we do, all of it fascinating and much of it informative. Begin thinking about how you shop—this will get you to think more critically about your own store. Thesis On Dell? Consider: placing products low on shelves will mean that people are unlikely to see them and therefore unlikely to dissertation buy them, whereas placing them at eye-level will mean they’re seen first and thesis on dell company are therefore probably more likely to be purchased. Your choice of products and how you decide to price them will create a reputation. Rather than stock everything of psychology a similar price range from on dell one or two catalogues, consider only choosing those items that will create the feel you want to become known for. If you’re a service business, build your services in dissertation writing assistance a similar manner, considering your different clientele and the value they will get from the thesis on dell, different options you have on offer. If a very affordable package will cheapen your brand, consider excluding it.
If a pricier option will limit your clientele too drastically, maybe cut back on some of the services included. Whether you’re starting your first or your third business, expect to make mistakes. This is natural and so long as you learn from them, also beneficial. Analyse Diversity Essay? If you do not make mistakes, you do not learn what to do less of and equally, what to do more of. Be open-minded and creative, adapt, look for company, opportunities, and above all, have fun! The great thing about owning your own business is that you get to decide what you want to do and what direction you want to grow in. thanks a million for this very helpful artcle#8230;. Essay? We cannot thank you enough for on dell, the kind of support you are rendering the business community. Wow, great advices. Theory Research? Thanks a lot!
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That#8217;s why I work from home selling import export goods#8230;back then I was in real estate. Pmr Model Letter? Get more money every week#8230; This can be an amazing side job opportunity for everyone#8230; Best thing about company it ,work from your home and start making $100 to pride & prejudice essays $2000 each week #8230; Apply now and receive your first cash at the end of the week#8230;You can click on my disqus profile name to thesis on dell company see more about it. Pride & Prejudice Essays? f??o?r? ?all ?th?o??se ?w?h?o? ?h?a?ve? s?ev?e?r?a??l h?r?s ?o??f? s?p?a??r?e? ?t?im?e?, ?t?h??e?r??e ?i??s a ?sim?p??l?e p?r?oc?e?d?ur??e t??h?a?t c?a?n? h??e?l?p? ?y?o?u? g?e?t ?some? f?as?t? ?m??o?n?ey? a??t? t??h??e e?n??d? o??f ?e?ac??h we?e??k? ?l??e??ar?n? ho??w? b?y? ?visi?t?ing? ?l?i?nk l?i?s?te??d o?n ?m??y d?i?squs? ?pr?o?f?i?le? ( ?p??a?y ?a?t??t??e?n?t?ion: a??ct? ?n?ow? b?e?c?a??u?s?e? ?th??i?s ?l??i?n?k ?w?il??l pr?oba??b?l?y ?be ?a??c??c?e??s?s?i?b?le f?o?r a ?li?m?i?t??e?d? pe?r?io?d ?o?f ?t??i??m?e w??h?i?l?e he?r?e? ) fantastic tips for buisness but we need to have strong mind to take a risk thanks alot for ideas. Hi Ramesh, yes, a strong mind and the will to keep going even when it gets hard! This is the best way to be happy at work. For us youngsters who are thinking of starting our career and business journey,this is the best recepe that guarantees success#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;thanks for it. really fruitful post. than you so much sabrina for these latest business information that i am receiving daily from you. Thesis? I have an research, intensive belief, that these ideas are proven methods since you are undergoing a lot of business recherches. Thesis? I found this very useful. Essay Formal Letter? Having just launched an IT Start-up, I am able to thesis company relate with these steps. Nice! I found this very useful.
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essay on lifespans Running head: LIFESPAN INTERVIEW. Lifespan Interview with a Focus on the Effect of Dystonic Outcomes in. Erickson’s Stages from Infant to Adolescent on later Lifespan Development. Northern Arizona University - Yuma. This interview documents the company, lifespan development of a 70-year old female with a focus on the observed affect of any dystonic outcomes of Eric Erickson’s first five stages of personal development on the quality of identity formation during adolescence and its affect on later developmental stages. The focus of the interview was the change research, completion of 34 questions designed around documented systonic and dystonic outcomes of Erickson’s first five stages. The subject demonstrated a clear 1st stage dystonic outcome resulting in thesis on dell company a pattern of mistrust in adolescence resulting in change paper identify confusion. This led to a failed marriage, isolation, and a present-day “stagnation” in Erickson’s 7th stage.
Intervention, should it be desired, should consider re-establishing trust through consistent and supportive exploration of the thesis, subject’s issues with relationships. Lifespan Interview with a Focus on the Affect of Distonic Outcomes in. Erickson’s Stages from Infant to dissertation writing legal Adolescent on later Lifespan Development. The Lifespan Interview. The lifespan interview was conducted with a single female, 70 years of age. The purpose was to document the subject’s lifespan history with recollections of important or significant events in her development.
Focus of the thesis company, Interview. The focus was to identify any distonic outcomes during any of the pride prejudice essays, 1st five stages of Eric Erickson’s 8 stages of personal development. (Muuss, 1996:42) leading to his fifth stage, the thesis company, establishment of identity (See Appendix for complete list of focus questions). It was hoped that the questions could isolate specific areas and incidents that may have hindered any one stage of development thereby influencing the subject’s later view of adolescence. This focus is inspired by Erickson’s emphasis on undergraduate honors thesis psychology the identity crisis as the thesis company, “psychosocial aspect of adolescing.” (Erickson, 1968:91) This taxonomy of adolescence requires the active coalescing of previous stage outcomes to form an identity or identity confusion, which would form the basis for future physiological growth and undergraduate honors social responsibility. Company! All the stages that precede this stage end with some degree of a resolution of conflict, however, the degree and quality of identity established in adolescence is important because it the first experience of analyse and valuing, identity. The interview structure was designed to test the theory that later year views of life and recollections of adolescence would be influenced by any identified distonic outcomes in company Erickson’s first four stages.
The interview was conducted by telephone in one interview lasting approximately 2 hours. The request for approval to interview was completed by e-mail. The subject was informed that the purpose of the interview was to obtain her recollections of her lifespan with specific emphasis on adolescence. Undergraduate Honors Thesis! The interview was taped with permission. The subject was asked a series of general questions for the purpose of establishing the subject’s personal history. The subject was also asked to list the major highlights and major disappointments of her life. Following this, the thesis on dell, subject was asked 34 focus questions. The interview was then concluded. Focus Question Methodology. The focus questions were developed to coincide with Erickson’s first five stages of development: (1) Trust v. Mistrust, (2) Autonomy v. Shame, Doubt, (3) Initiative v. Guilt, (4) Industry v. Writing Assistance Legal! Inferiority, and (5) Identity v. On Dell! Identity Confusion (Erickson, 1968). The questions were based on outcomes of both systonic and dystonic conflict resolutions of apples comparison essay, each stage documented by Rolf E. Muuss (Muuss, 1996) and Eric Erickson (Erickson, 1968).
It is assumed that dystonic expressions in thesis on dell statements relating to each phase would contribute to some degree of identity confusion in adolescence as well as later life and perhaps provide some guidelines to a review of the subject’s lifespan development. Stage 1 Questions. Because the major developmental crisis of dissertation writing assistance legal, this stage of development is thesis trust, the central approach in & prejudice this phase was to test the degree the subject is a trusting or mistrusting person (Muuss, 1996:47). On Dell! This included the subject’s trust of diversity essay, others and herself. Time confusion was tested both directly by questions of thesis company, sleeplessness and goal setting. Stage 2 Questions. Questions in this stage tested the subject’s response to issues involving autonomy and independence and self-doubt.
Questions tested the degree of retentiveness and analyse own responsibilities equality and valuing diversity stinginess as well as cooperation. Confidence in work achievement as well as vulnerability and defiance of authority was tested in this stage. Stage 3 Questions. Stage 3’s contribution to identity involves the thesis on dell, successful development of & prejudice essays, purpose through initiative and thesis on dell curiosity. Questions in this area tested the subject’s degree of enthusiasm with regard to ambition, curiosity, and initiative. Stage 4 Questions. This stage involves accomplishment and the feeling of success, approval, and recognition with regard to tasks.
Stage 4 questions centered primarily on a general sense of competency and inferiority as well as success in school during this phase of analyse own responsibilities diversity, lifespan development. Stage 5 Questions. Questions in thesis on dell company this phase tested the subject’s direct experience of and oranges comparison, identity. During this phase a person assesses strengths and weaknesses, becomes involved in active planning for the future, becomes aware of the thesis on dell company, diffusive conflicts of identify formation, and experiments with love relationships. The subject’s reaction to these questions would provide important clues to the characteristics of her struggle during this phase. Overview of Lifespan. The subject is 70 years old Caucasian.
She wished to remain anonymous. Essay Formal! The subject will be referred to as “Ruth.” She was born in thesis Wilmington, Delaware. She is the oldest of four children; two younger sisters and a younger brother. Her parents are deceased. She now lives in honors Middletown, Delaware approximately 30 miles south of Wilmington, Delaware. She is single having been divorced in on dell 1979 and has not remarried. She was born on Broom Street in Wilmington, Delaware. Her earliest recollection is at apples, the age of on dell company, approximately 3 years old when she simply walked down the undergraduate thesis, street and took the bus about two miles into center city to go to on dell company the local candy store. An event like that would certainly never occur today, nonetheless, she doesn’t not recall any obstacles to her adventure. The local candy store was called “Reynolds” and had all the chrome and mahogany fixtures of a turn-of-the-century candy store. At the alertness of the owner, the police called her parents and they came and pmr model essay formal took her home.
Later, when she was 4 years old, her family moved to a small farmhouse outside the city. Her father’s mother lived with the family. That was her first recollection of a history of family arguments precipitated by her mother. Apparently, her mother, at the time, was extremely underweight after the birth of her second daughter and was ordered by the doctor to drink cream. Thesis On Dell Company! One night her mother came into the kitchen and pmr model essay letter found her mother-in-law drinking the cream. This caused a huge argument resulting from the expulsion of the mother-in-law from the company, family. The family then re-located to Chester, Pennsylvania for several months while their new home was being constructed. This was her mother’s family. The subject did not recall much about change theory research paper this period, except to on dell indicate that due to the cramped circumstances, it was not pleasant. When Ruth was 5 years old, the family moved into a new home in a neighborhood called “Swanwyck” about 9 miles south of Wilmington, Delaware.
It was a new neighborhood and her earliest memories are of trying to make friends with the essay, children her age. One girl down the street was “rough” and Ruth’s mother made her “defend herself” by thesis on dell company, standing up to her confronting behavior. Ruth did not like doing that and never made friends with the girl. When another girl her age moved into the neighborhood, Ruth’s mother told her to hurry to make friends with the new girl before the and oranges, other girl did. It was too late, the other girl befriended her first. Ruth’s recollections from this time until 7th grade are of company, a mother who was involved in the local garden club and very active with scouts. Life was routine. Own Responsibilities Equality And Valuing Diversity Essay! She went to school.
Her father was an engineer with the DuPont Company. The family was considered upper-middle class. Ruth did well in school and everything at home was recollected as normal with an occasional loud argument between her parents. Her first major disappointment in life occurred during this period. Since her mother was in thesis on dell company the garden club, both Ruth and her sister decided to grow a garden and enter a neighborhood garden contest. Ruth spent a lot of time with her garden. Assistance Legal! Her sister did not care for her garden and, according to Ruth, it was just weeds. Thesis! When the judges came, they gave an award to her sister, not Ruth.
She was emotionally devastated. Ruth indicated that adolescence began with her menstruation in 8th grade. Apples And Oranges Comparison! It ended when she began working at age 17 between her junior and senior year in high school. The beginning of adolescence in thesis 8th grade was marked by & prejudice essays, the school using her as a substitute teacher in the lower grades when the teachers were absence. “I did that a lot”, Ruth stated. Thesis On Dell! It was a remarkable accomplishment and recognition of undergraduate honors psychology, her success in school. She also remembers learning algebra and “falling in thesis love” with math. Algebra was easy for her and through the rest of her schooling she excelled in math and science. During this period, Ruth babysat for & prejudice essays, some extra money for herself.
Her first year in company high school was a positive experience. The school had the writing assistance legal, best football team in the state. She excelled in school and had good relations with her friends. On Dell Company! In her first year in high school she began working at a local 510 store. Around this time, Ruth became aware that her parent’s fights were about letter her. According to Ruth, both parents drank a lot.
Her mother would always fight over money. Her mother would be obsessed with confronting any spending that did not involve her. If any money was spent on anyone else, she would become extremely angry. Her parents would argue so violently that her father would rush out thesis, of the house in anger and dissertation writing assistance legal not come home for a few days. As a result of company, these arguments, between her 9th and 10th year in high school, Ruth ran away from home for over two weeks. She went to essay formal her uncle’s in Chester, Pennsylvania.
Her father picked her up and no one in the family spoke of or mentioned the incident. Company! Ruth indicated that from that time on, her mother pretty much left her alone. In her 10th year in & high school, the school accepted students from another part of the county. This started cliques between the local students and the others. Thesis Company! Ruth would have nothing to do with it and chose to isolate herself from intimate friendships at school. She used to take the bus to and oranges comparison town and go to the dances there. She started dating older boys from other schools. She dated a “Wilmington hood”, but her mother intervened and it ended quickly. Ruth’s second major disappointment occurred during this period. The school was going to start a cheerleading team. Ruth and all the girls began to train and practice for the team.
She looked forward to on dell it with great enthusiasm. However, in the end, the psychology, teacher put all the candidates names in a hat and choose the team by chance. Ruth was not picked. Thesis On Dell! She was devastated. What hurt her most was the girls that never practiced got the job. During her 10th year, Ruth did extremely well in psychology school and on dell worked at a dress shop in change research the evening to thesis company earn money for herself. She began driving when she was 17. Her mother would not let her drive earlier because she did not earn enough money to pay for her own insurance.
This was Ruth’s self-declared end of legal, adolescence because she could drive, she was earning money, and her mother was leaving her alone and let her be independent. Ruth, however, admitted that she knew absolutely nothing about sex. Nonetheless, this was a fun time for her. Thesis On Dell! She went to all the dances in the neighboring town, dated a lot of apples and oranges essay, boys, and had fun. She went to thesis on dell company another high school dance every Friday night to watch Bill Haley and the Comets before they became famous. When she was 17 year old, she met “J.T’. He was 21 and was in the Air Force and pride based nearby. She ended the engagement after one week because she wanted to go to college and he would probably be sent somewhere else with the Air Force.
She knew she would go to on dell company college. Ruth’s third major disappointment came during her senior year, when she was 17. She was publicly picked a the top student in the graduating class, the Valedictorian. However, a few hours later, the pmr model letter, teacher called her into thesis on dell company, the office and said a mistake was made. Ruth was second, the Salutatorian. Ruth was devastated.
She then went to formal the University of Delaware as planned. She lost her scholarship because she did not maintain a 3.5 grade average. After her first two semesters, when her mother found out her father was giving her $20 a month in spending money, violent family fights erupted. Ruth dropped out of college to avoid the thesis company, trauma. She never went back. For a short period after college, Ruth lived at home, had her own car, and own responsibilities for promoting equality and valuing diversity essay worked. On Dell Company! She went to research paper the beach to thesis on dell party each weekend. It was a very pleasant time for her. This is when she met her future husband.
He was handsome and a very sociable person. They had boats, went water skiing, met friends, and had a wonderful time. This is when Ruth had her first experiences with sex. She was 21. Ruth and pmr model Tommy got married when she was 23. According to Ruth, the relationship was perfect in on dell every way. She bought a dress shop and opened her own business.
It was successful. She went to New York a lot to buy clothing for the store, they had affluent friends, had parties, took up flying and boating, and had plenty of money. Life was great. After 15 years of marriage, however, she found out her husband was a “womanizer.” “He was so bad, near the end, he would even ask women on dates with me present”, Ruth said. She still hears stories about his amorous adventures.
He was adulterous during the undergraduate, entire marriage. She became suspicious when her husband started accusing her of on dell, cheating on him. The accusations were so bizarre that she became worried. It reminded her of how her mother treated her. Ruth divorced her husband in theory paper 1980. On Dell Company! She remembers sitting on a step with him and hearing him say: “All these years, I have never wanted to be married to you, but now I do.” It was too late.
This was her fourth disappointment in and oranges life. After the divorce, Ruth sold the dress shop, worked in a variety of temporary jobs and became involved in the local astrology movement. It gave her support and consolation during this period. Four years later, she was “hooked” on the subject and on dell its message and change theory paper went to the annual meetings. She became the thesis on dell, regional coordinator, responsible for legal, several states and on dell eventually coordinated the national meeting.
Ironically, she points out, the conference chairperson’s name was picked out of a hat. Ruth now supports herself as a professional astrologer. She travels a lot, has many friends, and loves teaching the analyse equality, astrology business. She has even skydived. She has never remarried and she says she never will. She has had some dates with men, but they always have problems. She can’t figure it out, she just doesn’t trust them. Major Highlights and Major Dissapointments. Ruth’s recollections of adolescence center on her mother and her disappointments as well as the highlights. Her positive experiences were all adventures. Her trip to Reynolds’s candy store was an adventure.
The time her maternal grandmother took her to Philadelphia to buy clothes was an adventure. The dances and fun for on dell company, her were an expression of independence and excitement. Her disappointments all had a common theme: don’t compete, or you will be disappointed. The garden contest, the cheerleading, and change of honors status hurt her deeply. Theory Paper! The conspiracy of her marriage devastated her. To this day, Ruth will not compete in anything. Ruth stated that she later realized that her mother was a manic-depressive alcoholic. She indicated that when she was an adolescent, she should have confronted her mother sooner. It might have made a difference.
She wonders why she can’t be intimate with men. She considers herself bright, competent in her field, having fun, and, as always, never has any worries about money. She has always made it on on dell her own. Focus Question Results. Stage 1: Trust versus Mistrust. A total of 10 questions cover this stage of development. The first series of questions addressed the issue of the extent of trust in a variety of relationships. Asked when she was an adolescent, did she trust her mother, father, and dissertation assistance friends, Ruth indicated that she trusted her mother because she told the truth, but she could not rely on thesis company her to pmr model essay keep her word. For example, if her mother said she would give her a ride, she would later say no. Ruth could not trust her mother to keep her word. She was ambivalent about on dell company her father.
During adolescence, Ruth trusted her father. For Promoting Equality Diversity Essay! He was smart and gentle, however, later in life she found out he was a womanizer and had rented an thesis on dell company apartment in town as a hideaway from the family fights and apples comparison his adulterous activities. She indicated that his behavior modeled the wrong behavior and led her to make wrong decisions with men. Ruth trusted her female and male friends and especially trusted her own abilities. In responding to questions that attempted to help her articulate her view of her identity as an thesis adolescent, she described her identity as smart and accomplished. She knew she was the “class brain”, but beyond that, at that time, didn’t know what identity was and and oranges comparison “it was not a big deal.” When Ruth was asked what were her expectations of her mother if she asked for thesis on dell, something, she responded: “absolutely no”, but clarified it by stating that her mother typically cooperated with her in, for example, purchasing her prom dress and other items. However, when she began to drive, her mother would give her nothing. Because a child learns about giving through interaction with the mother during this stage (Erickson, 1968: 99), Ruth was asked if, during adolescence, she was a “giving” person, if her personality was altruistic.
She would help with homework, but that was expected. No one got into trouble, so there was no need. In later life Ruth describes herself as a very giving person. With regard to the question concerning the dichotomy between mutual cooperation and trust and isolation, Ruth responded that she did not have problems with her peers, but she did have important friends outside of school and dated older men who were not her schoolmates. The final question in theory paper this stage explored the dimension of time confusion and, as an on dell exploratory question, asked if she had trouble going to sleep at night. She indicated she did not. Stage 2: Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt. Responding in this area, Ruth indicated that she felt affection for her father because of his gentleness as well as affection for honors thesis, her friends. With regard to time, she indicated that she was always punctual, calculated time in her head, and thesis on dell was always organized. Nonetheless, she stated that she “never had a goal in my life.” School was extremely easy and required no planning for essay, homework or special projects.
She managed her adolescence day-by-day, however looked forward to the weekend dances. Her relationship with money has never been an issue. Thesis! She has always earned and saved money, but never got too concerned about it. She tends to give money rather than hoard it. Ruth indicated that she discarded everything. She even did not save her prom flowers. With regard to cooperation, Ruth generally feels that she should do things herself because she can do it faster. She always did the major tasks alone. She would, however, cooperate with peers by starting up a girls baseball team in high school that later turned into undergraduate honors thesis, an intramural team and she wrote and thesis directed plays. And Oranges Comparison! She did get her most respect through cooperation. Ruth indicated that she freely participated in class, but that the teacher never called on her because she knew she knew the answer.
She was always certain she was making the correct decisions and was never ashamed as an adolescent. She was never afraid of being in an exposed or vulnerable situation. With regard to authority, Ruth indicated that she never was defiant of authority, but explained that at the age of 14, she ran away from home for two weeks. She explained that this was not so much defiance, but rather an unwillingness to tolerate her being the subject of constant family fights. When asked if she ever tried to get away with things if she couldn’t get caught, Ruth responded that she would weigh the consequences of company, each action and if she could handle the analyse and valuing, potential consequences, she would do it. Finally, with regard to her perception at the time of adolescence toward her development as an adolescent, she felt at the time that the thesis on dell, other peers were more immature, “silly”, and she looked forward to pmr model letter being 16, then 18 years old. Her perception in later life is that she was behind with regard to on dell company social development.
Stage 3: Initiative v. Guilt. There were only and oranges comparison essay, two questions in this section. Both tested Ruth’s attitude during adolescence about initiative, curiosity, and ambition. On Dell Company! She responded that she not only liked new initiatives, but also created them if they weren’t there. She was very creative and for promoting equality and valuing did not hesitate to embark on new initiatives. She was extremely curious about science and how things worked. She stated that she felt very ambitious about becoming a cheerleader, but did not consider work a result of on dell company, ambition. Work was a necessity.
Ruth indicated that she showed no ambition regarding setting goals, she could handle any opportunity that came along. Stage 4: Industry v. Inferiority. Responses to these questions were uniform. Ruth was an accomplished student. She felt competent, but did not have an overriding need to be praised. She indicated that her mother put her in charge of everything.
With regard to inadequacy, she indicated that she felt the normal sense of periodic inadequacy any girl would feel going through adolescence, but she never had a general feeling of inadequacy. She felt and acted very competently. Stage 5: Identity v. Identity Confusion. When Ruth was an adolescent, she never remembers assessing her strengths or weaknesses. When asked what she wanted to do when she grew up, she responded “everything.” She wanted to dissertation writing go to college, be a biologist, a scientist, even an actress and thesis on dell company adventurer. She said her mother asked her that question and in response to dissertation writing assistance legal how she could do it all, she responded: “I will live long enough to do it all.” Since identity can be found only in interaction with significant others (Muuss, 1996:52), Ruth was asked about the extent of company, her peer group involvement. Analyse Equality And Valuing Essay! She responded that in 8th grade, she interacted extensively, however, when the new girls came in from a nearby town, she began to disassociate with them.
She indicated that all they wanted to do was go steady and on dell company wear makeup and be a “social butterfly.” She said she avoided peer pressure and dated boys outside of school. For Promoting And Valuing Diversity Essay! She did interact extensively with outside friends, but not so much within the school setting. With regard to goals, Ruth repeated that she did not have goals, however, she did want to go to college. She stated that at the time, she never wanted to get married because she could not tell which boy was better than the next. Thesis Company! She wanted independence. She did indicate that she had a relationship with a boy. Essays! They were very close in 7th and 8th grade.
He was shy. Ruth rejected him later because he wouldn’t go to dances. She considered him boring. She lost interest. She was asked if she had something in her life that she was strongly committed to. Something she was willing to company commit to. She stated that “getting ready to writing assistance go to college” was important.
She asked all kinds of on dell, questions about getting there and wanted to go. When asked how she would answer: “Who am I?” when she was an analyse and valuing diversity essay adolescent, she stated that she would say that she was the best in the class, popular, and thesis someone who danced all night, but that was something she never was concerned about. In responding to: “Where are you going?”, she responded: “To college.” She wanted a scientific life, but it didn’t happen. Finally, she responded emphatically that she never was concerned with or pre-occupied with the change theory research, opinion of others. A review of this subject’s lifespan offers an interesting example of on dell company, Erickson’s epigenetic principle of development, which emphasizes the “developmental interaction between maturational advances” (Muuss, 1996:43), that every stage is developmentally related to the previous stage. In each stage, the outcome of the conflict is either positive or negative and becomes the formal, more dominant part of the ego affecting further development through the subsequent stages (Muuss, 1996:46). This case study shows the on dell, possibility that a dystonic outcome in one stage does not automatically distort a subsequent stage, but rather, may manifest its influence as other related parts of identity development begin to form an identity in Stage 5. Comparison Essay! Specifically, a clear outcome of on dell, mistrust in Stage 1 appears, with this case study, to later manifest its dystonic influence during Stage 5 by creating a distancing to undergraduate honors psychology interpersonal relationships thereby causing identity confusion. A discussion of each phase follows.
Stage 1 Discussion. There appears to be a serious absence of trust between mother and daughter. It has been shown that early parental responsiveness in the first year and a half of development provides a foundation on thesis company which children feel their needs will result in pride essays predictable, supportive responses thereby developing trust in their parents and environment (Landry, 2001). The subject’s initial trust of the father that is thesis eroded beginning in own responsibilities equality and valuing diversity essay adolescence creates additional negative underpinnings with interpersonal relationships creating mistrust and distancing beginning in adolescence. As mentioned earlier, this mistrust interferes with the quality of interpersonal reciprocation needed for on dell company, identity formation.
The subject stated she had close relationships with school peers prior to adolescence, but later found friends outside the school environment with older more mature friends. The subject appeared to rationalize her distancing by finding offense to behavior characterized as “wearing make-up”, “going steady”, and “acting silly”, which are typical behaviors associated with exploring intimacy, the very behavior she was avoiding due to the paralysis created by psychology, the mistrust. Stage 2 Discussion. The subject responses showed no overt negative outcomes during this stage. Her sense of company, independence and confidence was extremely high. Analyse And Valuing Diversity! She appeared to have unquestioned trust in thesis on dell herself. Apples And Oranges Comparison Essay! The fact that she took a bus into town at thesis company, 3 years old shows a high level of apples comparison, independence and self-assuredness. She was so sure of herself that she was a substitute teacher when she was in eighth grade. The discussion suggests the possibility that success in this stage created a strong positive outcome in autonomy relegating mistrust solely to external relationships rather than affecting the perception of thesis company, her own ability, but this would require further investigation.
Stage 3 Discussion. Responses with regard to initiative v. Pmr Model Essay Letter! guilt also manifested no dystonic outcomes in on dell company this stage. The subject’s perception of initiative was almost unlimited. Apples And Oranges Essay! The case study, however, did not test any actual pre-adolescent experiences that might have identified issues with role experimentation essential during this period of development. Stage 4 Discussion. With regard to the development of the sense of industry, again, the subject manifested superior mastery of this stage of development. The subject was an accomplished student and showed no indication of inadequacy or inferiority.
Observation suggests that future analysis consider the possibility that this superior level of success was not an company overcompensation for latent issues with mistrust. Stage 5 Discussion. During adolescence, the subject described no signs of analyse equality diversity essay, any identity crisis. Thesis On Dell Company! There is no indication of dissertation legal, conflict with role identity, goal conflict, value conflict, or intimacy conflict resulting from experimentation. Comparing this to James Marcia’s taxonomy of adolescence (Muuss, 1996:59), the subject appears to fit into thesis, the “identity-diffused” conceptual structure because there is no crisis, identity is not a significant issue, and comparison it was not resolved. However, the subject’s commitment to going to thesis on dell company college suggests that a better conceptual fit would be Marcia’s “foreclosure” status that also does not manifest a crisis, but the commitments were embraced without working through fundamental personal questions, values, and choices. Further inquiry concerning the origin of the subject’s desire to go to college may have confirmed an indoctrinated belief. When reviewing this subject’s lifespan development, there is a clear indication that mistrust in the earliest stage of development apportioned to the identity crisis in adolescence an offsetting need to trust in others.
Ironically, this need precipitates a fear of a trusting relationship that paradoxically expresses itself as mistrust (Erickson, 1968:129). Without conflict to confront this dystonic contribution to personality, the subject is foreclosed to any real intimacy, a requirement for dissertation writing assistance, identity achievement. The subject’s lifespan development at the present time appears to fit “stagnation” in Erickson’s 7th Stage, however, with the onset of an on dell company external crisis, like loss of income due to health, the subject may be forced to deal with the symptoms of despair characterized in own responsibilities equality diversity the final stage of development. Intervention, should it be desired or required, might consider establishing a very strict, consistent, and responsive interpersonal relationship aimed at reenacting identity exploration and formation. Thesis Company! This context would establish a structure of trust until the original mistrust could be confronted and ameliorated. This subject has a high degree of personal trust and feeling of own responsibilities diversity essay, competence which would support intervention, however, one would expect that if the personal autonomy is an overcompensation, disillusionment in this area might be expected. The below questions were developed in conjunction with the description of Eric Erickson’s 8 stages of development. The first numeral indicates the stage of development; the second the thesis, question number. 1.1. When you were an adolescent, did you trust your mother?
1.2. When you were an adolescent, did you trust your father? 1.3. Apples! When you were an thesis company adolescent, did you trust your female friends? 1.4. When you were an adolescent, did you trust your male friends? 1.5. Did you trust your own abilities?
1.6. Essays! How do you describe what your identity was as an thesis on dell company adolescent? 1.7. If you requested something from your mother what were your expectations, what type of response did you expect? 1.8. Can you remember during adolescence any examples of apples, “giving” in the altruistic sense, to someone else? 1.9. How do you describe your relationship with peers during adolescence?
Did you trust them? Was there mutual recognition (v. isolation)? 1.10. As an thesis on dell adolescent, did you have trouble going to theory sleep at night? 2.1 As an company adolescent, describe how you felt about honors thesis psychology affection? Time?
Money? 2.2 Did you tend to hoard things or discard them? Did you throw stuff out of car windows? 2.3 When you did projects or other work as an adolescent, did you prefer to thesis company do it by yourself or get help from friends or peers? 2.4 Did you get the most respect through cooperation or insistence? 2.5 In high school, did yhou tend to answer questions freely or wait until you were called on? 2.6 Were you proud of your accomplishments? 2.7 When you made personal decisions, were you certain you were doing the right thing? 2.8 Where there times when you were ashamed as an essay adolencent? 2.9 Were you ever afraid of being in an exposed or vulnerable situation? 2.10 Did you ever try to get away with things if you couldn’t get caught?
2.11 With regard to your progress through adolescence, did you feel you were behind time? Needed more time? 3.1 Did you enjoy and look forward to new initiatives? 3.2 As an adolescent were you curious? Were you ambitious? 4.1 As an adolescent did you seek and company get recognition of work well done? 4.2 Did you have feelings of inadequacy or inferiority?
5.1 When you were an adolescent, did you remember assessing your strengths and weaknesses? 5.2 What did you want to be when you grew up? 5.3 Did you have a lot of and valuing diversity, peer group involvement? 5.4 In adolescence, what were your goals as an adult? 5.5 Did you have a love relationship as a teenager? 5.6 What is so important in your life when you were an adolescent that you are willing to commit to it?
5.7 If I asked you when you were an on dell company adolescent “who am I”, what would you have said? 5.8 If I asked you when you were an adolescent “Where am I going”?, what would you have said? 5.9 As an adolescent, were you pre-occupied with the opinion of pmr model formal, others? Erickson, Erik H., (1968). Identity Youth and Crisis. New York, New York: W.W. Company! Norton Company.
Landry, Susan H., Swank, Paul R., Assel, Mike A., Smith, Karen E., Vellet, Sonya (2001). Theory! Does Early Responsive Parenting Have a Special Importance for Children’s Development or Is consistency Across Early Childhood Necessary? Developmental Psychology, 37, 387-402. Muuss, Rolf E. (1996). Theories of Adolescence (6th ed.).
New York: McGraw-Hill.