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Black Body: Rereading James Baldwin’s “Stranger in writing services the Village” Then the case study for analyst bus began driving into clouds, and between one cloud and the next we caught glimpses of the town below. It was suppertime and the town was a constellation of writing in delhi yellow points. We arrived thirty minutes after leaving that town, which was called Leuk. The train to Leuk had come in from Visp, the train from case interview, Visp had come from Bern, and the train before that was from paper writing in delhi, Zurich, from which I had started out in the afternoon. Three trains, a bus, and write on narrative a short stroll, all of it through beautiful country, and then we reached Leukerbad in darkness. So Leukerbad, not far in terms of absolute distance, was not all that easy to writing, get to. August 2, 2014: it was James Baldwin’s birthday. Questions Interview? Were he alive, he would be turning ninety.

He is one of those people just on paper writing services in delhi, the cusp of escaping the contemporary and slipping into the historical—John Coltrane would have turned eighty-eight this year; Martin Luther King, Jr., would have turned eighty-five—people who could still be with us but who feel, at times, very far away, as though they lived centuries ago. James Baldwin left Paris and came to Leukerbad for step the first time in 1951. His lover Lucien Happersberger’s family had a chalet in a village up in the mountains. And so Baldwin, who was depressed and distracted at research paper writing services in delhi, the time, went, and the village (which is step by step, also called Loeche-les-Bains) proved to paper writing services in delhi, be a refuge for him. His first trip was in by step the summer, and services in delhi lasted two weeks. Business Step? Then he returned, to his own surprise, for two more winters. Research In Delhi? His first novel, “Go Tell It on the Mountain,” found its final form here. Plan? He had struggled with the book for eight years, and he finally finished it in this unlikely retreat.

He wrote something else, too, an research writing services in delhi, essay called “Stranger in the Village”; it was this essay, even more than the novel, that brought me to Leukerbad. “Stranger in the Village” first appeared in Harper’s Magazine in 1953, and then in note on narrative essay the essay collection “Notes of a Native Son,” in 1955. It recounts the experience of paper writing in delhi being black in an all-white village. It begins with a sense of an enzymes, extreme journey, like Charles Darwin’s in the Galapagos or Tete-Michel Kpomassie’s in Greenland. But then it opens out into other concerns and into a different voice, swivelling to look at the American racial situation in writing the nineteen-fifties. The part of the enzymes essay that focusses on in delhi, the Swiss village is both bemused and sorrowful. Baldwin is thesis bridge by span, alert to the absurdity of being a writer from New York who is paper writing services in delhi, considered in some way inferior by Swiss villagers, many of write on narrative whom have never travelled. But, later in the essay, when he writes about race in research paper writing services in delhi America, he is business step by step, not at research writing services in delhi, all bemused. He is angry and prophetic, writing with a hard clarity and carried along by a precipitous eloquence. I took a room at the Hotel Mercure Bristol the thesis bridge by span night I arrived.

I opened the windows to a dark view, but I knew that in the darkness loomed the Daubenhorn mountain. I ran a hot bath and lay neck-deep in the water with my old paperback copy of research writing services “Notes of a Native Son.” The tinny sound from my laptop was Bessie Smith singing “I’m Wild About That Thing,” a filthy blues number and step a masterpiece of plausible deniability: “Don’t hold it baby when I cry / Give me every bit of it, else I’d die / I’m wild about that thing.” She could be singing about research paper services in delhi a trombone. And it was there in short note on narrative essay the bath, with his words and her voice, that I had my body-double moment: here I was in Leukerbad, with Bessie Smith singing across the years from 1929; and I am black like him; and I am slender; and have a gap in my front teeth; and am not especially tall (no, write it: short); and research services am cool on the page and animated in person, except when it is the an essay plan other way around; and I was once a fervid teen-age preacher (Baldwin: “Nothing that has happened to me since equals the power and the glory that I sometimes felt when, in the middle of a sermon, I knew that I was somehow, by some miracle, really carrying, as they said, ‘the Word’—when the church and I were one”); and I, too, left the church; and research paper services in delhi I call New York home even when not living there; and feel myself in all places, from enzymes, New York City to rural Switzerland, the custodian of a black body, and have to find the language for all of what that means to me and to the people who look at me. The ancestor had briefly taken possession of the research paper writing descendant. It was a moment of identification, and in the days that followed that moment was a guide. “From all available evidence no black man had ever set foot in this tiny Swiss village before I came,” Baldwin wrote. But the village has grown considerably since his visits, more than sixty years ago. They’ve seen blacks now; I wasn’t a remarkable sight. There were a few glances at the hotel when I was checking in, and in the fine restaurant just up the road, but there are always glances.

There are glances in Zurich, where I am spending the summer, and plan there are glances in New York City, which has been my home for fourteen years. There are glances all over Europe and in India, and anywhere I go outside Africa. The test is how long the glances last, whether they become stares, with what intent they occur, whether they contain any degree of hostility or mockery, and to what extent connections, money, or mode of research paper writing services in delhi dress shield me in thesis design bridge these situations. To be a stranger is to be looked at, but to be black is to be looked at especially. Research Paper Services? (“The children shout Neger! Neger! as I walk along the streets.”) Leukerbad has changed, but in which way? There were, in enzymes fact, no bands of children on the street, and few children anywhere at all. Paper Writing Services In Delhi? Presumably the children of Leukerbad, like children the write short note on narrative essay world over, were indoors, frowning over paper in delhi computer games, checking Facebook, or watching music videos. Perhaps some of the older folks I saw in the streets were once the very children who had been so surprised by the sight of Baldwin, and about whom, in the essay, he struggles to take a reasonable tone: “In all of this, in which it must be conceded that there was the charm of business genuine wonder and in which there was certainly no element of intentional unkindness, there was yet no suggestion that I was human: I was simply a living wonder.” But now the children or grandchildren of research writing services those children are connected to the world in a different way. Maybe some xenophobia or racism are part of their lives, but part of their lives, too, are Beyonce, Drake, and Meek Mill, the music I hear pulsing from thesis design bridge, Swiss clubs on Friday nights. Baldwin had to bring his records with him in the fifties, like a secret stash of medicine, and he had to haul his phonograph up to Leukerbad, so that the sound of the American blues could keep him connected to a Harlem of the spirit. I listened to some of the same music while I was there, as a way of being with him: Bessie Smith singing “I Need A Little Sugar In My Bowl” (“I need a little sugar in my bowl / I need a little hot dog on my roll”), Fats Waller singing “Your Feet’s Too Big.” I listened to my own playlist as well: Bettye Swann, Billie Holiday, Jean Wells, “Coltrane Plays the Blues,” the Physics, Childish Gambino.

The music you travel with helps you to paper writing services, create your own internal weather. But the world participates, too: when I sat down to lunch at the Romerhof restaurant one afternoon—that day, all the customers and staff were white—the music playing overhead was Whitney Houston’s “I Wanna Dance With Somebody.” History is now and black America. Photograph by Teju Cole. Bridge By Span? At dinner, at a pizzeria, there were glances. Research Paper? A table of British tourists stared at me. But the waitress was part black, and at the hotel one of the staff members at the spa was an older black man. How Do? “People are trapped in history, and history is trapped in them,” Baldwin wrote. But it is also true that the little pieces of history move around at a tremendous speed, settling with a not-always-clear logic, and rarely settling for research services in delhi long. And perhaps more interesting than my not being the only black person in a2 biology enzymes the village is the plain fact that many of the other people I saw were also foreigners. This was the in delhi biggest change of all.

If, back then, the village had a pious and south book essay convalescent air about it, the feel of “a lesser Lourdes,” it is much busier now, packed with visitors from other parts of Switzerland, Germany, France, Italy, and all over writing services Europe, Asia, and the Americas. It has become the most popular thermal resort in the Alps. The municipal baths were full. There are hotels on every street, at every price point, and there are restaurants and luxury-goods shops. If you wish to buy an eye-wateringly costly watch at forty-six hundred feet above sea level, it is now possible to do so.

The better hotels have their own thermal pools. At the business Hotel Mercure Bristol, I took an elevator down to the spa and sat in the dry sauna. A few minutes later, I slipped into the pool and floated outside in research writing in delhi the warm water. Others were there, but not many. A light rain fell.

We were ringed by mountains and held in the immortal blue. In her brilliant “Harlem Is Nowhere,” Sharifa Rhodes-Pitts writes, “In almost every essay James Baldwin wrote about Harlem, there is a moment when he commits a literary sleight-of-hand so particular that, if he’d been an athlete, sportscasters would have codified the maneuver and enzymes named it ‘the Jimmy.’ I think of it in cinematic terms, because its effect reminds me of a technique wherein camera operators pan out by starting with a tight shot and then zoom out to research paper writing, a wide view while the lens remains focused on a point in the distance.” This move, this sudden widening of focus, is present even in write note on narrative essay his essays that are not about paper services in delhi Harlem. In “Stranger in the Village,” there’s a passage about seven pages in where one can feel the rhetoric revving up, as Baldwin prepares to south essay, leave behind the calm, fabular atmosphere of the opening section. Of the villagers, he writes: These people cannot be, from the point of view of power, strangers anywhere in the world; they have made the in delhi modern world, in effect, even if they do not know it. The most illiterate among them is related, in a way I am not, to Dante, Shakespeare, Michelangelo, Aeschylus, Da Vinci, Rembrandt, and Racine; the cathedral at Chartres says something to them which it cannot say to thesis design bridge, me, as indeed would New York’s Empire State Building, should anyone here ever see it. Writing? Out of their hymns and how do you make an essay dances come Beethoven and Bach. Go back a few centuries and they are in paper in delhi their full glory—but I am in Africa, watching the essay conquerors arrive. What is this list about?

Does it truly bother Baldwin that the people of Leukerbad are related, through some faint familiarity, to Chartres? That some distant genetic thread links them to the Beethoven string quartets? After all, as he argues later in the essay, no one can deny the impact “the presence of the Negro has had on the American character.” He understands the truth and the art in Bessie Smith’s work. He does not, and cannot—I want to believe—rate the research paper in delhi blues below Bach. But there was a certain narrowness in received ideas of case study questions black culture in the nineteen-fifties. Research Paper Writing Services In Delhi? In the time since then, there has been enough black cultural achievement from which to compile an all-star team: there’s been Coltrane and Monk and thesis span Miles, and Ella and Billie and Aretha. Toni Morrison, Wole Soyinka, and Derek Walcott happened, as have Audre Lorde, and Chinua Achebe, and Bob Marley. The body was not abandoned for the mind’s sake: Alvin Ailey, Arthur Ashe, and Michael Jordan happened, too. The source of jazz and the blues also gave the research writing services in delhi world hip-hop, Afrobeat, dancehall, and house. And, yes, when James Baldwin died in 1987, he, too, was recognized as an all-star.

Thinking further about the cathedral at Chartres, about the greatness of that achievement and about how, in his view, it included blacks only in the negative, as devils, Baldwin writes that “the American Negro has arrived at his identity by virtue of the an essay absoluteness of his estrangement from his past.” But the distant African past has also become much more available than it was in 1953. It would not occur to me to think that, centuries ago, I was “in Africa, watching the conquerors arrive.” But I suspect that for Baldwin it is, in part, a rhetorical move, a grim cadence on which to end a paragraph. In “A Question of Identity” (another essay collected in “Notes of a Native Son”), he writes, “The truth about that past is not that it is too brief, or too superficial, but only that we, having turned our faces so resolutely away from it, have never demanded from it what it has to give.” The fourteenth-century court artists of Ife made bronze sculptures using a complicated casting process lost to Europe since antiquity, and which was not rediscovered there until the Renaissance. Ife sculptures are equal to writing services in delhi, the works of Ghiberti or Donatello. From their precision and formal sumptuousness we can extrapolate the contours of a great monarchy, a network of sophisticated ateliers, and a cosmopolitan world of trade and knowledge. And it was not only coursework enzymes Ife. All of West Africa was a cultural ferment.

From the egalitarian government of the Igbo to the goldwork of the Ashanti courts, the brass sculpture of Benin, the military achievement of the Mandinka Empire and the musical virtuosi who praised those war heroes, this was a region of the world too deeply invested in art and life to simply be reduced to a caricature of “watching the conquerors arrive.” We know better now. We know it with a stack of corroborating scholarship and we know it implicitly, so that even making a list of the accomplishments feels faintly tedious, and research paper services in delhi is helpful mainly as a counter to Eurocentrism. There’s no world in which I would surrender the intimidating beauty of Yoruba-language poetry for, say, Shakespeare’s sonnets, nor one in which I’d prefer the chamber orchestras of Brandenburg to the koras of an essay Mali. I’m happy to own all of it. This carefree confidence is, in part, the services in delhi gift of time. It is a dividend of the step by step struggle of people from earlier generations. I feel no alienation in paper writing in delhi museums.

But this question of filiation tormented Baldwin considerably. He was sensitive to what was great in world art, and sensitive to plan, his own sense of writing in delhi exclusion from it. He made a similar list in write short on narrative essay the title essay of “Notes of a Native Son” (one begins to feel that lists like this had been flung at him during arguments): “In some subtle way, in a really profound way, I brought to research services, Shakespeare, Bach, Rembrandt, to the Stones of Paris, to the Cathedral at questions, Chartres, and the Empire State Building a special attitude. These were not really my creations, they did not contain my history; I might search them in research paper writing services in delhi vain forever for any reflection of myself. Thesis Design Span By Span? I was an interloper; this was not my heritage.” The lines throb with sadness. What he loves does not love him in return. This is research paper writing services in delhi, where I part ways with Baldwin.

I disagree not with his particular sorrow but with the self-abnegation that pinned him to it. Bach, so profoundly human, is my heritage. Write Note Essay? I am not an interloper when I look at research paper writing, a Rembrandt portrait. Coursework? I care for them more than some white people do, just as some white people care more for aspects of paper services African art than I do. I can oppose white supremacy and still rejoice in Gothic architecture.

In this, I stand with Ralph Ellison: “The values of my own people are neither ‘white’ nor ‘black,’ they are American. Plan By Step? Nor can I see how they could be anything else, since we are people who are involved in the texture of the American experience.” And yet I (born in the United States more than half a century after Baldwin) continue to in delhi, understand, because I have experienced in my own body the undimmed fury he felt about pervasive, limiting racism. In his writing there is a hunger for life, for all of it, and a strong wish to note on narrative essay, not be accounted nothing (a mere nigger, a mere neger ) when he knows himself to be so much. And this “so much” is neither a matter of ego about writing services his writing nor an anxiety about his fame in New York or in Paris. It is plan step by step, about the incontestable fundamentals of a person: pleasure, sorrow, love, humor, and grief, and the complexity of the interior landscape that sustains those feelings. Baldwin was astonished that anyone anywhere should question these fundamentals, thereby burdening him with the supreme waste of time that is racism, let alone so many people in so many places.

This unflagging ability to be shocked rises like steam off his written pages. “The rage of the disesteemed is research in delhi, personally fruitless,” he writes, “but it is case study questions for analyst interview, also absolutely inevitable.” Leukerbad gave Baldwin a way to think about white supremacy from its first principles. It was as though he found it in its simplest form there. The men who suggested that he learn to ski so that they might mock him, the villagers who accused him behind his back of writing services in delhi being a firewood thief, the ones who wished to touch his hair and business step by step suggested that he grow it out and make himself a winter coat, and the children who “having been taught that the devil is a black man, scream in genuine anguish” as he approached: Baldwin saw these as prototypes (preserved like coelacanths) of attitudes that had evolved into the more intimate, intricate, familiar, and obscene American forms of white supremacy that he already knew so well. It is a beautiful village. I liked the mountain air. But when I returned to my room from the thermal baths, or from strolling in the streets with my camera, I read the news online. There I found an unending sequence of crises: in the Middle East, in Africa, in Russia, and everywhere else, really. Writing In Delhi? Pain was general. But within that larger distress was a set of case for analyst linked stories, and thinking about paper services “Stranger in the Village,” thinking with its help, was like injecting a contrast dye into my encounter with the write note essay news. The American police continued shooting unarmed black men, or killing them in other ways. The protests that followed, in black communities, were countered with violence by a police force that is becoming indistinguishable from an invading army.

People began to paper writing services, see a connection between the various events: the business plan step shootings, the fatal choke hold, the stories of who was not given life-saving medication. And black communities were flooded with outrage and writing services in delhi grief. In all of this, a smaller, less significant story (but one that nevertheless signified ), caught my attention. The Mayor of New York and his police chief have a public-policy obsession with cleaning, with cleansing, and a2 biology they decided that arresting members of the dance troupes that perform in moving subway cars is one of the ways to clean up the city. I read the excuses for this becoming a priority: some people fear being seriously injured by an errant kick (it has not happened, but they sure fear it), some people consider it a nuisance, some policymakers believe that going after misdemeanors is a way of research paper writing services in delhi preempting major crimes. And so, to combat this menace of dancers, the case questions police moved in.

They began chasing, and harassing, and handcuffing. The “problem” was dancers, and the dancers were, for the most part, black boys. The newspapers took the services in delhi same tone as the span government: a sniffy dismissal of the performers. And yet these same dancers are a bright spark in the day, a moment of research unregulated beauty, artists with talents unimaginable to their audience. What kind of thinking would consider their abolition an how do plan, improvement in city life? No one considers Halloween trick-or-treaters a public menace. There’s no law enforcement against people selling Girl Scout cookies or against Jehovah’s Witnesses. But the black body comes pre-judged, and as a result it is placed in writing services needless jeopardy. Thesis Design Bridge Span? To be black is to paper writing in delhi, bear the brunt of a2 biology enzymes selective enforcement of the law, and to inhabit a psychic unsteadiness in which there is no guarantee of personal safety.

You are a black body first, before you are a kid walking down the street or a Harvard professor who has misplaced his keys. William Hazlitt, in an 1821 essay entitled “The Indian Jugglers,” wrote words that I think of when I see a great athlete or dancer: “Man, thou art a wonderful animal, and thy ways past finding out! Thou canst do strange things, but thou turnest them to little account!—To conceive of this effort of extraordinary dexterity distracts the services in delhi imagination and makes admiration breathless.” In the presence of the admirable, some are breathless not with admiration but with rage. They object to the presence of the black body (an unarmed boy in bridge span by span a street, a man buying a toy, a dancer in the subway, a bystander) as much as they object to the presence of the services in delhi black mind. And simultaneous with these erasures is the unending collection of profit from black labor.

Throughout the culture, there are imitations of the gait, bearing, and dress of the black body, a vampiric “everything but the burden” co-option of black life. Leukerbad is ringed by business plan by step mountains: the Daubenhorn, the Torrenthorn, the Rinderhorn. A high mountain pass called the Gemmi, another twenty-eight hundred feet above the village, connects the canton of Valais with the Bernese Oberland. In Delhi? Through this landscape—craggy, bare in write on narrative essay places and research services verdant elsewhere, a textbook instance of the sublime—one moves as though through a dream. On Narrative? The Gemmipass is famous for good reason, and Goethe was there, as were Byron, Twain, and Picasso. The pass is mentioned in a Sherlock Holmes adventure, when Holmes crosses it on writing services in delhi, his way to the fateful meeting with Professor Moriarty at Reichenbach Falls. There was bad weather the park book day I went up, rain and fog, but it was good luck, as it meant I was alone on the trails. While there, I remembered a story that Lucien Happersberger told about Baldwin going out on a hike in these mountains. Baldwin had lost his footing during the ascent, and the situation was precarious for research writing services a moment. But Happersberger, who was an experienced climber, reached out a hand, and Baldwin was saved.

It was out of questions for analyst this frightening moment, this appealingly biblical moment, that Baldwin got the title for the book he had been struggling to research in delhi, write: “Go Tell It On the Mountain.” If Leukerbad was his mountain pulpit, the United States was his audience. The remote village gave him a sharper view of what things looked like back home. He was a stranger in Leukerbad, Baldwin wrote, but there was no possibility for blacks to write note on narrative, be strangers in the United States, nor for whites to achieve the fantasy of an all-white America purged of blacks. This fantasy about the disposability of writing services in delhi black life is a constant in American history. It takes a while to understand that this disposability continues. It takes whites a while to understand it; it takes non-black people of color a while to understand it; and it takes some blacks, whether they’ve always lived in the U.S. or are latecomers like myself, weaned elsewhere on other struggles, a while to understand it. American racism has many moving parts, and has had enough centuries in which to write short note essay, evolve an impressive camouflage. It can hoard its malice in great stillness for a long time, all the while pretending to look the other way. Like misogyny, it is research paper services in delhi, atmospheric. Write Short Note On Narrative? You don’t see it at first. But understanding comes. “People who shut their eyes to reality simply invite their own destruction, and anyone who insists on remaining in a state of innocence long after that innocence is dead turns himself into a monster.” The news of the research services in delhi day (old news, but raw as a fresh wound) is that black American life is disposable from the how do you make an essay plan point of writing view of how do you make plan policing, sentencing, economic policy, and countless terrifying forms of paper services disregard.

There is a vivid performance of how do plan innocence, but there’s no actual innocence left. The moral ledger remains so far in the negative that we can’t even get started on paper writing in delhi, the question of reparations. Baldwin wrote “Stranger in the Village” more than sixty years ago. Now what? Teju Cole is the author of four books, including the novel “Open City” and the essay collection “Known and Strange Things.” His newest book is questions, “Blind Spot.”

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Marketing Paper – MAC Cosmetics – Product #038; Place Strategy. Paper #2 – Product Survey. Founded by Frank Toskan of Canada in 1984, Makeup Art Cosmetics company is one of the few companies which has used innovative PR and unconventional marketing to create a niche for itself without spending millions of pounds in paper writing services in delhi, advertising. The company began by giving away their cosmetics to makeup artists that worked with top models and actresses. MAC developed products that helped artists achieve the right look for stage lighting conditions. It is one of the few brands on the market which has colours to match every skin tone and colour.

Working on essay, a simple all encompassing Brand Positioning of Makeup for All ages, all races, all sexes, its brand values project MAC Makeup as attitudinally hip, artfully irreverent, dedicated fully to the art of self-decoration and the realization of the Individual. The brand personality is cosmopolitan, innovative, irreverent, Original, which has almost created a Cult like following. Research Paper Writing In Delhi. Loved by south book women of all ages, it is one of the paper services, few fashion brands which truly transcend age. (Viral Marketing, November 9, 2007). Plan Step. MAC fits into the classification of consumer products known as “shopping products”. A shopping product is research writing services usually more expensive than a convenience product and is found in fewer stores. Consumers usually buy a shopping product only after comparing several brands or stores on style, practicality, price and south park book essay lifestyle compar-ability. Need essay sample on Marketing Paper – MAC Cosmetics – Product #038; Place Strategy ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. They are willing to invest some effort into this process to get the desired benefits.

There are two types of shopping products: homogenous and research paper writing services in delhi heterogeneous. MAC is book essay a perceived as a heterogeneous product because consumers perceive it as being essentially different – for research services, example, furniture, housing, clothing and universities. ( MKTG 200 – Student Edition, 2013. Lamb/Hair/McDaniel) As one of the 25 individual cosmetic brands that are owned by business Estee Lauder cosmetics, MAC varies in use and performance and paper meets the needs of specific market of a2 biology coursework women with its products. (MKTG 200 – Student Edition, 2013. Lamb/Hair/McDaneil). From the very beginning the marketing strategy was to created makeup for makeup artists for fashion, movies and theatre. Research Paper In Delhi. Endorsement through word of mouth was generated by giving away cosmetics to makeup artists who worked with top models and actresses in the early years of the Franks venture.

The early adopters are still what gives MAC its solid foundation in the industry. As well over essay, the years, MAC has built a reputation for paper services, itself by unconventional and innovative marketing, breaking away from the safe and obvious. This is design bridge by span where they captured the research, industry professional as well as the upwardly mobile woman who loves fashion and looking good. Through the maturity stage, MAC has transitions beautifully and write note essay marketing its brand where it is accepted and loved by women from all social and research paper economic classes. They have a keen sensitivity to pop culture and helps to guide what they do. Since its philosophy is to create makeup for questions, all ages, sexes and races, it has never shied away from affiliations with controversial artists and personalities that are known the paper in delhi, world over (Love to Know Makeup. Michalak, Jodie. www.lovetoknowmakeup.com). MAC is how do you make an essay plan currently in its maturity stage.

It is a well received brand that is writing in delhi currently expanding its product presence into other countries outside of the United States. Many of step by step these countries are impoverished, such as Nigeria, but it has not stopped MAC from going against what is considered to be normal to create new clients and expand its market. Research Paper Writing In Delhi. Because the note, North America market has been struggling, they felt it was wise to take chance out of the writing services in delhi, country to write essay capture new markets (Coleman-Lochner, Lauren. 2013). Paper #3 – Place Strategy. Place, or distribution, strategies are concerned with making products availanle when and where customers want them. A part of this P – place – is physical distribution, which involves all the business activities concerned with storing and transporting raw materials or finished products. The goal is to make sure products arrive in research paper, usable condition at designated places when needed. (MKTG 200 – Student Edition, 2013. South. Lamb/Hair/McDaniel). MAC uses distinct placement strategies to distribute its product.

MAC Cosmetics intensive distribution takes place at mainly all MAC Pro stores, major department stores or international perfumeries, (Nordstorm’s, Dillard’s, Macy’s, Bloomingdales, Neiman Marcus). This allows them maximum coverage and research paper services in delhi keeps the product available in every outlet where the potential customers might want to buy it. If buyers are unwilling to write short note on narrative search for a product, it’s very accessible. They accomplished this by placing it in the types of stores that their target market frequents. (MKTG 200 – Student Edition, 2013. Lamb/Hair/McDaniel). The only difference between the MAC Pro Stores and the department store counters is the variety of products that are available. Because MAC was first created to cater to the needs of the make-up industry professionals, it’s lines within the PRO stores cater to those needs. There you will find, pigments, palettes, some primers, air brush machines along with old and new limited edition items that are specific to their store and will not be found at the department store counters. This is the research paper writing services, only distribution that MAC uses. How Do An Essay Plan. They do not use wholesalers, and services although many inquire about becoming a wholesalers, they currently only use the aforementioned type of design bridge by span placement for their products. ( MAC Cosmetics Frequently Asked Questions. www.maccosmetics.com) The retail classifications that MAC uses are department and specialty stores.

The department stores carry a wide variety of shopping and specialty goods, including apparel, cosmetics, housewares, electronics and sometime furniture. Research Paper Writing. Macy’s, Nordstrom’s, Neiman Marcus, and some of the larger US department stores that carry MAC. On an how do you make international level they are carried in perfumeries. Paper Services. (McKelney, Lauren. www.wordpress.com, April 30, 2012. An Essay Plan. MAC Promotion Proposal) (MKTG – 200, 2013. Student Edition. Lamb/Hair/McDaniel) After much research I was unable to research writing services in delhi find the shipping information for MAC. I do know that currently they are unable to you make an essay plan ship cosmetics out research paper writing in delhi, of the United States to foreign countries and a2 biology coursework they ask that clients go to the stores nearest to them in services, their country. Outside of the stores, MAC has a strong on-line presence with clients purchasing products. You can ship same day, next day, two day or just standard mail which takes up to 5-7 business days.

These products are all shipped within the US. The cost of the shipping depends on how soon you want your product to arrive and can range in price from how do you make an essay plan, $5.00 to $17.00 for product ranging in price from $0-$50 USA dollars. A standard package over research writing, $50 US dollars is note on narrative free and research paper writing services is minimal cost for short essay, same and next day service. (MAC Cosmetics. Shipping Handling Fee, 2013. www.maccosmetics.com) MAC ‘s distribution process has worked very well for paper writing services, the company over its 29 year existence. South. Customer service is there #1 concern, and not just selling the products to women, but making sure they. know how to confidently wear them, and wear them well.

The make-up artist at the counter is their most valuable asset, the president of the company will brag. It is there one on paper writing in delhi, one approach to the customer that has made it a company that is demanding to be noticed both in and out of the United States. (Estee Lauder News. Company Newsletter, 2013. www.esteelaudernews.com) 1. McKelney, Lauren. www.wordpress.com. April 30, 2012.

MAC Promotion Proposal. How Do Plan. 2. Belacel, Amel. ISSUU. MAC Cosmetics Brand Analysis. 3. Viral Marketing. Paper Writing Services In Delhi. www.viralmarketing.com. November 9, 2007 4. You Make An Essay Plan. MKTG 200. Student Edition, 2013. Lamb/Hair/McDaniel. Page 214, 234-235. 5. Michalak, Jody.

Love to Know Makeup (website) Company History MAC Cosmetics. 6. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. MAC Cosmetics. 7. Coleman-Lochner, Lauren. (March 21, 2013) Bloomberg Businessweek. With MAC, Estee Lauder Enters Emerging Markets 8. Estee Lauder News, 2013. Company Newsletter. www.esteelauder.com. MKTG 200 – Papers 2 3. Professor Rich Lewis. September 24, 2013.

1. MAC is research writing services in delhi sold in 66 countries across the globe in 1000 outlets. 2. MAC’s founder says “I don’t have the book essay, luxury of communicating with my clients, so therefore my salespeople are the link between my philosophy and their customers.” This is the reason why MAC assistants on shop counters are trained to advice customers on makeup techniques, formulas, and latest trends. 3. MAC is present in 53 stores across UK out of which 8 are MAC’s flagship stores proving the fact that the writing in delhi, brand pull is design bridge so strong that consumers. flock these few stores to buy MAC cosmetics giving it a cult like following. So when a mass market brand like L’Oreal or a premium brand like Clinique spend millions on advertising, a brand like MAC does it all by inspiring its stakeholders in non intrusive and subtle ways without spending a fortune on advertising. In 1994 MAC started retail industry’s first charity called MAC AIDS fund. In 1994, Mac was one of the first to bring charity to retail sector.

They started MAC AIDS fund for men, women and children affected by AIDS. The same year they launched VIVA GLAM lipstick. MAC decided that every cent of the selling price of the VIVA GLAM lipsticks would go to the M·A·C AIDS Fund. VIVA GLAM’s first lipstick was red in colour which symbolizes the writing, fight against AIDS/HIV throughout the world. With a total of six shades of Viva Glam lipstick and two shades of Viva Glam ‘lipglass’ now sold worldwide, and through the write short on narrative essay, annual Kids Helping Kids Card Program, M·A·C Cosmetics has provided over $95 million (US) to date for services in delhi, the M·A·C AIDS Fund.

MAC pays for the ads and its production, the packaging, the shipping and of course their lost profit margin out of their own pocket. It worked wonders for the MAC brand as the short on narrative, offer was refreshingly straightforward “Every cent of the selling price of MAC Viva Glam Lipstick and Lipglass is donated to the MAC AIDs Fund to support men, women and children living with HIV and AIDs.” MAC holds Viva Glam gala and fundraiser annually to raise funds for its charity and VIVA GLAM lipstick has become one of the fashion world’s most glamorous and successful fundraising initiatives of research services all time. From the beginning the brand has targeted the premium segments with its pricing. Regular introduction of new trendsetting ranges and colours kept the excitement alive like the latest one is a2 biology enzymes ‘Antiquitease’ inspired by antique look. MAC has done some Periodic ads featuring unlikely celebrities such as flamboyant entertainer RuPaul and Elton John. Writing Services. In 1995,RuPaul was signed to a modelling contract for MAC cosmetics, making him the first drag queen supermodel.

M.A.C has never shied away from affiliations with controversial artists. PR strategies used by thesis span MAC: Apart from traditional media, MAC regularly gives out new launched products to research paper writing services in delhi be reviewed by design various beauty websites and beauty blog owners which is one very powerful SEO tool and increase the credibility of the brand. Paper Writing Services. A few examples are as below: Off late MAC has started heavy usage of questions PPC advertising. Search for cosmetics or any beauty related term on the Internet and you can see MAC all over the Internet. Marketing Tactics used by research paper writing MAC over time:

1. Business. Halloween: 25 different looks for Halloween—from ghoulish to feminine to downright scary— highlighted on its Web site,Maccosmetics.com and at all M.A.C. counters. 2. Writing. Back to MAC: “Because we share your commitment to the environment, M·A·C accepts returns of its primary packaging through the Back to M·A·C Program. By returning six M·A·C primary packaging containers to a M·A·C counter or M·A·C Cosmetics Online, you receive a free M·A·C Lipstick of your choice as our thanks to you. 3. Barbie colours cosmetics line of cosmetics: MAC has teamed up with Mattel to launch a Barbie line. The line is intended for adults, and study questions comes with its own limited-edition MAC-themed Barbie doll. 4. Temporary websites dedicated to in delhi a particular new launch like http://www.barbielovesmac.com/

5. BoomBox – BoomBox is London’s first free for all Fashion Club in East London. BoomBox isn’t serious, posey or full of egos; it’s fun, inclusive and unpretentious club unlike fashion which is meant to be exclusive. Coursework. The fashion ethos at BoomBox is simple: if all else is writing luxury brands, don’t try and compete – be different, be brilliant on your own terms, create something out of nothing and feed off the sense of community surrounding you. Its frequented by fashion celebrities and is said to have revived London’s fashion scene and London Fashion Week. MAC has tied up with it in smart way by selling MAC and BoomBox co-branded T-Shirts. Team 4: MAC Cosmetics. MDSE 3850 Promotion of Apparel and Home Furnishings. Promotion Campaign Report. 1. Executive Summary: This promotion plan for MAC Cosmetics seeks to improve the how do an essay, innovative promotions that MAC is paper writing services already implementing and add new ideas to the mix. The overall goal of the plan is to get MAC to its full potential through the south park book, use of fresh advertising and marketing techniques that will fully showcase the company’s many unseen strengths.

The MAC brand has many different opportunities in its current field and target market and can be further pushed to its entire capability to achieve a wider range of research paper services consumers. Other opportunities for MAC include using new forms of advertising to reach new cohorts of thesis design bridge span by span consumers, showing how MAC can transition from a daytime look to a nighttime look, and, of research services in delhi course, implementing most of MAC’s current promotions in a new and improved way. MAC’s new promotion plan will use its current strengths to thesis by span its advantage and help redirect the paper writing services in delhi, brand so the strengths do not pose any sort of threat to its overall success. MAC’s competitors range from drug store makeup brands to higher end, more luxurious brands. MAC’s position relative to for analyst its competitors is extremely important to research writing the future of the company and how do an essay plan its promotions. MAC has always been seen as a more expensive and more avant-garde brand. Research Paper. Through this new promotion plan, the company will be repositioned to reach more consumers that might have been scared to try MAC products due to its perceived extravagance. Thesis Design Bridge. The target market for MAC Cosmetics will experience some changes with this new promotion plan as we strive to include a more conservative, mature consumer.

While redirecting this brand, the research paper writing services, plan will work to thesis design keep the original target market by research writing services simply using tactics to appeal to a broader range of individuals. You Make. The new promotion plan for paper writing services in delhi, MAC will focus on print advertising, direct mail, and interactive advertising. The plan is to focus on a2 biology, MAC’s current promotions and further develop these ideas into successful marketing tactics. Research Paper Writing Services. This new plan will add a new look to the print advertisements that MAC is already executing, send out direct mail-outs to business step by step customers to develop more brand loyalty and appeal to new consumers, and introduce the concept of interactive media to the brand through smart phone applications, interactive store kiosks, and mall events. 2. Preliminary Research: 2.1 Current Marketing Plan. Frank Toskan founded MAC Cosmetics in 1984 (“The MAC Cosmetic,” 2007). He was a photographer from Canada who wanted to invent a cosmetic product that was more artistic and achieved the right look for stage lighting conditions. The cosmetics company is one of the few brands on the market that has colors for all skin tones.

MAC has created over 160 lipsticks and 150 eye shadows to date, while also creating limited edition lines (“The History behind,” 2006). According to research paper services in delhi Viral Marketing “The Brand personality is cosmopolitan, innovative, irreverent, original, which has almost created a Cult like following. Loved by women of all ages, it is one of the few fashion brands which truly transcend age (“The MAC Cosmetic,” 2007).” MAC’s current promotion plan is to thesis design by span portray this personality to their niche market through word of mouth, which Toskan did so by giving the products to writing in delhi top notch make up artist who work with models and actresses. Through this MAC has built a well-known reputation for itself with using very little advertising. In 1994, once MAC’s name had become better known, MAC started a new charitable promotion plan, the MAC AIDS Fund. Thesis Design. MAC was on writing services in delhi, of the first to bring charity to the retail sector.

MAC started this with their new line VIVA LA GLAM, which was a lipstick where every cent went towards men, women and children fighting against AIDS. The first lipstick was the color red, which symbolizes the fight against AIDS throughout the world. Step. MAC has always used celebrity endorsements to advertise for research writing services, VIVA LA GLAM. Currently they have been using Lady GAGA for their advertisement, GAGA is a women who has struggled with her sexuality, hence why she is the perfect person to thesis design represent for research paper writing in delhi, the MAC AIDS Fund. MAC has provided $128 million dollars towards the case questions for analyst, MAC AIDS Fund, while paying for their own advertisements, packaging, and shipping out of their own pocket (“The History behind,” 2006). MAC also gives back to the community by being environmentally friendly through their BACK 2 MAC campaign. Research Paper Services In Delhi. The BACK 2 MAC campaign helps the write note on narrative, environment by encouraging consumers to recycle their old cosmetic containers. When a consumer returns six of their old MAC containers they will receive a free lipstick of their choice.

The BACK 2 MAC campaign is not only helping out the environment but also giving their customers an opportunity to try out a product that they might not necessarily buy with their own money. MAC is sold in 66 countries around the world and in 1,000 outlets (“The MAC Cosmetic,” 2007). MAC is writing considered a high quality cosmetic company, selling their products in how do you make plan, a higher price range. With their average pricing ranging anywhere from fifteen to twenty dollars for their basic make up, and for a more high end products it can price much more than that. MAC products are often sold in more high-end malls generally having their own stores. If you were to see MAC in paper services, a department store it would be a more luxurious department store such as Nordstrom and Dillard’s.

2.2 Target Market Analysis. Since MAC was founded as a product made for an artistic community based off of stage lighting, it is thesis bridge span geared towards more of a niche market segment. MAC is research paper a cosmetic company meant for all ages, sexes, and book races. Research In Delhi. But when said that it is meant towards all ages, sexes, and races it is not always meant for your average everyday makeup. On Narrative. It is targeted to the more artistic person, who is daring to be different and research writing services innovative. As stated earlier in the paper, MAC is a more “cult” like culture. Their products are more vibrant and out there, which is meant for a very small segment in the cosmetics market. MAC doesn’t attract the consumer who is looking for cosmetics that they could wear to work or school, they attract the case questions interview, consumer who is artistic and paper independent in business step by step, their life style. While MAC does have it’s charitable organizations through MAC AIDS Fund and BACK 2 MAC to draw in writing services in delhi, consumers who are willing to write short essay give back to their community while also doing something for themselves. MAC doesn’t advertise these organizations well enough to bring in new consumers who are looking for a cosmetic company who gives back, it is more known to writing services their already existing consumers and that is what MAC wants to achieve through this promotional campaign, to broaden MAC’s customers.

They have a strong customer loyalty through their existing consumers, but MAC needs to draw in new consumers. The way to do this is to change their promotional strategies and use more than just word-of-mouth. 3. Situational Analysis. 3.1 Internal Factors. MAC’s current promotion campaign consists of for analyst interview word-of-mouth, magazine ads, online videos, celebrity endorsement and partnerships with other brands. ”M.A.C spends merely $7,795.8M on advertisement each year, which is nothing compared to what other cosmetic companies spend for advertisement, estimated at 2.7 billion yearly (Lootawan, 2010).” MAC relies on word-of-mouth and letting loyal consumers spread their love of paper writing services MAC Cosmetics. “M.A.C word-of-mouth promotional strategy helps M.A.C cosmetics promote itself by “letting the brand speak for itself. This particular strategy has been used by M.A.C since it was first introduced to famous celebrities, which allowed M.A.C to be exposed to a2 biology coursework the public and become one of the most famous cosmetic lines today (Lootawan, 2010).” MAC uses celebrity endorsements in paper writing services, almost all of their magazine advertisements. “M.A.C is well-known because of the celebrity exposure it gets from high rank clientele.” Some of park book MAC’s current celebrity endorsements include Lady Gaga, Boy George, Fergie, Cyndi Lauper and many more (Celebrity Endorsement Ads, 2011).

MAC is very successful at promoting its cosmetics through social media like Facebook, Twitter and Youtube. MAC currently has 2,420,685 Facebook likes and 57,535 Twitter followers (Fan Page List, 2011). MAC Cosmetics Youtube channel consists of promotional videos featuring celebrities as well as how to writing services in delhi videos from MAC makeup artists (MAC Cosmetic’s Channel, 2011). How Do An Essay Plan. MAC has also had successful promotions through creating product partnerships with other brands such as. Hello Kitty, Barbie, Wonder Woman, Lilly Pulitzer and Alice + Olivia (Temptalia, 2010). Research Paper Writing In Delhi. SWOT Analysis. MACS current promotion campaign VIVA GLAM has helped MAC AIDS fund raise 202 million dollars since 1994.

MAC promotes its products to all ages, sexes and races by using endorsements from different celebrities like Lady Gaga, Boy George, Lil Kim, Pamela Anderson, Johnny Weir, Missy Elliot, Fergie and many more. MAC has made itself really well known by using bright flashy advertisements. MAC currently has 2,420,685 Facebook likes and 57,535 Twitter followers (Fan Page List, 2011). WEAKNESSES: MAC only case study interview, advertises their products online and with magazine ads, not utilizing other forms of promotion. MAC primarily uses extreme makeup in their advertisements, which doesn’t attract a broad audience of people. Research Services. MAC doesn’t promote their BACK 2 MAC recycling program very well and many consumers don’t know what it is. Design Bridge Span By Span. MAC primarily focuses their promotions on research, their VIVA GLAM line of products and essay not all of the other lines they carry. OPPORTUNITIES:

By using other forms of advertising, such as direct mail, kiosks and a phone application MAC will reach more consumers. By informing consumers about the BACK 2 MAC program MAC will recycle more used containers and get more consumers shopping in their stores. By showing advertisements with day time makeup looks MAC will attract more conservative women who want to research paper services in delhi wear their makeup to work and out at night. By using other celebrities like Jennifer Aniston who aren’t as flashy as MACS current endorsers MAC will attract the park, consumer who wants to wear her makeup a little more modestly. THREATS:

By using multiple advertising outlets MAC could possibly over paper, saturate their consumers with too many advertisements. By showing how MAC makeup can be used for daytime looks consumers may too closely compare MAC to other makeup brands such as Covergirl and write short on narrative essay Clinique. By providing direct mail coupons customers may only buy MAC products with coupons or during sales promotions and not at full price, which could cost MAC some revenue. While giving free samples and complementary makeovers will draw consumers into MAC they may just take what is free and not make any purchases, loosing revenue for MAC.SWOT Analysis 3.2 External Factors. 3.2.1.1 General Dynamics.

MAC is known for taking a bold approach to cosmetics and not being timid by what the standard is to achieve beauty. They were founded as a cosmetic line for artists and that still stays true today. The company’s dynamic reflects a daring side to cosmetics and allows make-up artists to be free of creativity and ideas. MAC has been very successful in paper writing services in delhi, producing a quality brand but with such an extreme dynamic look it can shy off the everyday consumer. The industry of study cosmetics is research services various in all different types of products while marketing to all different types of consumers. Instead of you make an essay plan taking the paper writing, “matchy-matchy” approach that most cosmetic company’s do with matching the write short note on narrative, right eye shadow with the appropriate eye color, MAC used a more untraditional route (Harris, 2011). 3.2.1.2 Consumer Behavior. This industry is all about enhancing and paper writing in delhi beauty with products that make the skin more even, the eyes more radiant and the lips more luscious.

Although MAC offers products that do what all the traditional make up lines do, MAC takes the meaning of beauty and mixes it with art. By Span. They advertise these traditional products in writing services in delhi, a unique way by favoring the art side by adding words like “studio” and “glamour” into their product names (Harris, 2011). Although MAC has a solid product it is seen that a softer approach would be in their benefit. An Essay. A softer approach will draw in the everyday consumer instead of research writing services having the feeling of intimidation. The consumer demands that their cosmetics boost their self-esteem and by span enhance their feature to research help them feel more beautiful.

In the narrow product category of art make up there are changes that could be an advantage to note essay companies with this category. When advertising art make up it creates a very small target market and can eliminate possible sales. MAC should try and shy away from a narrow market and market to a more general audience. Instead of services using gallant ad campaigns with bold celebrities, maybe consider putting an average consumer in south park essay, an ad to paper show the versatility of the products (Irosado, 2009).

As it could appear MAC could use different promotion strategies to achieve this goal of relating more to case study interview the traditional consumer. The promotions that they have now are good ideas but not implemented well enough to increase revenue. Research In Delhi. 3.2.2 Competitors. The competitive situation of MAC is that they are limiting themselves and not using all the resources, opportunities, and marketing strategies to the best of the company’s ability. The competitors are higher priced cosmetics that are also known for study for analyst, a great quality and have the approachableness that MAC does not. Because this industry will always be in high demand and new products are coming out daily to fix the new thing that has become ugly, this segment is very competitive. MAC’s competitors are doing well but may be looking for a change as well. 4. Communication Process. 4.1 Promotional Objectives.

The overall goal of the promotion objectives is to increase revenue by expanding the current target market while reaching out to services in delhi a new consumer with new marketing tactics. The promotional campaign intends to add marketing by adding social media, interactive advertising, and connecting with the everyday consumer more efficiently. The goal is by the end of 2012 MAC has executed all the marketing efforts that are being created with this plan and to see results and feedback by the end of 2012. Park Essay. The plan is to execute brand awareness by research services the consumer of all the south book, current promotion strategies like Back 2 MAC, AIDS charity, and the makeovers offered with a product purchase of fifty dollars. To implement this plan MAC must first launch the new print ads and to send out the paper writing services in delhi, direct mail created to highlight these promotions. The rest of the promotion mixes will begin and to start measuring results. Results could vary by seeing if there are more conservative women walking in asking about the products to an increase in consumer wanting to use the back to MAC to coursework enzymes their advantage.

We plan to research writing services benchmark our performance by comparing sales to previous years and study for analyst seeing how he consumers respond to all the new marketing efforts. It is research writing services possible to achieve this in various ways with the promotion plan. Coursework Enzymes. Measurements will be taken with how many consumers come in talking about or using the direct mail to their advantage. By benchmarking the progress MAC is able to measure the results in research, an accurate way and park essay see tangible improvement. 4.2 Positioning Strategy. The MAC Cosmetics brand was founded with the intentions to research paper writing market towards makeup artists in the fashion, theatre, and movie industries (“The MAC Cosmetics Story,” 2007). In more recent years MAC has expanded to more of a mass market but still focuses on the original extravagance and innovative looks that it began with. MAC has generally focused on a price-quality positioning strategy. Through this strategy, MAC keeps product prices in a higher range to highlight the short on narrative, superior quality that the products offered are believed to possess (Roy, 2010). Writing. Although this positioning strategy seems to work well with MAC’s minimal marketing and advertising strategy that depends widely on word-of-mouth communication, there are some changes that would greatly increase the success that MAC is already experiencing. If MAC were to change their positioning strategy to focus not only on its products’ superior quality through higher prices, but also on the many features and benefits offered, the company would be much more well-known and successful (Roy, 2010).

With the use of positioning strategies that showcase product features and benefits, there will be much less dependence on word-of-mouth since consumers will already be aware of the many wonderful programs and special features that MAC has to offer. Through MAC’s many unique aspects and new promotion mix ideas, the company will be much more apparent and appealing in write, the consumer’s mind. Instead of just hearing about how great MAC’s makeup products are, the consumer will actually be able to see, through increased promotion efforts and unique advertising, how MAC truly is paper writing services in delhi superior in product quality, despite its higher prices. Case Study Questions For Analyst Interview. The repositioning of MAC will also focus on making the writing in delhi, brand appeal to a broader market by you make an essay plan showing how the products offered can be worn as day-to-day makeup and do not always have to be seen as extravagant. There are several possible risks involved with changing MAC’s positioning strategy and pushing it to appeal to a more conservative consumer. Research Paper Services. As the brand seems to go more mainstream and become more visible to the public eye, it could lose some support from its original market. The new positioning strategy must take precautions as to not lose the thesis bridge, original market by keeping MAC’s initial image in tact by simply featuring what MAC already has to offer in new and innovative ways.

This shift of positioning strategy to highlight MAC’s best product features and benefits is the best move for MAC to become more prominent in the cosmetic market and is necessary for the growing success of the brand. Writing In Delhi. The MAC brand has typically been positioned as a more expensive and extremely avant-garde cosmetic company in relation to its competitors. Some of the main competitors that MAC faces include Sephora, Urban Decay, Lancome, and many others that are featured in the positioning map below (“JGlamour Makeup Brushes,” 2009). Currently MAC. seems to fall in short note on narrative, the higher end as far as pricing goes and extremely avant-garde in style (Belacel, 2010). The consumer has generally seen MAC products as too extravagant and paper in delhi too innovative when it comes to style, colors, and the overall look the makeup usually is shown to create. With new positioning strategies in place, the MAC brand will seek to appeal to more conservative consumers by showing the market the wide range of looks MAC makeup products are capable of without losing the original market’s interest. The shift in positioning strategies will leave MAC in the same place as far as quality and price go in relation to competitors, but will attempt to cover a wider range of styles to appeal to a wider range of consumers while still maintaining the edgy extravagance that captured the thesis bridge, loyalty of the original market. 4.2.2 Target Market.

MAC will continue to target towards their current market along with expanding into a new market. Paper Writing. The target consumer for study for analyst, the new MAC promotion campaign is the female of all races within Generation X. The target consumer ages between 30 and 50, born between 1961 and 1981 and research paper services in delhi estimated at 50 million (Dawson, 2011). These individuals grew up in tough economic times mainly in two-income families. However, during the Gen Xers childhood, parents started to divorce and the women of the household began to join the workforce. Given that, Gen Xers have put more effort into their families thus succeeding in keeping them together. Seventy-one percent of business plan step by step Gen Xers have children, and writing have developed a middle ground into how they have chosen to raise them (Dawson, 2011). As parents, this generation is highly involved in coursework, their children’s lives and over 80% expect their children to earn at research paper writing services in delhi, least a baccalaureate degree (Dawson, 2011). The shift in economy has converted from manufacturing to servicing, which gave Gen Xers the ability to adapt to changes and study for analyst interview integrate new technologies.

Technology has been incorporated into their lives since their youth. This generation is comfortable using PDAs, cell phones, e-mail, laptops, Blackberrys and other technology employed in the legal workplace (Kane, n.d.). The Gen Xers have adapted into research writing services independent, resourceful and self-sufficient individuals. Gen Xers are a rather educated and sophisticated group, more than 60% of the population has attended higher education institutions (Lyon, 2010). Gen Xers are very determined and enthusiastic about learning new trades and skills. The mentality of write short on narrative essay this generation is much different than other generations, they work to research writing in delhi live rather than live to bridge span by span work. These work hard, play hard individuals usually complete tasks within workplace single-handedly. While 60% of the current workforce is paper writing in delhi occupied by study for analyst interview this generation (Collier, 2009), they are seen as devoting long hours to their careers and continuing their education. Within Gen X’s population, 86% is services employed, 70% devote 40 or more hours to work each week and those with a doctorate or professional degree devote 50 or more hours;

79% of the Gen X women work (Dawson, 2011). Gen Xers posses an entrepreneurial spirit with immense leadership qualities. A2 Biology Enzymes. Already in CEO or management positions within financial services, communications and retail, these individuals are seen to be in the best position within the job market and will inherit Baby Boomers positions once they retire. Research Writing Services In Delhi. In 2005, the wealthy members of a2 biology coursework Gen X have an writing in delhi average income of $213,000 and spend 18% or more than Baby Boomers (20%) on luxury goods (American Express, 2005). Studies have shown that 70% of women won’t leave the house without applying something to her face, with 68% saying cosmetics make them feel more confident (Douglas, 2010). Generation X spends an average of $3,235 a year on you make plan, fragrance, cosmetics and beauty products, 60% more than Baby Boomers (American Express, 2005).

Pam Danziger, founder of Unity Marketing explains, “Marketers tend to think of the Gen Xers as a cohort too small to even worry about, but this research shows that Gen X may be small in size but they are mighty in luxury buying power,” therefore “ they are in a more youthful life stage and are accumulating a lot of big material goods… influence is destined to paper writing services in delhi grow even more in the luxury market in the future…” (American Express, 2005). Plan. Moreover, the affluent Gen Xers earn an average of research paper writing services in delhi $152,500 per write short note on narrative year (American Express, 2005). In general, Gen Xers are luxury consumers and indulge in luxury experiences, yet the wealthy spends about three times more than the affluent. Differences amongst the purchase behavior of the two social classes are that the affluent like to find deals on luxury goods with the sense of being a smart shopper. Luxury goods entice Gen Xers, they take value and quality into consideration first rather than the latest trend. They’re extremely skeptical when it comes to advertisements, flashiness does not attract them into making a purchase. As the Internet emerged into research writing in delhi the Gen Xers society they became the first mass-media generation. The Nielson Company has averaged in 2009 that global consumers spent more than 5.5 hours on south book, social networking sites with Generation X being one of the main users (Porterfield, 2010). Adults ages 30 and over are involved in research paper in delhi, social networking at 40% much less when compared to 72% of coursework young adults.

Gen X moms favor Facebook while 44% use social media for word-of-mouth recommendations on paper writing, brands and products along with 73% feel they find trustworthy information about products and services through niche online communities (Porterfield, 2010). Park Book Essay. Two-thirds of Facebook moms are a fan of one company or brand therefore Facebook is a fertile ground for marketers to engage mothers and drive sales (Porterfield, 2010). Traditional media referencing TV, Internet, Newspapers, Magazines and cell phones reach 46% to 86% of Generation X (Continuum Crew, 2010 ). Moms within Gen X use the Internet for research services, purchases, online research, sales sites and Groupon, which are amongst the most popular methods used to find great deals. Plan. Over half of these tech-savvy consumers own a Smartphone in which generates research and shopping. Application downloads on Smartphones have increased, users spend roughly 80 minutes per day using apps and download at minimum nine new apps per paper services in delhi month (AdMob, 2010). 4.3 Brand Communication. To communicate efficiently to Gen Xers, MAC will implement tactics such as word-of-mouth and social media.

MAC will deliver messages that are relevant to the new target market with straightforward information. MAC will sign new celebrity endorsers that have a positive sophisticated image. It is found that on business step, average, ads that contain a celebrity endorser produced 9.4 % higher consumer readership than ads without a celebrity endorser (Dolliver, 2011). As all technological spaces are emerging, MAC will be repositioning its brand via interactive advertisements and Smartphone apps. MAC will cater to services in delhi Gen Xers values of genuine promotional strategies. 5. Promotion Mix.

MAC’s new promotional campaign will use three forms of a2 biology advertising mediums including print, direct and paper in delhi interactive. MAC’s new promotions will include expanding MAC’s current use of print media by how do you make plan introducing new magazine advertisements. MAC will also begin to use direct media by research paper writing sending out many different direct mail-outs to customers. Lastly MAC will introduce the use of interactive media to its promotional campaign thru many different new advertising methods. MAC will introduce a new MAC Cosmetics phone application as well as a new MAC in store kiosk. MAC will also host interactive mall events to case study interview further promote their make-up to all consumers. MAC’s new promotion campaign will include interactive media with a new phone application that will make the MAC make-up world more accessible to paper in delhi all consumers who own Smartphone’s.

With this application consumers will be able to purchase MAC products from the enzymes, palm of their hand. Research Writing Services In Delhi. The MAC Cosmetics application will be full of information for consumers to learn more about thesis bridge MAC Cosmetics as well as make purchases. Paper Writing. The MAC phone application will feature icons for the MAC shop, new products, today’s obsession, what’s hot now, and a shopping cart. The icon for today’s obsession will have daily tips from MAC makeup artists on what product they are obsessing over business plan by step, that day and videos about new ways to writing in delhi wear MAC makeup. The what’s hot now icon on business plan by step, MAC’s phone application will feature all of MAC’s best selling products with a comment box for consumers to write what they think of research paper services in delhi MAC products. With this feature consumers will be able to explore MAC products and see what their fellow consumers like. The what’s new icon on south park, the MAC phone application will present all of MAC’s new products as well as any new MAC collaborations with other brands, like Barbie and research services Hello Kitty. The MAC shop icon will be where consumers can search through all of the south book essay, MAC products by type of cosmetic and color. Once a consumer has chosen what makeup products they want to purchase they will then go to the shopping cart icon where consumers can purchase their products to be shipped to their home with a credit or debit card. The MAC application will be updated daily with today’s obsession and anytime something new is paper writing in delhi being introduced. By creating a MAC phone application consumers will be able to shop whenever and wherever they are.

MAC’s new promotion campaign will also include interactive media thru a new MAC kiosk located in MAC stand-alone stores as well as in MAC locations in department stores. These touch screen kiosks will allow consumers to be interactive with MAC cosmetics and explore all that MAC has to offer. With the MAC interactive kiosk consumers will be able to park essay walk into writing in delhi a MAC store and go up to the kiosk and browse through the MAC merchandise. Thesis Design Span. When a consumer finds a product they like they will be able to services click on by step, it and be taken to research paper writing a page that will contain a full explanation about that MAC product, photos of different ways that specific product can be used, and other complementary products that go along with the selected product. Thesis Bridge Span. If a consumer decides that they want to purchase that product they can click on the buy now button and the kiosk will inform the consumers if that product is available in research paper writing, the store. If that product is not available in the store the consumer can purchase the thesis design span by span, product right from the kiosk with complementary shipping from paper writing in delhi, MAC. If a consumer wants to receive more information about a product or test the you make an essay plan, product all they will do is click the button located right next to the buy now button, labeled try me.

By clicking this a MAC consultant will be notified and be able to assist the consumer with information about the specific MAC product or try the product on the consumer. If it is a product that is unavailable in that specific MAC store the consultant will be able to show the consumer different products that are similar to the one the consumer has selected. Writing Services. The MAC kiosk will be a great tool to use especially when the store is very busy. A consumer will not feel like they are just standing around waiting for a MAC employee, but they will be able to do research on these kiosks and find exactly what they are wanting. These kiosks will always be kept up to date with current and new MAC products. By having MAC kiosks more consumers will be able to be informed about all MAC has to offer. In this new promotional campaign MAC Cosmetics will also expand on south essay, their use of interactive media by research writing services hosting many different mall events throughout the United States. These events will feature complimentary makeovers, free samples, live models and a chance for customers to take pictures as a model. How Do You Make. These events will be a great way for customers to research paper be able to learn more about MAC cosmetics in a fun and interactive way. South Park. MAC will send out emails to all existing customers in the area informing them about the mall event. MAC will also have signs on writing, mall entrance doors as well as fun music playing to draw in curious people walking by.

At these mall events MAC will give free makeovers to any consumer who would like to coursework participate. After they receive their makeovers customers will be able to participate in a MAC photo shoot, where the customers will take a picture and in delhi receive an online code where they can upload their picture for free. Make consultants will also be passing out south park essay, small free samples to consumers so they can get a feel of how great MAC make-up is. MAC will also have hired models walking around and research paper writing services in delhi posing with various makeovers to show consumers everything they can do with MAC make-up. By hosting these mall events MAC will introduce their make-up to new consumers and MAC will get more customers in the store and increase revenue. These mall events will be hosted throughout the year at major malls such as North Park Center in Dallas, Texas, Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota, Glendale Galleria in plan step, Glendale, California and many more. About six to eight MAC mall events will be held throughout the year in high traffic malls where MAC stores are located. By having MAC mall events MAC will be able to paper services introduce their products to a new consumer in a fun and interactive way.

MAC’s new promotion campaign will also consist of direct media with many new direct mail-outs to send to MAC customers. These direct mail-outs will be sent to all loyal MAC customers who already have a history of purchasing MAC products. This concept will directly let MAC choose who receives which offers, and coursework enzymes pinpoint the customers within different groups desired to research paper writing in delhi target. Similar to a2 biology enzymes the direct mail-outs Victoria’s Secret sends out to their loyal angel card holders, the writing services in delhi, MAC direct mail-outs will give consumers the opportunity to learn about all MAC promotions and sales, as well as any new products. The MAC direct mail-outs will showcase the latest trends and park colors for research in delhi, the season and potentially drive the customer to shop online or in the store. MAC will send out direct mail-outs presenting the business step, newest MAC products. For example the new color tones for winter 2011 or Summer 2012. These direct mail-outs will feature the new color palettes for each season. These direct mail-outs will also feature new products introduced to MAC cosmetics; for example a new type of foundation or powder launched at MAC. Another direct mail-out MAC will send to paper services in delhi its customers is one about the BACK 2 MAC program.

Every six months MAC will mail out information about the BACK 2 MAC program to remind customers to save up their old containers to be recycled and bring them back to the MAC store to receive a free MAC lipstick. A third direct mail-out to be sent out to on narrative essay MAC customers is research writing services one to coursework enzymes advertise MAC sales or promotions. Special offers such as free shipping on orders over a hundred dollars, free cosmetic bag with purchase of a new product, and coupons such as ten dollars off of fifty dollars or twenty dollars off of one hundred dollars. All of these direct mail-outs will drive the writing services in delhi, consumers in to park book essay the MAC store to make purchases or to paper shop online. The last form of park book direct mail-outs to be sent to MAC customers is one informing consumers about MAC’s support for AIDS, the MAC AIDS Fund.

This advertisement will inform consumers about how MAC donates the entire selling price from writing services, its VIVA GLAM lipstick and lipglass to the MAC AIDS Fund. This will reach a wide audience of people and increase sales of the MAC VIVA GLAM lipstick and lipglass that benefit AIDS patients. By informing consumers about the great organizations that MAC benefits more consumers will want to purchase MAC products. MAC will send out one direct mail-out each month to loyal customers. MAC will alternate what they are advertising for each month between new products, BACK 2 MAC, sales and promotions, and the MAC AIDS Fund so that consumers are not overwhelmed with just one advertisement. MAC currently uses print advertisements in their promotion campaign, so for this new promotion campaign MAC will expand and add new print advertisements. MAC will have print advertisements in magazines such as Vogue, Elle, Cosmopolitan and Glamour. This promotion campaign proposes a new use of print advertisements called “I am a MAC Girl.” The “I am a MAC Girl” campaign is a way to promote MAC cosmetics to the fun flirty girl who wants to case for analyst wear her make-up a little more natural and light. These advertisements will feature fresh-faced celebrities such as Jennifer Aniston, Rachel Bilson and Reese Witherspoon. By using celebrities wearing their make-up a little lighter and more natural MAC will be able to attract a different consumer then they currently attract. MAC currently uses celebrities like Fergie and Lady Gaga wearing heavy make-up that the everyday girl cannot always pull off.

This campaign will keep the MAC’s current advertisements while adding the research paper services, “I am a MAC Girl” advertisements to attract all different consumers. MAC will switch off each month running their VIVA GLAM advertisements they currently have with the “I am a MAC Girl” advertisements so that the same magazine does not always have the same advertisements. For example in an essay plan, April Vogue magazine will have a VIVA GLAM advertisement featuring Lady Gaga and then in May Vogue magazine will have an writing in delhi “I am a MAC Girl” advertisement featuring Jennifer Aniston. How Do An Essay. By using these new print advertisements MAC will be able to target the research, more conservative women who wants to wear MAC make-up to work while also keeping the short note on narrative essay, advertisements to the extravagant woman. Research Writing In Delhi. As a whole MAC’s use of interactive, print, and direct advertisements will all tie in together and work very cohesively. Design. Consumers will be able to research paper writing see MAC advertisements in multiples places including in coursework enzymes, stores, in research paper services, magazines, on line, and in case study interview, their mail. Paper In Delhi. This way MAC consumers will not be overwhelmed with only seeing one form of advertising over and over coursework, again. All of the MAC advertisements in all four medias will have a cohesive look using black and white with accents of color. By keeping the colors consistent through all advertisements the advertisements will be visually appealing to all consumers. The MAC promotional campaign will work together to bring in new customers and generate more revenue. 6. Evaluation.

MAC has made a brand image for itself mainly using word-of-mouth, so by bringing in new types of advertising and a new target market the only place it can go is research services up. This new promotion campaign isn’t changing the product in anyway it is case study questions interview just bringing in a different promotional strategy to reach out to a different target market, which is why it wont hurt the company. In Delhi. We are doing so through informational advertising, with promoting BACK 2 MAC and coursework enzymes the MAC AIDS Fund more, which also advertises the company with an emotional appeal to those who support these charities. Another way we are using emotional appeal is by bringing in research paper services, celebrities to the promotion so that MAC consumers can relate to these celebrities or strive to be like them through using MAC products. Once the new promotional strategy has launched these advertisements MAC will test whether or not they are successful through different posttests. MAC will use focus groups and consumer jury to get the best results and feedback. MAC can actually talk to customers or potential customers in the target market and get the true reaction of what they got out thesis bridge by span, of the new promotional strategies.

By receiving feedback from MAC’s new target market MAC will be able to adjust any advertisements if needed to get the paper writing in delhi, best results possible. 7. Reference List. Belacel, A. (2010). Brand analysis MAC cosmetics. Book. Issuu, 2, 9-10. Retrieved from http://issuu.com/amelbelacel/docs/brand_report_mac Bobbi Brown pretty powerful 2.0. (n.d.).

Retrieved fromhttp://www.bobbibrowncosmetics.com/index.tmpl Product index of celebrity endorsements. (2011). Research Writing Services In Delhi. Celebrity Endorsement Ads. Retrieved from how do plan, http://www.celebrityendorsementads.com/celebrity-endorsements/product-index/. Collier, E. (2009, July 7). Workplace Warfare: baby boomers, gen X and gen Y. Retrieved November 2011 from Career Faqs:http://www.careerfaqs.com.au/news/news-and-views/workplace-warfare-baby-boomers-gen-x-and-gen-y/ Continuum Crew. (2010 , February 15). Paper Services. Boomers’ media habits shift online, Turn Social. Retrieved November 2011 from book essay, Marketing Profs:http://www.marketingprofs.com/charts/2010/3409/boomers-media-habits-shift-online-turn-social Coty, Inc. (n.d.).

Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/coty-inc Dawson, A. (2011, October 26). Studies say generation X is balanced and happy. Retrieved November 2011 from CNN Living:http://articles.cnn.com/2011-10-26/living/living_gen-x-satisfied_1_marketing-study-half-of-gen-xers-divorce-rates?_s=PM:LIVING Dolliver, M. (2011, March 10). Do celebrity endorsements help or hurt a brand?Retrieved November 2011 from Yahoo! Advertising:http://www.yadvertisingblog.com/blog/2011/03/10/do-celebrity-endorsements-help-or-hurt-a-brand/ Douglas, J. (2010, March 15). Paper. Women spend $13,000 each on makeup. Retrieved November 2011 from Shine Fashion:http://shine.yahoo.com/event/satc/women-spend-13-000-each-on-makeup-1147372 Estee Lauder companies. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://www.answers.com/topic/the-estee-lauder-co Fan Page List, (2011). MAC cosmetics on Facebook and business Twitter. Retrieved fromhttp://fanpagelist.com/user/maccosmetics Harris, G. (2011, July 24). The beauty beat.

Retrieved fromhttp://www.nbcmiami.com/the-scene/shopping/The-Beauty-Beat-724-730-125725463.html Irosado, L. (2009, August). Research Paper Writing In Delhi. Marketing channels and supple change. You Make An Essay. Retrieved from http://irosado.blogspot.com/ JGlamour makeup brushes compete with MAC Cosmetics Sephora. (2009, June 03). Retrieved from http://www.prlog.org/10248724-jglamour-makeup-brushes-compete-with-mac-cosmetics-sephora.html Kane, S. (n.d.). Generation X. Retrieved November 2011. from About.com Legal Careers: http://legalcareers.about.com/od/practicetips/a/GenerationX.htm Lancome Paris. (2011). Research Writing In Delhi. Retrieved from http://www.lancome-usa.com/ L’Oreal. Plan Step By Step. (n.d.). Services. Retrieved from http://www.loreal.com/dispatch.aspx? Lyon, E. (2010, March 1).

Examining generation X: stats, demographics, segments, predictions. Retrieved November 2011 from Sparxoo:http://sparxoo.com/2010/03/01/examining-generation-x-stats-demographics-segments-predictions/ MAC Cosmetics. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://www.maccosmetics.com/index.tmpl MAC Cosmetic’s Channel. (2011). MAC COSMETICS. Retrieved fromhttp://www.youtube.com/user/MACcosmeticsblend=1ob=4. M.A.C (Make-up Art Cosmetics). (2010, November 14). Retrieved fromhttp://lootawan081.blogspot.com/ May 2010 mobile Metrics report.

Retrieved (2010, May 30). AdMob. South Park Book. November 2011 from AdMob: http://metrics.admob.com/ Porterfield, A. (2010, March 5). Social media differences among teens, Boomers and Moms: New Study Findings. Retrieved November 2011 from Social Media Examiner: http://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/social-media-differences-among-teens-boomers-and-moms-new-study-findings/ Procter Gamble. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://www.answers.com/topic/procter-gamble Revlon. (2011). Research Writing Services. Retrieved from http://www.revlon.com/#/2. Rimmel London. Bridge Span. (2011). Retrieved fromhttp://www.rimmellondon.com/us/en/landingpage/ Roy, P. (2010).

Positioning strategy- different types of product positioning.Marketing and PR, Retrieved from paper services in delhi, http://paulami-roy.suite101.com/marketing-strategy-different-positioning-tactics-a247638 Sephora. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.sephora.com/ Temptalia. (2010, January 5). Your guide to upcoming MAC cosmetics collections. Retrieved from http://www.temptalia.com/your-guide-to-upcoming-mac-cosmetics-collections-2011. The History behind MAC cosmetics. (2006, April 6). Retrieved fromhttp://www.sokissandmakeup.com/the-history-behind-mac-cosmetics-inc/ The MAC cosmetics story. (2007, November 09). Retrieved. from http://marketingdope.blogspot.com/2007/11/mac-cosmetics-story.html The second annual american express platinum luxury survey. (2005, June). Design Bridge Span. American Express.

Retrieved November 2011 from Odyssey Media Group:http://www.odysseymediagroup.com/nan/Editorial-Corporate-Cards.asp?ReportID=109663 Top 10 cosmetic brands. (2011, August 13). Retrieved fromhttp://www.lifestylo.com/2011/08/top-10-cosmetic-brands/ Urban Decay: beauty with an edge. (2010, November 4). 2011). Retrieved from research paper, http://www.urbandecay.com/Lootawan, R. Authors: Hope Hamilton, Danielle Veeder, Emily Diemer, Chelsea Byrd, Lauren McKelvey. “All ages, all races, all sexes, all MAC. ” This is the a2 biology coursework enzymes, motto for one of the fastest growing cosmetics brands in the world, MAC Cosmetics. For MAC artists and research paper writing services in delhi MAC customers this motto is not just words it is truly what drives the culture of this amazing Company. At any given time you will find grandmothers shopping for color with their granddaughters.

Isn’t that an you make amazing and wonderful concept? As you read further you will see why MAC is such a unique entity in this well established industry. Every aspect of what makes MAC Cosmetics; “MAC” being its products, its location, its brand image, or its phenomenal price point is unique and goes against services most typical marketing methods. As we all know product, price, promotion and place are the plan, four fundamental variables that either make or break a company. MAC is currently the only Estee Lauder brand that is not only meeting; but exceeding its annual sales goals. Last year MAC surpassed its sales plan by 121 million dollars!

Which is unheard of in this industry. Lets start at the beginning Makeup Art Cosmetics or MAC was created in 1984 by two men, Frank Tosken a seasoned makeup artist and photographer and research paper writing Frank Angelo a successful business owner of case for analyst a chain of salons in Toronto. They found that cosmetic products that were readily available were not performing well under the paper writing, intense environment of studio lights perspiration, had little color payoff, and were constantly having to be touched up. So, they created cosmetic formulas and business plan step by step colors that met these specific needs. By using them backstage on models and performers news traveled fast about how wonderful these products were. At first MAC was only available to the professional makeup artist. Then by word of mouth news spread to the general population and research writing was maid available to bridge span by span the public and in 1994 was purchased by the Estee Lauder who owns many of the world’s favorite cosmetic brands.

MAC continues to research writing in delhi be a testimonial brand of cosmetics, meaning that there is no paid advertising for MAC to promote their traditional product. They rely solely on testimonials and word of mouth advertisement. However you may find that MAC does advertise only enzymes, one product and that is Viva Glam Lipstick. Writing In Delhi. This is their charity lipstick and it comes in write essay, five different shades. 100% of the retail selling price of this lipstick goes to men, women and children living with or affected by HIV and AIDS. Research Paper Services. This money goes to living needs and not research. MAC feels that there are enough efforts going towards finding a cure for AIDS, and that providing money to help make someone’s life a little easier makes more of an impact right now. Currently the spokes person for an essay plan, Viva Glam V lipstick is Pamela Anderson, and she has helped us raise 4 million dollars for our MAC Aids Fund. Paper Services In Delhi. As a whole, Viva Glam Lipstick has raised over 50 million dollars since its inception in 1984 and this number continues to climb.

MAC’s image is business plan step by step Sleek, Clean, and research paper writing in delhi straight forward. This is expressed through their packaging, product names, store image and how their employees dress. MAC is all about allowing the coursework enzymes, product to be the focus, so product packaging is simple and research paper writing services made of plastic or glass. There are no fancy shapes or embellishments. This allows for study interview, a reasonable price point and for the product not to be overshadowed by opulent, gaudy packaging.

MAC products also have straight forward, logical names. For example eye shadow is called eye shadow, and their matte foundation is called Studio Matte Finish Foundation, instead of something creative like “eye transformer” or “Perfect Finish Foundation” which many other cosmetic companies use to sensationalize a product. Often you will find that MAC products have the research paper services in delhi, word “Studio” or “Pro”, before the actual name of the study for analyst interview, product. Research In Delhi. Such as Studio Fix Powder Foundation or Pro Eye makeup Remover. This is done so that customers know that this product was actually used by makeup professionals and used in how do an essay plan, a studio setting. This means, that these products do what they are meant to do quickly, and research paper services are easy to use and create a great finish that lasts. Write Note. MAC wants its customers to be able to experience their product line in a clean straightforward way. So, MAC locations are minimalistic, with Marble counter tops, wood or poured cement floors, and open tester units. When a customer walks into a MAC location they tend to be a bit overwhelmed, because all of the products are open and available to experience. Paper Services In Delhi. That is why the MAC makeup artist is so important.

All MAC employees are professional makeup artists. This means that before they are hired they must have experience doing makeup in a retail environment, or doing makeup as a profession. That is book essay why customers have such high expectations when they come to a MAC counter. They know that the experience they’ll have is going to be at a higher level since they are dealing with professionals. The MAC image is also communicated to the customer by the way artist dresses for work. Services. A 100% Black attire is required. There is bridge by span no particular dress code other than that. An artist is research paper writing free to express their personal clothing style, as long as it is black. This allows an Artist to you make an essay plan express and display their creativity and individuality, and in paper writing, turn allows the customer to get a feel for the style of a makeup artist. Each customer is drawn to the MAC artist that represents a look that they can identify with, which is the questions, start of a great customer experience. MAC artists are also required to wear a minimum of fifteen MAC and only MAC products on their faces every day.

This is great advertisement, and shows the versatility of the products. MAC is considered to be a luxury cosmetic line. Writing Services. Channel, Lancome, and span Christian Dior are also luxury brands. Their prices tend to be quite high, for example the average price of services in delhi a foundation from any of these lines is around $40.00. Thesis By Span. The most expensive MAC foundation is $27.50. They keep their prices down so that everyone can afford the research writing services, experience of wearing professional products.

The straight forward packaging and the lack of mass advertising and free gift promotions allows them to keep their prices reasonable. Park. So you may ask, why doesn’t MAC have a free gift? Every three to four weeks MAC launches a new color collection. Through research MAC has found that its employees its customer base are drawn to the newest, trendiest products, so by launching new color collections frequently they inspire and excite their employees and appeals to of what their customer base really wants. By doing this MAC has a steady flow of income throughout the year. Most of the other companies have severely high revenue during “free gift” promotions and low revenue points when they don’t. They have trained their customer to buy when they’re getting something for free, which can be a tough cycle to break.

They constantly have to come up with bigger and better “gifts” to paper services keep their customers coming back. To reward their customer for being loyal to the brand, and to also help the environment, MAC has a consciousness program called “Back to MAC”. Whenever a customer brings back six empty containers of product, they can choose a gift lipstick of their choice, excluding Viva Glam since that is the charity lipstick. This incentive program allows customers to essay try a MAC lipstick if they never have, as well as try a new color that they may not usually pick without the research paper writing services, commitment. How Do An Essay. To touch the professional customer MAC offers a 40% discount to paper professional makeup artists, and a 30% discount to industry professionals such as models, actors, new anchors, nail techs, and hair stylists. Remember, MAC was created by a2 biology industry professionals and so they always keep that customer in mind. Although so many customers are willing to purchase MAC product without a free gift, the company realizes that a promotional and paper writing services in delhi limited life items will excite their customer in a similar way. So, seasonally MAC creates limited life products in their color collections, and business step these products are only available until they sell out. Making such exclusive products creates a sense of paper urgency in the customer so that they buy now instead of later. One of their most popular promotions happens during the holiday season. MAC launches a series of thesis span by span holiday brush, eye shadow, lipstick, and lip gloss sets at an incredibly low price.

For example a holiday brush set has six travel size brushes in a cute little bag for around $42.00. Services. If you were to a2 biology purchase these same six brushes at regular price it would cost you around $245.00 and you don’t get a bag. These holiday sets are shipped in limited quantities, and are one of the most anticipated launches of the year. Research Paper In Delhi. Receiving these collections on time is very important to each location, and since the MAC customer thrives on business plan by step, trends timing is everything. MAC was founded in Toronto, and our Factory and Distribution center is there as well.

Through meticulous planning each MAC location receives new color launches about 2 ? 3 weeks before the product goes on counter. MAC doesn’t believe in having a lot of back stock sitting in stock rooms. So it is the responsibility of the Retail Manager to send a stock concerns list to the buyer of the store and the company ships them more product based on their most popular items and what is put on the list.

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Miley Cyrus' VMA Performance and the Sexualization of Society Essay. September 15, 2013. Outline A2 A2 Providing an outline is an excellent way to ensure that a reader understands what the paper will cover. Not all papers require outlines but for those that do, proper citation style must be followed. This outline is written in MLA style, which requires complete sentences. Young girls are sexualized in American society. Miley Cyrus gave a very sexual performance at the 2013 VMA awards. Cyrus' performance had both supporters and those who felt she was in the wrong. Girls and young women often look to celebrities for appropriate behavior. Celebrities do not always look at research writing services in delhi the big picture of who they might be affecting with their choices.

There is concern that young girls are becoming very sexual much too early in life because of what they see in park book the media. The way the media portrays girls and young women affects their self-esteem and body image issues. More should be done to writing services in delhi help protect the innocence and body image of young girls in the United States. Introduction A3 A3 MLA does not have a specific style that is business plan step, required for section headings. The writer of the paper may use any heading system with which he or she feels comfortable, as long as there is consistency in the headings throughout the entire paper. These headings follow the statements made in the outline. Research Paper! : The Sexualization of Young Girls in case study Society. In American society in 2013, it is no secret that sex sells. Sexuality is paper, used to entice customers to buy all manner and type of products, along with various services. Essay! But A4 A4 Asking questions in the introduction to a paper can get readers thinking about paper writing what the writer plans to discuss. when is it too much? The young women and girls in advertisements for products and a2 biology enzymes, services appear to be getting younger, but at the same time the treatment of them as very adult has only research increased (Zurbriggen Roberts 55). A5 A5 In MLA style, citations require the last name(s) of the author(s) and the page number from where the information was taken.

If the source is online and/or does not have a page number, just the last name of the business step, author or authors is sufficient. This is sending a deceptive message that is two-fold. The first part of that message involves the over-sexualization of society as a whole, and research in delhi, the second part of the short on narrative essay, message is focused on the sexualization issue as it specifically relates to young women and girls (Zurbriggen Roberts 57). While these are two separate issues to some degree, they are also strongly related to one another in that one of the issues seems to research paper feed off of the other one, until it becomes difficult to tell which one began first and/or which one is causing further development of the enzymes, other. To A6 A6 This is the thesis statement, which should always appear at research in delhi the end of the introduction. It provides the reader with a concise summary of what will be discussed throughout the paper. better understand the issue of the sexualization of young girls in society, it is you make an essay plan, important to take a look at an example of it and how that type of behavior and its portrayal in research the media affects the development and body image beliefs of girls and young women. Miley Cyrus and the VMAs. There are many examples of treating girls and young women as very sexual beings. Book! Some of these seem to be staged or expected in some way, while others seem to research writing services in delhi have happened more by accident or at south park book random.

Of those that are clearly very deliberate, a recent example is Miley Cyrus and her twerking performance with Robin Thicke at the Video Music Awards (VMAs). According to the online version of the Oxford English Dictionary (2013), to research in delhi twerk is defined as to dance A7 A7 This is a direct quote from the online version of the OED, so it must be in quotation marks. Had it come from the print version of the dictionary, a page number would also have been necessary. to popular music in a sexually provocative manner involving thrusting hip movements and thesis bridge, a low, squatting stance. Cyrus, who became famous for playing Disney's Hannah Montana, is 20 years old and has reached the age where she is working to shed her little girl image. While that is to writing in delhi be expected, many people are questioning whether the sexual nature of her VMA performance and a similar theme in the recent video for her song Wrecking Ball are the book essay, appropriate way to shed that image, or whether they just further contribute to treating girls and young women as sex objects (Duca). A8 A8 This is an online source without a page number, so only the author's last name is in delhi, used as a citation. Supporters and Backlash A9 A9 There are two sides to every argument, and it is important to consider both angles or areas of public opinion when writing about a current event. Cyrus has stated that she wanted to make history, and that was what the performance was about. She appeared very unconcerned as to whether other people were bothered by the sexuality in her performance (Duca). There have been opinions on both sides of the aisle, and enzymes, these have been along religious, moral, and even racial lines.

She has been called everything from research paper services groundbreaking to trashy, and step by step, has dealt with a lot of supportive people (including her father, country star Billy Ray Cyrus) as well as a lot of those who were completely turned off by her performance. Every story about services her that appears on the Internet gains large numbers of comments, with many voicing their disapproval of the path Cyrus has chosen to take. Some of her fans have left her because of the changes in which she has been recently involved, and the editor of Vogue magazine has publicly said she has changed her mind about having Cyrus on the December cover (Collier). The life that Cyrus lives is certainly her own, but those who are in you make an essay the public eye can easily fail to see what their behavior is doing to the large numbers of fans they have in their own country and throughout the world. As the backlash over Cyrus' behavior grows, her reputation could be damaged.

This could take some time to repair, assuming she chooses to do so. Looking to paper writing in delhi Celebrities for Behavioral Norms. There are several ways to write short on narrative essay look at this issue. The first is that many girls and young women look to celebrities when considering how they are supposed to act. They want to know what is research writing services in delhi, normal for them at a particular age, and they want to emulate what they see their favorite stars do (Sexuality). That, in plan and of research services in delhi, itself, is not necessarily unhealthy. Young people look up to others beginning very early in life (Committee). Often, they look up to their parents when they are very young, but as they grow older they begin to branch out and they start examining more of the world around them. That can lead them to an interest in other people, and celebrities are so often in the media that it is easy to follow them and find out information about them or see their performances (Committee). The more these celebrities begin to act sexual, especially at young ages, the more their followers do the thesis span, same.

There are some, of course, who will turn away from that kind of services in delhi, behavior and move on to follow celebrities with different values. Others do not get hooked on celebrities or the media at all, but this is a2 biology enzymes, becoming increasingly rare in a digital and global society (Zurgriggen Roberts 76). Celebrities and the Bigger Picture. Where celebrities are concerned, there is a much bigger picture that can and research in delhi, should be addressed (Sexuality). Business Step By Step! Cyrus' life is her own to live, and it can be argued that people should not take their cues in life from what a celebrity is doing. Research Services In Delhi! However, celebrities who are conscious of the impact they have on society and their fan base are much more likely to be aware of plan, their words and research paper services, actions, to help protect not only their reputations but the people who look up to business them (Sexuality). When these celebrities choose to be over-sexualized and exaggerate that part of their lives, especially at young ages, they move a large segment of society closer to a new normal, where that type of research writing in delhi, behavior is write short on narrative essay, acceptable (Sexuality). They also change the research, way fans, specifically girls and young women, look at themselves. Their body image can easily be affected by the belief that they are not hot and do not look the way their favorite celebrities do (Zurgriggen Roberts 88).

The argument becomes whether celebrities have any kind of responsibility to their fans, when it comes to how they conduct themselves when in the public eye (Committee). You Make An Essay Plan! These individuals, Cyrus included, have more influence over their fan bases than they may want or realize, but it is research paper services, not something that is going to go away. Because they are in the spotlight, their choices help shape the choices for a new generation of young people who are growing up watching them on TV and park book essay, online, and listening to their music. It is up to individual celebrities to think about their choices and research paper writing services, decide whether they are potentially doing harm to their fan base. The Media is Contributing to Early Sexualization. It is no secret that the media is contributing to note on narrative early sexualization of girls and young women. Performances like the one put on by Cyrus at the VMAs are only a small part of the problem. A study conducted by the University of California at Santa Barbara in 2008 showed that over 65% of the shows on television at that time had some form of sexual content in research paper writing services in delhi them (Committee). It is not just TV, either, that has become part of the problem in this regard. The lyrics to essay a great deal of in delhi, popular music also contain sexual references, along with related discussion about how women are supposed to look and their value based on how sexual they are (Committee). Essentially, the media is currently using popular celebrities to teach girls and young women that they must be open sexually from a very young age or they will be labeled a tease, a prude, or worse.

Magazines contribute to the issue by photoshopping women to look as beautiful and how do you make, sensual as possible, putting them in paper writing outfits that would not be acceptable to study questions interview wear in most instances, and then promising to research paper tell readers how they can look like that when it is not really possible (or necessary) at all. When these magazines target tweens and plan step, teens, the message is that it is acceptable and even necessary to sexual at that age, so you can be important and valued by society. Self Esteem and Body Image are Affected by paper services in delhi, Media Portrayals. The way the media portrays girls and young women affects both self esteem and body image. Girls who do not look like Cyrus, cannot twerk or perform like her, and are not seen as sexual, may feel as though they are missing out on something. They may also feel shame about enzymes their bodies, which can lead to unacceptable behaviors like anorexia and bulimia (Zurgriggen Roberts 95). Young women are being taught that there is a great deal of research paper services in delhi, value in sexuality. While it is a natural part of life for most people when it is age-appropriate, the study, overarching media message seems to be that sexuality is what matters most for a woman (Committee). This is what will attract a good looking man who has money, and what will get a woman ahead in life (Committee). Naturally, this is a fallacy.

There is research writing services in delhi, much more to life than sexuality and looks, which the majority of people determine as they grow older. However, there is no reason to teach girls and young women that how they look and whether they are hot is the most important issue for them (Sexuality). Those types of design bridge span, concerns should be very low on writing in delhi the list, especially for note essay, young girls, but when the research writing services in delhi, media keeps pushing performances like Cyrus' onto the public, it is very difficult to convince girls and study questions interview, young women that it is not necessary to be sexual to be popular or to be successful in life. More C1 C1 Since this is the last main point presented in research paper writing the outline, this section should also serve as a conclusion. How Do You Make! It should wrap up the issue in the last paragraph, so readers are not left with more questions than answers. Can be Done to Protect Young Girls. When it comes to protecting young girls from media messages that provide them with overly sexual references, more can and should be C2 C2 Since this is more of an essay, it is paper services, acceptable to a2 biology coursework interject some opinion into the conclusion. Writers should be careful to follow instructions on paper services their papers, though, and not use I unless its use has been specifically approved. done. Society is changing very rapidly, and children are not getting the opportunity to have innocent childhoods like they did in the past. In many cases, they grow up quickly because of the way they are taught by the media and also by their peers. More regulations on television content could help reduce some of the sexualization of girls and young women, but music and magazines are also to blame (Zurgriggen Roberts, 124).

It is becoming very difficult to shelter children from the design span, changes that are taking place in the world in many different arenas, and how fast they are growing up is just one aspect of that. Parents have to remain vigilant, but there is more to research paper the issue than just what parents are capable of controlling. The media really has to make the changes in order for young girls to be more protected from the risks of over-sexualization. Without cooperation from TV, film, magazines, and music, nothing will change and the concerns over how sexual girls are becoming at plan step young ages will continue to grow. Not every parent sees it as a problem, of course, but many are deeply concerned about the changes they are seeing in the media.

Cyrus, for example, used to appear very innocent and wholesome; a good role model for young girls. Her performance at the VMAs was not something that could be considered wholesome, but she is also no longer the little girl who worked for Disney, either. Girls who looked up to her must understand that she has grown up considerably during that time and her values and beliefs are not the same as they were when she was a child. Growing up in the media spotlight is also difficult, and paper writing services in delhi, teaching children good values that do not come from the media is design bridge span, a difficult but important job that can be undertaken by parents. Works Cited C3 C3 Works Cited is the term used for an MLA reference page. Other citation styles use other terms. Collier, Myles. Miley Cyrus Twerking Backlash Gets Singer Dropped from paper in delhi Vogue Cover. The Christian Post. 9 September 2013.

Web. 13 September 2013. Thesis! C4 C4 Note that MLA style no longer requires URLs for web sources. Committee on Public Education. Paper! Sexuality, Contraception, and the Media. Policy Statement Parent Pages. American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics, 107.1 (2001): 191-94.

Print. Duca, Lauren. Short Note On Narrative Essay! The Miley Cyrus Twerking Backlash, for Idiots. The Huffington Post. Research Paper! 28 August 2013. Web. 12 September 2013. Sexuality in the Mass Media: How to View the write short note, Media Critically . University of California at Santa Barbara. 2008. Paper In Delhi! Web.

12 September 2013. Twerk . Oxford English Dictionary Online . August 2013. Web. 14 September 2013. Zurbriggen, Eileen L. and enzymes, Tomi-Ann Roberts (Eds). The Sexualization of Girls and Girlhood: Causes, Consequences, and Resistance. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print. Looking for other documents related to Miley Cyrus' VMA Performance and the Sexualization of Society ? Search our collection of 112,048 professionally written essays, research papers, and term papers.

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95 theses text The indulgence being marketed by writing services Tetzel distressed Luther because he saw it as misinforming lay people (i.e., non-clerics) about crucial aspects of God's plan for redeeming fallen humanity ­- about, in other words, the whole purpose of history, and about the nature (specifically, the Will) of God. To be misinformed in essentials about the nature of God means that what one ends up obeying is a false image of God. This constitutes a mortal sin (see the note to Thesis 2), and leads (if not corrected) to damnation. Specifically, Albert's indulgence (as represented by Tetzel) encroached on the sacrament of penance. The numbers to the left (in red) refer to the respective theses that comprise the document as a whole. In the note to Thesis 6, you will find some suggestions about how to think of the organizational strategy Luther follows in listing his first 52 theses. [References to WH are to Matthews and Platt, editors, The Western Humanities , 3rd Ed. Mountain View, California: Mayfield Publishing Co., 1993. These need updating, since this text is now in at least its 5th edition.] 1. Poenitentiam agite: Do penance. Penitence here means sincerely repenting (detesting, deploring) one's sins, and resolving not to enzymes return to them in research in delhi, the future. Park. 2. This word: refers to the Christ's word in the saying quoted in the previous thesis, and in particular to the term penitence ( poenitintia ). In Delhi. Sacramental penance : the sacrament of penance consisted of four elements: confession of one's sins before a priest, sincere contrition (regret) for them, satisfaction imposed by the priest, and absolution (remission of the sins in plan step, question, or pardon). Luther confines himself to citing here the in delhi two elements of action (confession and satisfaction) that were to be carried out by the penitent (the person undergoing or receiving the sacrament).

The term satisfaction refers to penalties imposed by the priest to a2 biology enzymes discharge the debt of punishment owed for in delhi the sins in question. How Do An Essay. (When carried out, these satisfy or fulfill the justice of research paper writing services in delhi God. [Compare the language of the honor code regulating duels among the European aristocracy: an insult to one's honor requires satisfaction, and the insultee acquires the right to choose what that shall be, within the limits of the prevailing code.]) See WH 217­218 for a capsule description of the medieval sacrament of penance. (For a far more detailed discussion, covering medieval doctrines as well as the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church in the wake of its response [in the Council of Trent] to the Protestant Reformation, consult the article on The Sacrament of Penance in The Catholic Encyclopedia .) Two categories of sin are recognized. How Do. Mortal sins involve turning away from the eternal good, or God. (The breach of Faith committed by paper services in delhi Adam and Eve in the Garden constituted mortal sin. So did what Cain did to Abel.) The punishment due for turning away from the eternal good is coursework enzymes eternal punishment, or damnation. Venial sins occur when a person turns inordinately to a mutable good ­ a good subject to change, because, being created, it exists in time. (Such goods are thus also called temporal or earthly goods.) Orthodox teaching holds that every created being as such is good, inasmuch as it is the creature of God. But aside from the fact that some created beings (angels and human beings) can sin, any created being, not being God Himself, requires to be loved just in the way ­ i.e., in the degree and circumstances ­ that God ordains.

A love of any temporal being that goes beyond the intensity or occasions willed by God is thus said to be inordinate. Such sin incurs a debt of temporal punishment (a term that you will see often in the theses to follow). Research Paper. The priest (via his ordination by a bishop appointed in short, turn by the pope) is a designated representative of the pope. Paper Writing Services In Delhi. (We meet here the general concept of vicars and vicarage, which will become a focus of even more fundamental dispute when Luther a few years later comes to attack the even more fundamental notion that the pope is Christ's own designated vicar.) Hence when a priest administering the sacrament of penance imposes satisfaction on the penitent, he is acting on behalf of the pope. This explains why Luther speaks interchangeably of penalties. imposed by [the pope's] own authority (Thesis 5), or of those imposed by himself (Thesis 20), or of penalties of sacramental satisfaction, which are of human appointment (Thesis 34). 3. Can you see the connection with asceticism here, and in Thesis 4? (Of course there are ascetics and ascetics! Remember, Pelagius was an ascetic, too. In what points of business plan by step doctrine would Luther and paper writing Pelagius part company?) 5. Remittance ­- like satisfaction ­- is thesis span by span a term that comes from the world of the balance sheet, of debits and credits. Research Paper Writing. Both guilt and punishment due are conceived as debts that must be paid.

When a debt is either paid off (by the debtor or someone who does surety for him) or forgiven, it is no longer due. When the creditor or injured party signifies (directly or through his authorized agent) that the coursework enzymes debt is no longer due, he is said to remit the services in delhi sin. (The term remit comes from the an essay Latin word meaning to send back. The custom persists in banking today: when you pay off your house mortgage, the research paper services bank will give back to you the loan certificate, now marked paid, along with the deed to the property, both of business step by step which it kept in its physical possession until you paid off your debt.) The canons here (and in Thesis 23) are rules established in Canon Law (the law governing the administration of Church affairs) for guiding priests in assigning satisfaction in administering penance. They amount to a schedule of penalties for paper services in delhi different offenses, according to a2 biology coursework enzymes the seriousness of the sin, as determined by various factors they specify. Writing Services In Delhi. (As such, they are somewhat analogous to the sentencing guidelines for judges, under criminal law in the US today.) 6. Orthodox teaching makes a distinction not only between sins of thesis design bridge by span various degree (mortal and venial) but between the guilt attaching to a sin (sometimes referred to simply as the paper writing sin itself) and the penalties attaching to it (the punishments due because of it). The damned, it is held (for example), repent the punishment they suffer for their sins but, being confirmed in sin, are not displeased by their sin itself (since their wills eternally now reaffirm and assert it). Short Note. Debts consisting of punishment due for sin are understood as payable by the sinner who incurred them. The debt of guilt (the debt of sin per se ) is not. It can be discharged only when one of two things occurs: either it is either forgiven (by God the Father) or it is in delhi taken on and paid off by another (the Son) whose wealth is write short note essay sufficiently great to do so. (Can you see the connection to what is referred to in Thesis 33).

Theses 5 and 6 together turn on research paper, this distinction. (So does Thesis 76, later on.) When the pope (represented in the priest) dispenses absolution -- remission of sin (more precisely, of the guilt attaching to sin) -- as part of the plan step by step sacrament of penance, he does not (according to Theses 6 76) actually effect it himself. Rather he discloses to the penitent what God has done (remitting of guilt). It is, then, only penalties attaching to sin that the pope himself (whether directly or through his representatives, i.e., priests) can remit. Any indulgences purporting to remit the guilt attaching to sin (the sin itself, so-called) are simply fraudulent. Moreover, within the category of paper in delhi penalties, it is only those that have been prescribed by canon law or that he had the authority to impose in the first place and case questions for analyst did indeed go on to impose (again, whether directly or through the priesthood) that he can remit. All other penalties are remittable only by God. And among these other penalties are those referred to by Christ in research writing in delhi, the quotation in Thesis 1, and described again in Thesis 4. Since this true inward repentance that consists in hatred of self for having committed the sin continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven, it continues to short essay be suffered by souls in purgatory.

Conclusion: these penalties of sin -- the remorse suffered by writing souls in purgatory on their way to heaven -- are outside the power of the pope to remit. Any indulgences purporting to remit the suffering of business step souls in purgatory (penalties for sin being experienced by them, namely, their remorse for having committed them) are likewise fraudulent. But even among the research paper writing services in delhi living, this sort of bridge by span penalty for sin cannot be remitted by the pope -- for Christ has commanded us to research paper services undergo it as long as we live (Thesis 1). Any indulgence that purports to relieve us of being heartily sorrow for our wrongs is study questions for analyst interview likewise fraudulent. Worse, it encourages us to violate Christ's express command. (And, since the pope, as the Vicar of Christ on earth, enjoins us to obey Christ's commands, remission of these penalties for sin is outside his power as pope.) What remains are those penalties imposed by the pope or the canon law, in the context of the sacrament of penance, as administered by writing in delhi priests. [This is the language of Theses 5 and 20. Thesis 34 uses the formula appointed by thesis design span by span man (since the pope and the priests are not God) to describe sacramental satisfaction -- i.e., penalties of the sort the priest declares the research in delhi penitant to owe).] Coming at south park essay, this category from writing services, still another point of view, authorities described them as temporal punishment. (See the note to how do you make Thesis 2.) Referentially, these terms are all synonyms: that is, they identify the same class of individual things. Their difference lies only in research paper services in delhi, the fact that they pick up these things by different handles, approaching them from different angles, i.e., via different relationships they have with other things. Theses 7-8 focus on Tetzel's claim that the indulgence he was selling was issued by the pope and had the power to remit guilt for sins. Luther circles back to this theme later on, in Theses 75-76. Theses 8-29 focus on Tetzel's claim that that indulgence was issued by the pope and had the power to remit the a2 biology coursework penalties owed by souls in purgatory. Theses 30-52 focus on paper services, the risks, in Tetzel's behavior, for the people who are induced to buy his indulgences -- i.e., the misunderstandings about justification that are perpetrated among the a2 biology coursework living. (In passing -- Theses 35-37 -- his remarks touch again on the absurdity of Tetzel's claims about the purgatory.) The emphasis is upon the peril these misunderstandings pose for the soul of the naive clientele.

In Theses 30-40, the chief emphasis here is the necessity, for sinners, of research writing services a proper understanding of the requirement for genuine contrition , and the way in which indiscriminate peddling of indulgences implicitly preaches the contrary. In Theses 41-46, the emphasis shifts the risks that lie in presenting purchase of pardons as instances of good works, when, in their effect on the soul, or what they signify about the study questions interview condition of the soul, is far inferior to what is accomplished by writing services works of charity. Thesis 52 sums up this line of attack. [??Thesis 47: does it fit in this organizational scheme? Or does it belong with Theses 48-51??] From this point on, Luther's organizational strategy loosens even further. For one thing, it is clear that he likes to return to certain themes within new contexts. Moreover, as we have already seen, he sometimes takes the south essay opportunity to tuck in theses (for example, Theses 50-51) that are marginal to the logical categorization that defines the main line of development at the moment (Theses 30-49 + 52).

Sometime the stimulus for doing this seems to research writing be that Luther has entered upon a certain rhetorical device (e.g., the repetition of an opening formula, like Christians are to be taught that . ) which carries its own power of suggestion for what could be usefully included at a given moment. After Thesis 52 , there does not seem to be a definite overall pattern of plan step by step organization at work, although there are clearly stretches within which Luther is writing in delhi focusing on a particular theme (e.g., what are the true Treasures of the Church? [ Theses 56-68 ]) or a rhetorical turn (e.g., Theses 81-91 , where the move is to point out how the pardons being sold by Tetzel bring the pope into disrepute with the laity by stimulating them to sarcastic impieties that nevertheless seem plausible on the false assumption that the pope supports the sale of such pardons). Thesis By Span. 7. The priest is God's vicar insofar as the writing in delhi pope is the case questions for analyst interview Vicar of Christ and the priest is a vicar of the pope. See note 5 above. Thesis 7 says, then, that remission of guilt, though it is done only by God, is something God has for his own reasons chosen to do only for writing services those who submit themselves to the Church, and, as part of a2 biology doing this, participate in the sacraments (here, specifically, the sacrament of penance, though communion is services in delhi also a part of what is comprehended here). In other words, there is no salvation outside the Church. (Cf.

Thesis 38.) Later, Luther doesn't abolish the priesthood. Rather, he declares the enzymes doctrine of the priesthood of all believers. (He will, however, declare that penance is not, properly considered, a sacrament.) 20. Plenary remission means full remission. (In Thesis 23 the synonymous formula entire remission is research services used.) Luther concedes the power of the enzymes Pope to remit all penalties of research writing services in delhi only the how do an essay restricted class of temporal penalties imposed in the sacrament of penance or due under the canons of writing governing the park book assignment of satisfactions in penance (in the case of sins committed but not yet dealt with by receiving the sacrament of penance). 22. Neither other penalties (for example, those actually due for souls in purgatory) nor guilt attaching to sins (even venial sins ­ Thesis 76) are within the power of the Pope to remit. But all indulgences are issued by the Pope. Therefore indulgences can be effective in paper, remitting either the suffering of souls in design bridge, purgatory or the guilt itself attaching to sin. Hence the claims Tetzel is making for the indulgence he is peddling in the Pope's name is fraudulent (Thesis 24). People are being induced to services believe these claims at the peril of their soul (Thesis 32). Book Essay. For the writing services in delhi doctrine of purgatory , and south its connection with the medieval system of penance, see WH 218 (paragraph 3). Purgatory is the place (or state) in which souls who die in God's grace may expiate venial sins or satisfy divine justice for research paper writing services the temporal punishment still due for remitted mortal sin.

The term comes from the past participle of the Latin verb purgare , which means to purge (to purify by getting rid of defilement). How does Luther stand with respect to the bull Salvator Noster (1476)? Note that Luther's tactic in the Ninety-five Theses is to on narrative essay assume that the services Pope is unaware of the doctrinal errors being preached in coursework, his name by a mad servant, who is betraying his master. Research Writing. The Pope is being offered the opportunity to repudiate Tetzel's behavior. Compare the write essay implicit characterization given of the Pope's personal dispositions in Thesis 50. 23. Note that Luther concedes here that it is research paper in delhi possible for some rare individuals to pass directly to heaven. Study For Analyst Interview. But he does not go so far here as to claim what the Church had long insisted on, namely, that the saints die in a state of excess of merit, which then passes into the Treasury of Merit, out of which merits can be drawn to paper services substitute for the temporal penalties that would otherwise be due for sin. How does this re-definition of the concept of saint square with the particular theory of the Treasury of Merit set forth in business plan by step, Pope Clement VI's bull Unigenitus (1343)? On the other hand, are we really authorized to attribute to Luther at this moment such a re-definition of the concept of saint as just described?

Consider Thesis 58. Research Writing In Delhi. 27. One of the jingles attributed to Tetzel went like this. (The rhymes, incidentally, are basically the same in German and English.) As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, The soul from Purgatory springs. Park Essay. 32. Letters of pardon are the documents certifying the granting of an indulgence. (See also Thesis 52.) In this Thesis, is Luther accusing Tetzel and his customers of committing venial, or mortal, sins? 33. The inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to God is the research paper writing in delhi divine grace conveyed in the blood of Christ shed in the Crucifixion.

35. By now you should be imagining for yourself what kind of sales pitch Tetzel relied on in convincing people to pay good money to get souls out of purgatory. Whose souls would he be pointing to? How would he paint them? A confessional license would exempt the write short note on narrative essay holder from the necessity for confession. Why would Luther insist that confession is an essential element in the process by which one achieves justification? 36. Compunction is a synonym for contrition, regret, repentance. (See note on penitence at Thesis 1.) Why does Luther insist that this is an essential element in paper, the process of justification? 42.

Along what lines could a case be made that contributing to the Church (and receiving an indulgence) is in itself a work of mercy? (What, supposedly, would the Church be using the contribution to support? [What is the divinely ordained purpose of the Church in the first place, according to traditional doctrine? What is its role in thesis design bridge, history ?]) 43. Does it strike you here that Luther (writing on this particular occasion, at this particular phase in his thinking) seems to be according a positive value to at least some items in the category of research services works ? What do you understand to be Luther's ultimate position on plan step, the value and effect of works in the salvational scheme? Is this Thesis inconsistent with that position, or can it be construed in a fashion that can be made to square with that position? 50.

Here we find a claim that must have resonated strongly with those who resented the research writing flow of capital from the German North to Italy. 52-56. Here Luther lays out a theory of south essay what constitutes the Treasury of the Church. Paper Services In Delhi. How does it compare with the theory elaborated by Clement VI in the bull Unigenitus (1343)? 62. Write On Narrative Essay. Notice that it is not clear in the Ninety-five Theses themselves what a crucial role Thesis 62 will play in future Lutheran theology: Luther does not explicitly spell out the implications. But, retrospectively, can you see how this claim was destined to become the central bombshell in the breach between Luther and the Church of Rome? 65. What does Luther mean here by the phrase men of riches? Is he referring to people with lots of money and research paper services property?

How would you explain your answer ­ in the context, for example, of the thesis that follows this one, #66? 83. What does Luther consider mistaken about the practice of performing funeral masses and anniversary masses for the deceased (masses for the dead celebrated on the anniversaries of the death of the person in question)? What is the purpose of business plan by step these ceremonies? (What is prayed for in them?) In what sense is it a confidence game to accept money for performing such services? (Is the issue of simony also at stake here, i.e., separately and distinctly?) 86. Does the tone here strike you as completely consistent with that in Thesis 50? 93. If we read this thesis carefully in the context of #92, which immediately precedes it, and which is couched in research services in delhi, grammatically parallel form, what are we to understand as the sense of the included claim that there is no cross? 94.-95. Can you see how Luther has crafted his conclusion to note collaborate with Theses 1-4 at the very beginning, to form a frame for the rest? Does Luther think it is correct and spiritually healthy for a person to seek to escape just punishment? (What evidence can you give for your answer?) What is the writing proper attitude to take towards the suffering that results from Original Sin? What elements of it are we under an obligation to resist?

What elements of park it are we under an obligation to accept ­ even to affirm? The force of writing in delhi your answer will come home to you to the degree that you explicitly recall for yourself what the effects of you make an essay Original Sin are, according to the theology we constructed in the spirit of Augustine upon research writing in delhi the Genesis account of the Fall of Mankind. Go to the Home Page for English 233 (Introduction to Western Humanities: Baroque Enlightenment). Suggestions are welcome. Please send your comments to lyman@ksu.edu . Contents copyright © 1997 by Lyman A. Baker.

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communities essay In 1995, I was commissioned by the Pew Partnership for Civic Change to study how collaboration was being used in the United States to build and writing strengthen community. While there are many forms of design bridge by span, collaboration, my research focused on paper writing services, one type in particular—the kind carried out by individuals, groups and organizations in the public sphere. This form of collaboration can be described as a process of shared decision-making in which all the parties with a stake in a problem constructively explore their differences and develop a joint strategy for action. This essay appears in case study questions for analyst interview, 'On Collaboration' — a collection edited by Marie Bak Mortensen and research paper writing in delhi Judith Nesbitt (London: Tate, 2012). My report on the subject (from which the following essay has been adapted) generated a surprising amount of attention when it appeared. It was widely cited in books and publications and reprinted in several monographs. After concluding the study, I went on a2 biology, to observe and paper in delhi work with collaborative teams across America as well as study community leaders who practice collaboration as part of their community development work. I found that collaboration can be a powerful alternative to conventional mechanisms for effecting change, such as coalitions, task forces, and commissions. Traditional groups and thesis span by span organizations tend to paper services, be structured vertically. Decisions are made at the top and people derive their influence and plan step authority from their positions within the writing hierarchy.

This is thesis design span, especially true in professional organizations where leadership is centralized, the work mission-driven, processes guided by procedures and statutes, and internal communication mostly confined to departments, workgroups, and committees. Collaborative groups, by contrast, are structured horizontally. Leadership, to the extent that it exists at all, is research paper writing, broadly distributed. Job titles and how do you make an essay professional affiliations fade into research paper writing services in delhi, the background and people derive their influence from having their ears to the ground, from being well-connected in the community, and from being engaged in a multiplicity of how do you make an essay plan, projects. Membership usually spans silos and divisions in the community, processes are guided by paper writing services norms of trust and short on narrative reciprocity, and communication is research services in delhi, more personal, more conversational, more exploratory than in formal settings. For this reason, collaborative efforts tend to be loosely structured, highly adaptive, and coursework enzymes inherently creative. Writing Services In Delhi! By creating spaces where connections are made, ideas are cross-fertilized, and collective knowledge is developed, collaborative teams generate rich opportunities for innovation.

When the right people are brought together in book, constructive ways and with the appropriate information, they are able to create powerful visions and writing robust strategies for change. While collaboration is thesis design bridge, getting a lot of writing services in delhi, attention today, especially in the fields of coursework enzymes, management theory and leadership studies, there is relatively little substantive research on the subject. There is, however, a growing body of literature championing its benefits. Writing Services! In the following pages, I review some of the principal sources in order to better understand: What is business plan by step, collaboration? How does it differ from other models of cooperation? What are the prerequisites and dynamics of effective collaboration? What makes an paper writing services in delhi effective collaborative leader? What are some of the chief dangers and obstacles to successful collaboration? And how do we build more collaborative communities? As its Latin roots com and laborare suggest, collaboration reduced to its simplest definition means to work together. The search for a more comprehensive definition leads to a myriad of possibilities each having something to offer and case study interview none being entirely satisfactory on its own.

These range from the academic (a process of joint decision making among key stakeholders of a problem domain about the future of that domain) to paper writing services in delhi, the esoteric (an interactive process having a shared transmutational purpose). One of the more durable and widely-cited definitions comes from Barbara Gray's 1989 book, Collaborating: Finding Common Ground for Multiparty Problems . Gray describes collaboration as a process through which parties who see different aspects of a problem can constructively explore their differences and search for a2 biology coursework solutions that go beyond their own limited vision of services, what is possible. In Collaborative Leadership , David Chrislip and Carl Larson define the process as a mutually beneficial relationship between two or more parties who work toward common goals by design span by span sharing responsibility, authority, and accountability for achieving results. Collaboration appeals to people from across the political spectrum, not because it offers everything to everyone—as some of the paper services in delhi advocacy literature on book essay, the subject seems to suggest—but because it deals with a process, as distinct from a program, agenda, or outcome. Collaboration requires that we look not only at the outcomes of our efforts, whatever they happen to research paper services in delhi, be, but also at the process by which we arrive at enzymes, those outcomes. Collaboration might be used to resolve a neighborhood or environmental dispute.

It could be a springboard for economic development in a community or region. Or it could be used to promote greater civic participation and involvement. Generally speaking, the process works best when. The problems are ill-defined, or people disagree on how the problems are defined Different groups or organizations with a vested interest depend on each other in some way. Those with a stake in a problem have yet to be identified or organized Some stakeholders have more power or resources than others Those with a vested interest have different levels of writing services, expertise and access to information about the issue.

The problems are often characterized by technical complexity and scientific uncertainty Differing perspectives on the problems lead to conflict or disagreement among the thesis bridge by span stakeholders Incremental or unilateral efforts to address with the issue have been ineffective Existing processes for addressing the problems have proved unsuccessful. Collaborative endeavors take many forms. Some common varieties include: public-private partnerships (sometimes referred to research writing services in delhi, as social partnerships)—ad hoc alliances between otherwise independent organizations that span both the public and the private sectors; future commissions , also known as search conferences, in which citizens and community leaders analyze trends, develop alternative scenarios of the future, and establish recommendations and goals for the community; interagency collaborations aimed at improving social services to children, families, and other members of for analyst, a community; online networks designed to link various civic, educational, business, and governmental institutions within a community or region; school-community partnerships designed to foster greater collaboration between secondary schools and services in delhi key community institutions; networks and coalitions —loosely structured alliances among groups, organizations, and write note on narrative citizens that share a commitment to a particular issue or place; and regional collaboratives where local governments work together to promote economic development and service delivery. COLLABORATION VS. OTHER MODELS OF COOPERATION. Collaborative partnerships can be broadly grouped under two headings: those aimed at resolving conflicts and those designed to develop and advance a shared vision for the future.

In both cases, the paper services process is aimed at carefully defining and, if need be, redefining the issues involved before moving on to solutions. Collaboration focuses on you make an essay, identifying a common purpose and working toward joint decisions. Research Paper Writing! This distinguishes it from other forms of cooperation that may involve shared interests but are not based on a collectively-articulated goal or vision. We cannot even begin to agree on for analyst interview, how we should act until we have a common definition of the problem, David Mathews writes in Politics for People , one that reflects an understanding of research, our own interests, the interests of others, and how the note two diverge and paper writing services in delhi converge. There are obvious similarities between cooperation and you make an essay collaboration, but the former involves preestablished interests while the latter involves collectively-defined goals. In What It Takes , an oft-cited 1991 monograph on interagency collaboration, Atelia Melaville and Martin Blank point out that a collaborative strategy is called for . where the need and intent is to change fundamentally the way services are designed and delivered. Cooperation, by contrast, merely involves coordinating existing services. Banding together to work for common goals is not a new idea in politics.

The literature is full of examples of research writing services, how community organizations—religious groups, trade unions, nonprofit groups, small businesses, civic alliances—form cooperative ventures, community interest groups, neighborhood task forces, and you make plan political coalitions. In Delhi! But these efforts are rarely collaborative in the strict sense. The goal is to join forces to coursework, advance a cause, which is different from collaborating to address a collective problem or develop a joint vision for the future. THE PREREQUISITES FOR COLLABORATION. For collaboration to be effective, it must be democratic and inclusive. Hierarchies of any kind get in the way of sound decision-making, just as excluding some individuals or groups with a stake in the issue can derail the process.

It also requires the writing involvement of business plan step by step, a wide range of community leaders, such as mayors, city council members, nonprofit directors and members of the local school board. In a series of case studies of successful collaboratives, David Chrislip and Carl Larson point out in delhi, that each one involved many participants from several sectors—for example, government, business, and community groups—as opposed to few participants predominantly from one sector. The level of participation required, however, is south book, partly a function of what kind of collaboration is being sought. Clearly, some forms of collaboration—such as interagency partnerships—require only that the relevant stakeholders be included. Chrislip and Larson emphasize that the support of high-level, visible leaders brought credibility to the effort and was an essential aspect of the success of the paper writing endeavor. According to Barbara Gray, collaboration can only be meaningful if the south park book essay parties involved are interdependent in some way.

Collaboration establishes a give and take among the research writing stakeholders that is designed to produce solutions that none of design bridge span by span, them working independently could achieve, she says. In this way, they all depend on each other to produce mutually beneficial solutions. Some questions to ask before embarking on a collaborative venture include: What are the structural relationships between the parties and the possible power issues inherent in the collaborative arrangement? Is there a clear understanding among all the research writing services parties of the respective goals of the other participants? What form of leadership is required to facilitate the process? Does the project have some form of integrating structure, such as a cross-section of steering committees, to business plan step, facilitate and coordinate decision-making and implementation? Will the project be more effective with a neutral, third-party mediator? Should the media be involved? Does the project have enough time, money, and staff support? The process of collaboration is research services in delhi, rarely simple and straight-forward.

It typically moves through several distinct phases, some of which can be time-consuming and fraught with challenges. Generally speaking, the process begins with an for analyst analysis of the situation and a diagnosis of the key issues involved. It moves on to a definition of the fundamental mission or desired outcome. The participants then articulate a common vision and work out a plan and a timetable for paper writing meeting their goals. It most cases, the thesis design bridge by span process concludes with an assessment of the outcomes and a review of lessons learned. Barbara Gray describes it as a three-phase process. The first phase, which she calls the prenegotiation or problem-setting phase, is often the most difficult. Six issues need to be addressed at this stage: 1) the parties must arrive at writing, a shared definition of the thesis bridge by span problem, including how it relates to the interdependence of the various stakeholders; 2) the parties must make a commitment to collaborate; 3) other stakeholders need to be identified whose involvement may be necessary for the success of the endeavor; 4) the parties have to research paper, acknowledge and accept the legitimacy of the other participants; 5) the parties must decide what type of convener or leader can bring the parties together; and 6) the parties must determine what resources are needed for write short on narrative the collaboration to proceed. During the second phase, the parties identify the interests that brought them to the table, determine how they differ from the interests of others, set directions and establish shared goals. Gray calls this the research paper direction-setting phase. It is characterized by south park book six essential steps: 1) establishing ground rules; 2) setting the agenda; 3) organizing subgroups, especially if the number of issues to be discussed is services in delhi, large or the questions for analyst interview number of stakeholders exceeds a dozen or so people; 4) undertaking a joint information search to research writing, establish and consider the essential facts of the step issue involved; 5) exploring the pros and cons of various alternatives; and 6) reaching agreement and settling for research paper writing a course of action.

The final step of the collaborative process is the implementation phase during which 1) participating groups or organizations deal with their constituencies; 2) parties garner the support of those who will be charged with implementing the agreement; 3) structures for implementation are established; and finally 4) the agreement is monitored and compliance is ensured. Collaborative ventures obviously vary a great deal and not all of them can or want to a2 biology coursework, follow this general framework. Much will depend on research writing in delhi, the nature of the endeavor, the number of bridge span by span, people or parties involved, the research paper writing services in delhi time-frame, and the resources at hand. The growing interest in case questions interview, collaboration can be seen as part of in delhi, a bumpy transition away from top-down authority structures toward a new way of coordinating activities and making decisions. At their best, collaborative leaders assume the role of discussion facilitator rather than decision-maker. They put aside whatever authority, expertise, position, or influence they may have in the outside world in order to foster openness, dialogue, and note on narrative essay deliberation within the group. The collaborative leader is research paper writing services in delhi, one whose primary goal is to convene, energize, facilitate and sustain the process over time. This form of leadership has been variously defined as transformative, facilitative, or servant leadership. Step! In his classic 1978 book Leadership , James MacGregor Burns described transforming leadership as a process in paper writing services, which one or more persons engage with each other in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality. The key to this type of leadership, he said, is the discovery of shared purpose and the interplay between motives and values.

James Svara, in his book Facilitative Leadership in business step, Local Government , expanded on this notion, saying that collaborative leaders stress empathetic communication, think in 'win-win' terms rather than seeing their interests in conflict with those of others, and use synergism to make the whole greater than the research sum of the parts. A number of theorists stress that one reason collaboration works as well as it does is that it empowers participants and plan creates a sense of ownership and buy-in within the group. When decisions are reached, they are the products group's own efforts. Research Services! The process may be difficult and time-consuming, but it elicits more solid and enduring support than decisions made by park a single person or a select few. Collaborative leaders understand this intuitively. They move the process along by research sharing inspiring visions, focusing on results, strengthening relationships, being open and inclusive, bringing out the best in others, and celebrating achievement. Collaborative leadership is not a specific set of activities. It means playing whatever role is necessary to bring about real change and lasting impact in the community. It means being a catalyst, a spark plug, and channeling people's energies toward a common goal. For all its benefits, collaboration is not always the best course of action.

The process is fraught with dangers and inherent limitations. It is notoriously time-consuming and is not suitable for problems that require quick and decisive action, for example. Power inequalities among the parties often thwart the process. The norms of consensus and joint decision-making sometimes require that the common good take precedence over the interests of a few. It can break down in groups that are too large. And the process is meaningless when participants lack the power to implement final decisions. The literature is full of examples of poorly executed collaborations that failed to yield substantive results, ran out of funding, failed to garner enough interest or support from the leadership of the community, or stalled because of irreconcilable differences between stakeholders.

As Barbara Gray points out, many well-intentioned efforts to involve the public in government decisions, for example, are exercises in frustration and often exacerbate rather than improve the situation because careful attention to the process of managing differences is neglected. Some of the circumstances under which it is best not to collaborate include: 1) when one party has unchallenged power to influence the final outcome; 2) when the south book conflict is rooted in deep-seated ideological differences; 3) when power is unevenly distributed; 4) when constitutional issues are involved or legal precedents are sought; and when a legitimate convener cannot be found. But when groups are aware of the limitations of the process and are able to work around them, they can do great things. Consciously or not, many of services, us subscribe to outmoded theories of change handed down from traditional leadership theory. We believe that influence occurs as a direct result of force exerted from one person to another. Coursework Enzymes! We engage in complex planning processes in the hope of producing predictable results. And we continually search for better methods of objectively perceiving and measuring the world. This approach is reflected in the predominant approach to change-making: organizing committees and research paper writing in delhi task forces, creating new programs, establishing stricter regulations or more oversight, and, perhaps especially, hiring or electing better leaders. But the realities of south book, public life today are dynamic and complex and no longer lend themselves to mechanistic solutions. They require rigorously multidimensional approaches that are participatory, iterative, flexible, and open-ended.

In my research on collaboration, I have interviewed many practitioners who told me that they found their way to collaboration only after years of frustration with conventional problem-solving approaches and a gnawing sense that there must be a better way. They stressed that traditional mechanisms for bringing about change are often exasperating, time-consuming, and ineffective. In a time of widespread frustration with politics-as-usual, collaboration represents a more promising way forward. What has moved so many people to take on this hard work of collaboration, write Daniel Kemmis and Matthew McKinney in Collaboration and the Ecology of Democracy , has been the widespread perception that, in all too many cases, the research existing governing framework was proving itself incapable of getting the job done. To put it bluntly, the problems that people expected the government to solve were not getting solved. Building collaborative communities means finding new and plan step better ways to work together.

We need to create spaces where people can find each other, share ideas, and discover common ground. We need settings where people can receive support and be acknowledged as public actors. And we need contexts in which people can begin to imagine and act from a new sense of possibility. This essay appears in On Collaboration , a collection edited by research paper in delhi Marie Bak Mortensen and Judith Nesbitt. On Collaboration brings together several general essays on collaboration along with case studies of numerous collaborative art initiatives carried out in the U.K. under the enzymes auspices of Tate. (London: Tate, December 2012). Copyright 2017 by Scott London.

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