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Calf Farming in Pakistan #8211; Smeda Report. Pre-Feasibility Study CALF FATTENING FARM (FEEDLOT SYSTEM) Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority Government of Pakistan www. smeda. org. pk HEAD OFFICE 6th Floor LDA Plaza Egerton Road, Lahore Tel 111 111 456, Fax 6304926-7 Website www. Online Homework! smeda. org. pk REGIONAL OFFICE PUNJAB 8 th Floor, LDA Plaza, Lahore, Tel: (042) 111-111-456 Fax: (042)6304926-7 [emailprotected] org. pk REGIONAL OFFICE SINDH 5TH Floor, Bahria Complex II, M. T. Khan Road, Karachi. Tel: (021) 111-111-456 Fax: (021) 5610572 [emailprotected] org. pk REGIONAL OFFICE NWFP Ground Floor State Life Building The Mall, Peshawar. Revision Prepared by essay, Issue Date Revised In Issued by PREF-24 3 SMEDA-Punjab March 2002 March 2009 Library Officer 3 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 1 INTRODUCTION TO SMEDA The Small and homework Medium Enterprise Development Authority (SMEDA) was established with the objective to provide fresh impetus to the economy through the launch of an aggressive SME support program. Since its inception in October 1998, SMEDA had adopted a sectoral SME development approach. A few priority sectors were selected on the criterion of SME presence.
In depth research was conducted and comprehensive development plans were formulated after identification of impediments and retardants. The all-encompassing sectoral development strategy involved recommending changes in the regulatory environment by taking into consideration other important aspects including finance, marketing, technology and human resource development. Essay! SMEDA has so far successfully formulated strategies for sectors including, fruits and vegetables, marble and granite, gems and jewelry, marine fisheries, leather and footwear, textiles, surgical instruments, transport and dairy. Whereas the task of homework SME development at a broader scale still requires more coverage and enhanced reach in on compatability terms of SMEDA’s areas of operation. Along with the sectoral focus a broad spectrum of business development services is also offered to the SMEs by online homework planner, SMEDA. These services include identification of viable business opportunities for potential SME investors. In order to in creative writing, facilitate these investors, SMEDA provides business guidance through its help desk services as well as development of project specific documents. These documents consist of information required to make well-researched investment decisions. Pre-feasibility studies and business plan development are some of the services provided to enhance the capacity of individual SMEs to exploit viable business opportunities in a better way. Planner! This document is in the continuation of essay on compatability this effort to enable potential investors to make well-informed investment decisions. Homework Planner! For more information on services offered by SMEDA, please contact our website: www. Value Of Reading! smeda. org. Online Homework Planner! pk.
2 PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT The objective of the topics, pre-feasibility study is primarily to facilitate potential entrepreneurs to facilitate investment and provide an overview about homework dairy and livestock farming. The project pre-feasibility may form the basis of an research paper, important investment decision and in order to serve this objective, the document covers various aspects of dairy and livestock concept development, start-up, production, finance and online business management. The document also provides sectoral information, brief on government policies and international scenario, which have some bearing on on compatability the project itself. Homework! This particular pre-feasibility is regarding “Calf Fattening Farm” which comes under “Livestock and topics Agriculture” sector. Online Planner! Before studying the movie films, whole document one must consider following critical aspects, which form the planner, basis of essay any investment decision. 4 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 3 CRUCIAL FACTORS #038; STEPS IN DECISION MAKING FOR INVESTMENT Calf fattening is all-inclusive activity, related to online planner, meet animal’s care, housing, medication, feeding and management. It is defined as all those aspects and activities relating to raising of writing syllabus calves for meat purpose.
Before making the decision, whether to invest in the livestock farming or not, one should carefully analyze the associated risk factors. Online Planner! A SWOT analysis can help in analyzing these factors, which can play important role in making the decision. 3. 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3. Movie Films! 2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Strengths Back bone and main stay of economy. Provides raw material for food #038; Leather industry. Concentrated production. Favorable breeding backgrounds.
Relatively cheap farmland. Homework! High domestic consumption Low cost living standard. Full family involvement, devoted #038; hardworking Sector. Major source of food, i. e. Meat. Sociological Paper! Source of Farmyard Manure (FYM). Sizeable foreign exchanges earning through exports. Ample human resource employment sector. Stationed, permanently located secured loaning sector. Online Homework Planner! Weaknesses High production costs.
Low levels of bulk feed production. Poor management level in value of reading essay quite a few cases. No or low application of research work and pedigree record keeping. Homework! Animals are kept for social rather than commercial reasons. There is no registered beef breed in Pakistan. Low or lack of interaction with farmers. Essay! Poor information about each other. Lack of extension services. Lack of education and initiative in farmer, traditional approach due to lack of skills and online homework management. Unorganized sector, unaware of basic farm management practices.
Remote area, lack of sci fi farm to market approach #038; transportation. Non-availability of communication services. Lack of farm/ market infra structures #038; marketing information. Management of homework planner livestock farm is a challenging job. Diploma In Creative Writing In English Ignou Syllabus! Nutrition is still a problem hampering the livestock productivity in general and online planner meat production in sociological research topics particular 5 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 3. Online Planner! 3 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3. Paper Topics! 4 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Opportunities Govt. of Pakistan #038; Sate Bank of Pakistan priority sector. Vast range of area of operation, more needs and scope of online development. Value added dairy products are in demand. Meat and meat products needs are much higher than supply.
Commercially viable sector with great credit potential and absorption capacity. Vast range of area of thesis on product innovation operation, more needs and homework scope of development. Value added meat products are in demand. If the government lifts the price fixing taboo, then there are bright chances for the flourishing of meat market. Customers are ready to pay prices for the good quality meat. Massive migration of labour to cities can be checked / stopped. Corporate financing will become a niche in lending market. Of Reading! Progressive meat retailing firms can promote the sale of processed and quality meat cuts to online, consumers, which is packed and labeled at a price, including the cost of processing, packaging and quality. Development of slaughtering and processing operations can help in in creative writing in english ignou syllabus obtaining maximum value. Improving the control of external parasites may enhance the value of hide or skin.
Threats Rising trend of cost of production with higher rate of interest as compared to profit ratio. Implementation of homework WTO will result in open #038; competitive commodity pricing. Due to fear of default, banker community has reluctance for sci fi paper lending loans. High risks of diseases in live stock. Animals are subject to serious diseases that may lead to mortality. The formal meat market not growing due to online planner, the government regulation of price fixing as Municipal Corporation fixes the meat prices in value of reading essay the urban markets. The fixed prices are not likely to be viable for selling the quality meat. Butcher market not ready to pay the premium prices for the fattened animal. Defective and online planner unorganized markets. Sci Fi Research! Imbalance between prices of inputs #038; outputs.
Rising trend of cost of online planner production with higher rate of interest as compared to profit ratio. Lack of media projection, non-recognition of problems and monopoly of multinationals. Lack of community organizations and out dated farm practices. Lack of coordination towards common causes #038; goals. Lack of awareness about economics, demand #038; supply in market.
Low saving, low holding capacity #038; increasing level of movie films poverty. Non-availability of subsidy #038; tax holidays. 6 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 4 4. 1 PROJECT PROFILE Opportunity Rationale Livestock production is an integral part of Pakistan#8217;s agriculture sector and plays a vital role in online homework national economy. At present, livestock is contributing about value of reading 52% to the agricultural sector and online homework 10. 9% to the GDP. Pakistan is geographically located close to the Middle East and on compatability South-East Asia. Both of these regions are deficient in livestock products and depend upon online planner import from other countries. The livestock industry in most of the thesis innovation, developed world is online planner highly subsidized. With reduction of subsidies in of reading the wake of WTO, the local livestock sector should have better opportunities to compete. Livestock registered a strong growth of 4. 30% over the last year’s impressive growth of online 7. Value! 5% due to increase in the livestock and poultry products. The role of livestock in rural economy may be assessed by planner, the fact that 30 to 35 million of the total rural population is value of reading engaged in livestock farming, having 2 to online planner, 3 cattle/buffalo and 5 to 6 sheep/goats per family deriving 30% to 40% of income from it.
During year 2007-08, the research paper, total red meat production was 1. 55 and planner 0. 58 million tons for diploma writing syllabus beef and mutton, respectively. The per capita consumption indicates a growing demand of meat in the years to come. Calves for planner fattening may come from the research topics, dairy herd. Table 4-1: Population of livestock (million)1 Species Cattle Buffalo Sheep Goats 2005-06 29. 6 27. 3 26. 5 53. 8 2006-07 30. Homework! 7 28. Movie Films! 2 26.
8 55. 2007-08 31. Online! 8 29. 0 27. 1 56. 7 Table 4-2: Production of Livestock Products2 Product Milk (million tones) Beef (000,tones) Mutton(000,tones) 2005-06 31. Paper Topics! 20 1,444 554 2006-07 32. 22 1,493 565 2007-08 34. 06 1,549 578 Livestock production is growing rapidly as a result of the increasing demand for planner animal products. Essay! In a Food #038; Agriculture Organization (FAO) study: Livestock to 2020: The Next Food Revolution, it is suggested that global meat production and consumption will rise from 233 million tones (2000) to homework, 300 million tones (2020), and milk from 568 to 700 million tones over the same period.
Egg production will also increase by value of reading essay, 30% 3. These 1 Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2007-08 2 Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2007-08 3 The Livestock to 2020 study used base figures for 1993 and these have been recalculated for the year 2000 based on FAO STAT data. 7 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) predictions show a massive increase in animal protein demand, needed to satisfy the growth in the human population. The overall growth in the live stock population can be seen from the homework, following table: Table 4-3 Livestock (Population Growth) 4 Fiscal Year 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Buffaloes 23. 24. 0 24. 8 25. Sociological Research Paper! 5 26. 3 27.
3 28. 2 29. 0 Cattle 22. 4 22. Homework Planner! 8 23. 3 23. 8 24. Research! 2 29. 6 30. 7 31. 8 Goats 49. 1 50. 9 52. 8 54. 7 56. 7 53. Online Homework Planner! 8 55. 2 56. 7 (Numbers in Millions) Sheep 24. Value Of Reading! 2 24. 4 24. 6 24. 7 24. 9 26. 5 26. 8 27. 1 Poultry 292. 4 330. 0 346. 1 352. 6 372. 0 433. Homework! 8 443. 2 510. 1 Calf fattening enterprise is an agro-based project.
The calves, preferably males, 8-9 months of age are fed on concentrated feed and fodder produced from the agricultural land. Balanced feed is given to value, calves for a period of 120 days to get higher weight gain. Live weight of these calves is between 80-90 kg. If these calves are fed properly on the formulated fattening feed, their weight can be raised up to 180-200 kg during the fattening period. The daily weight gain of fattened calves varies between 600-800 grams depending on the quality of feed given to them. There is a shortage of beef in the country. This shortage is homework being observed through meat-less days. If the calf fattening projects are carried out in the country then the domestic demand of beef could be fulfilled. As the sociological, fattened animals have higher meat contents (55%) as compared to grazing animals (48%). 4. Market Entry Timing Since beef demand is increasing day by day, therefore, the demand of fattened calves is also higher. The demand increases especially before occasions like Eid-ul-Fitr and Eidul-Azha.
That’s why the online planner, animals in such occasions are sold at a bit higher prices as compared to other days. The proposed business can be started before these occasions or any time through out the year. At the commencement of the proposed business, it is of reading essay important that the entrepreneur must have good knowledge of the production and have contacts with the livestock breeders and farmers. Online Homework! The ability to research paper, work with people/ animals and efficient use of resources are important aspects in modern and commercial calf fattening farm. 4. 3 Proposed Business Legal Status The proposed legal structure of the business entity is online planner either sole proprietorship or partnership.
Although selection totally depends upon the choice of the entrepreneur but this financial feasibility is on product based on Sole Proprietorship. 4 Pakistan Livestock Census, Statistics Division, Ministry of Economic Affairs #038; Statistics, GoP. 8 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 4. 4 Proposed Capacity. The pre-feasibility suggests producing 450 calves a year in 3 production cycles, each of 4 months. Planner! This size of a farm justifies the recurring costs of this project. 4. 5 Project Investment The total cost of the project is movie films Rs. 4, 933,113 out of which capital cost of the project is Rs. 4,439,944 for purchasing the animals and constructing the building and the rest is used to meet the working capital requirement. Table 4-4 Project Costs Description Land Building and Civil Works Plant and Machinery Furniture/ Fixture #038; Equipment Pre-operational Expenses Vehicles Total Fixed Cost Working Capital Total Amount (in Rs. 506,944 2,374,000 379,000 100,000 292,500 787,500 4,439,944 493,168 4,933,112 The proposed pre-feasibility is homework planner based on the assumption of 50% debt and 50% equity. However this composition of debt and equity can be changed as per the requirement of the investor.
Table 4-5 Project Financing Debt Equity Total Project Investment Table 4-6 Project Economics Viability IRR (%) NPV @20% (Rs) Pay Back Period (year) 4. 6 Proposed Location Project 55. 71% 27,540,982 4. Diploma In English! 10 50% 50% 2,466,556 2,466,556 4,933,112 The development of urban or peri-urban commercial calf fattening farms is online homework omething new in livestock production. Metropolitan cities like Lahore, Karachi, Multan, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, etc are the major markets of meat. Movie Films! Hence, farms established in peri urban areas of these cities fulfill the daily need of these cities. The other locations 9 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) may be around the bigger cities e. Online! g. Sialkot, Jhang, Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, Sahiwal, Okara etc. 4. 7 Key Success Factors/Practical Tips for Success. The livestock production research institutes and universities have conducted many studies to movie films, ascertain the beef production potential of homework indigenous livestock under the feedlot fattening regimes.
Weight, growth and efficiency are major factors influencing the economical meat production. The carcass yield depends upon several factors such as breed, age, sex and degree of finishing. The studies suggest substantial live weight gain and carcass yield from the buffalo and different indigenous breeds of cow calves. There are still some issues, which hinder the development of beef production. The thrust in calf fattening farm is on thesis on product innovation the increased use of capital and management. Successful farming harnesses all available resources into productive and profitable unit.
Calf fattening is highly complex as it includes farm management, feeding, housing, disease control and online homework planner hygienic production of essay milk on farm. Online Homework! The judicial use of means and resources to achieve clearly defined goals is the key success factor i. On Compatability! e. the art of maximization and optimal utilization of resources and means for maximizing productivity and profits. Feeding meat animals on online nutritious compound feed along with green fodder can be adopted. Other farm management practices include comfortable and ventilated barns, drinking water and feed according to the requirements. Paper! Timely vaccination against Rinderpest, Black Quarter and Foot #038; Mouth Disease. The prevention of online internal and external parasites will also improve the over all performance of diploma writing ignou herd. The absence of calf weaning program is a shortcoming to the development of beef industry. Online Homework! Too many young male calves are slaughtered quite young due to high cost of milk required to feed them. Those left are generally underfed and stunted thus unable to achieve the diploma writing in english syllabus, normal growth.
A suitable plan could provide animals of 100-150 kgs of weight, which could be raised to the desired market demand. Homework Planner! An efficient program aim at of reading essay moving the calves from liquid to online homework planner, dry feed as quickly as possible if calf fattening is integrated with dairy farming. Value! High quality calf starter feed with digestibility, palatability and online planner composition should be fed free of diploma ignou choice from the third day of birth. Quality of online homework planner diet is the key to thesis on product, a successful early weaning system. Weaning could be started once the consumption reaches 800 grams a day, which would provide healthy and thrifty calves. The changing of this system by small farmers and peri-urban dairy farm entrepreneurs will be a long and difficult process to which some incentives are essential. Another option is to buy feeder calves from the cattle markets. Attention must be given to online planner, the selection of animals. Once the calves are purchased and placed in pens, farmers would face many technical problems affecting the success of their operation. It will be worthwhile to get technical assistance from the livestock professionals and sci fi research paper experts. It is advisable to purchase fattening rations initially from the online planner, public or private sector feed mills.
Once the experience is sci fi paper gained and practices are established, feed processing equipment, such as the homework, grinder-mixers can be installed as per essay capacity of the farm. 10 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 5 5. 1 SECTOR #038; INDUSTRY ANALYSIS Major Players Though livestock production is fragmented and most units in Punjab are small with 10 percent holding around 10 to 20 buffalo cows, and online planner only five percent over 20 heads each. Such units are often run by capable and business-oriented farmers who are open to change and research eager to adopt improved production practices. They would respond positively to online, incentives and workable production programs. Value Of Reading Essay! In mid 90’s the homework planner, US Feed Grain Council introduced commercial meat production. A number of farmers from Punjab and Sindh participated in the program.
They produced many ‘lots’ of fattened animals but felt difficulty in selling the animals at proper price. Under prevailing conditions, producers cannot raise animals to value essay, 250-300 kg unless they are sold at a premium price. Planner! Efficient feeding/management can bring down the cost of production, but not enough to compete with the meat coming from end of career or from light weight, poor quality animals. A positive measure could be to terminate the ceiling price policy and create integrated production-distribution projects. 5. 2 Hubs of Calf Fattening Farming Karachi is paper a big market for good quality meat. The Karachi market is expanding, as daily requirement of meat is about 1,000 metric tons. Meat farming integrated with dairy business if done on scientific basis is very profitable. There are more than 100 markets only in Sindh dealing with livestock without any facility or supervision.
The major markets are Tharparkar, Mirpurkhas, Sanghar, Dadu and homework Badin. All this will facilitate farmers in rearing their livestock in a more healthy way. Value Of Reading Essay! The countries can also be grouped by the percentage of the beef herd in the total cattle herd, a situation that is reflected in the typical farms: ? ? ? Milk Countries: with the beef herd as ; 25 percent of the total are Poland, Pakistan, Hungary, Czech Republic and Germany. Mix Countries: with a share between 25 and 75 percent of the beef herd of the online homework planner, total are Austria, France, Ireland and Spain. Beef Countries: with ; 75 percent of the beef herd of the total are U. S. , Brazil, Australia, Argentina and Uruguay.
MARKET INFORMATION Sector Characteristics 6 6. 1. Currently, meat sector in Pakistan is working on on compatability an informal basis from online, animal raising to meat selling. Animal traders purchase animals from the rural areas and sell them to the animal markets in the urban areas. Butchers purchase these animals from diploma writing in english syllabus, animal markets and slaughter them in the slaughterhouses. Butchers act as meat traders and dominate the meat market both in rural and urban areas. The animals sold in these markets are generally diseased and culled animals. Butchers/traders prefer to online, buy these cheap animals. 11 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System)
The current red meat production system is movie films both traditional and inefficient. Beef mostly comes from the end of career, or emergency slaughtered animals. A lot of baby buffaloes and calves are slaughtered when these are only 1-2 weeks old. Online Homework! Few calves are raised to essay, 60-80kg but on extremely poor and unbalanced diets. Lack of commercial, on-farm livestock feeding could be blamed for online planner existing price ceiling, which is fixed too low to recover the production cost. Traditional and unhygienic slaughtering techniques are major constraints, which are not acceptable to those who believe in health and hygiene. The livestock resources hold potential for increasing the production of meat.
It is estimated that about 6-7 million buffalo/cattle male calves if raised on balanced diet could double the production. Sheep and goats can also be raised for quality meat production. The meat industry as a whole, from livestock farming to marketing of sci fi research meat is in a poor state at the moment. General crop farming has progressed from the #8216;subsistence level farming#8217; to #8216;commercial farming#8217;, at least in major crops in the country because of research, extension focus and #8216;market pull factors#8217;. Whereas the livestock farming has remained least commercialized and survives under subsistence farming conditions. Beef yield has remained low due to the following constraints: ? ? Despite immense potential, breeding has not been done for homework planner increasing productivity. Feeding methods are primitive with hardly any feed management. Despite abundant fodder production, there is always a shortage between seasons. This shortage is met by #8220;bhoosa#8221; (wheat straw) which has very low nutritional value.
Quality feed concentrates from existing by-products is not being used efficiently. Thesis On Product! Large-scale livestock farming has not been practiced due to online planner, the total manual procedures adopted in feeding and herd management. Reliability of manual labour is sci fi paper severe especially in homework view of illiteracy and sociological research paper topics poor farmer education on the subject. Market Potential ? 6. 2 In Pakistan, the online homework, beef industry is an important segment of livestock production. The increasing population and the rising consumer buying power have together contributed to an increase in demand resulting in relatively favorable prices for beef.
Worldwide consumption of meat during 1983 for developed world was 74 kg compared to movie films, 14 kg for developing countries and 11 kg for online homework Pakistan. The data for 1993 indicates 76kg, 21 kg and 16kg for the three, respectively. The challenge for Pakistan now is to achieve 47 kg per capita consumption by 2020. Innovation! According to statistics there is a gap in demand and supply of beef in the market. This gap is met through meatless days and online homework through poultry meat. 12 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Figure 6-1: Market Value of Dairy #038; Livestock in Pakistan (Source: Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan, 2003-04) 6. 3 Target Customers The pre-feasibility suggests selling the animals in sociological topics the urban market.
The buyers could be the corporate buyers e. g. hotels and exporters. The animal mandies of homework big metropolitan cities can also be considered for selling the animals in bulk. The animals will be sold on innovation live weight basis. The price of fattened calves varies between Rs 85-95 kg depending upon the supply and demand of meat in the market. The feasibility has taken Rs 90 per kg live body weight as the selling price. The livestock farmer could also seek buy back agreements with the exporters. Following are some of the target clients for a calffattening farmer: 1. 2. 3. 4. Local people Butchers Contractors Slaughter house owners The cost of production per kg of meat should be lower than its sale price so that farmer could feel it economical. 7 7. 1 7. Homework! 1. 1 FARM INPUTS Land Land Requirement Around 1 acre of land would be required which cost Rs.
506,944 for on product a calf-fattening project of 450 animals in homework planner a period of one year. It is essay on compatability assumed that the online homework, Total Mixed Ration (TMR) will be purchased from market @ Rs. 11 per Kg. Around 6,000 sq. ft. Sociological Paper! area would be used for online building a shed for the animals to protect them from severity of the weather. 3 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Table 7-1: Land Requirements Description Shed for Calves Open Paddock for Calves Stores (Feed #038; machine) Servant Room, Wash room Open land Office block Total Land Requirement 7. Movie Films! 1. 2 Land Lease Area (Sq. ft) 6,000 9,000 120 120 20,760 500 36,500 Sq. ft Lease is a better option for a new investor. Land on lease is available in rural areas for online homework planner a period of 5-15 years. Essay! Advance rent for a few years will be charged initially. Online Homework! Good agriculture land is available with an annual rent of Rs 8,000-10,000 per value of reading acre. Planner! But for this pre feasibility study it is assumed that the sci fi research paper, Total Mixed Ration (TMR) would be purchased from the online homework planner, market. 7. 1. 3 Suitable Locations Peri urban and rural areas in the neighboring areas of Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad, Faisalabad #038; Multan etc. where water, electricity is diploma in creative in english available to irrigate the planner, crops are suitable locations for establishing a calf-fattening farm.
7. 1. 4 Herd Mix Some breeds of cattle are known as #8216;dual purpose#8217; because they are suitable for producing milk and beef. But modern farming divides cattle into either beef or dairy breeds aiming at high productivity through specialization. British beef breeds include Hereford, Galloway, Beef Shorthorn, Aberdeen Angus and research paper South Devon. A recent trend in the UK has been the introduction of large Continental breeds such as Charolais, Limousin and online planner Simmental. The prevailing breeds in Western Europe, Poland and Czech Republic are Fleckvieh, Simmental, Limousin and Charolais. In Hungary, Ireland, the U. S. and the Southern Hemisphere, breeds of diploma in creative writing ignou British origin (mainly Hereford, Angus and homework their crosses) dominate. Particular cases are Brazil (Nelore, coming from India) and Pakistan where the local buffalo breed is used for both milk and beef production5.
The Calves of different breeds (7-8 months of age) can be used for fattening purpose at an average body weight of writing in english syllabus 80-100 kgs for 90-120 days. These breeds may be from Sahiwal, Lohani, Dajal, Cholistan, Crossbred cattle, buffalo calves or non-descript (belonging to none of particular breed). Experiments carried out on planner Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara shows that cost of meat production for Cholistani and sci fi Crossbred calves is relatively cheaper than Sahiwal, Dajal, Non-descript and online planner buffalo calves fed on the same Total Mixed Ration (TMR). 5 (IFCN Beef Report 2007) 14 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3. Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 7. 2 Animal Markets The feasibility suggests purchasing calves on sociological live weight basis from the online homework, rural areas or animal mandies. The animals are being traded across the sci fi research paper, country in planner animal mandies round the essay, year. Most of online planner which operate on in creative in english ignou weekly basis.
The other source of animals could be through making an agreement with a supplier (middlemen/ beoparies). Government and private livestock farms are also the main sources for purchasing meat animals. Animal markets are situated in online homework planner different places in Punjab, which includes Sheikupura, Okara, Sahiwal, Arifwala, Muridke and movie films Jhelum. These markets operate on rotational basis in a week, or once a month. There are different contractors available in the markets that would help in locating the proper animals. These contractors work on commission basis for supplying calves on homework planner live weight basis. Commission rate charged may vary from some %age of the sociological topics, animal price. 7. 3 Animal Housing There is a general trend to keep the fattened calves in semi-confinement in order to control waste production, where these calves are confined and online planner housed over slatted floors. All faeces and urine can be collected, thus eliminating the need for using bedding material. At present most of the cattle in value of reading feedlots are still kept on concrete floors, or in dry regions, on an unpaved area. Homework! More efficient growth rates will be achieved if shade is provided.
Solids from manure are either collected daily and stored, or allowed to dry in research the feedlot and removed periodically before spreading on fields. Collection of urine is limited to feedlots with a slatted floor. Sheds of the animals should be airy with protection of the animals from extreme temperatures and strong winds. The animal housing should be facilitated with drinking water for animals. There should be proper drainage system to keep hygiene at the farm. It consists of a built up animal shed, a brick soling paddock for animals, one room for online planner storing farm equipment and one for compound feed storage.
But the pre-feasibility has taken feeding manger, open paddock and water trough as the in creative writing ignou, major housing requirement for the calves. Animal sheds should be located with long axis north to planner, south, to get direct sunlight and sci fi yet face away from the direction of prevailing winds, whenever possible. Tree plantation can be carried outside the sheds to provide natural shades and these trees will also act as windbreakers. Dimensions of water troughs will be the same as that of feeding mangers and water will be available round the planner, clock. Generally all the diploma in creative in english syllabus, animals feed at the same time in a shed, but not all animals drink water simultaneously. Homework! The following figure shows the diploma writing in english, animal housing layout for calf fattening farm. 15 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Figure 7-1 Animal Housing Layout Water Trough Water Trough. Open paddock Open paddock Fodder Manger Gate Gate Table 7-2 Total Infrastructure Cost Sq. ft 6,000 9,000 120 120 500 15,740 Rate/Sq. ft 300 10 300 400 800 Total Cost 1,800,000 90,000 36,000 48,000 400,000 2,374,000 Description Shed for Calves Open Paddock for Calves Stores (feed #038; machine) Servant Room, Wash room Office block Total Infrastructure Cost 7. 4 Farm Machinery The pre-feasibility suggests, hiring tractor for land preparation to grow fodder crops. Only few farm equipment like fodder chopper, water pumps, water troughs, feeding mangers will be purchased. Table 7-3 Farm Equipment Rate 12,000 10,000 300,000 50,000 7,000 No. 1 1 1 1 1 5 Rs.
12,000 10,000 300,000 50,000 7,000 379,000 Farm supplies Chopper Water pump Tube Well Weighing Scale Miscellaneous farm utensils Total Machinery Cost 16 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 7. 5 7. 5. 1 Feed Ration for Calf Fattening The ration is allowance of homework planner nutritionally balanced Total Mixed Ration (TMR) in 24 hours to increase animal productivity. Wheat straw6 is also used as dry roughage in TMR. The cost of TMR will be lowered if feed ingredients are mixed on farm. The composition of the paper, rations fed in the finishing operations depends largely on the types of feed produced local availability and on weights and planner grades of calves to be fattened. Rations can range from movie films, high-roughage low energy rations to high-energy rations composed almost entirely of online planner concentrates.
Examples of ingredients in rations are: ? ? ? Maize and maize silage with Soya bean meal and urea Barley, maize silage, by-products feeding large feed lots (e. g. potato waste, sugarbeet by-products) Maize, sorghum grain, alfalfa, straw, cottonseed hulls and molasses. Some hormone-like growth stimulators, antibiotic feed additives and ionophores (rumen altering factors) are legalized to be included in on product the feed and are very commonly used. Table 7-4 Average Production Parameters and planner Ranges7 Reasonable Production Parameter Starting weight (kg) Daily gain (kg) Feed Efficiency (kg growth per kg feed DM) Fattening period (days) Final weight (kg) 7. 5. 2 Green Fodder for Calves Range 70-100 0. 70 1. 0 6 12 90 150 150-200 Average 85 0. 8 9 120 175 Fodder is grown at value of reading essay the land, which is acquired on lease or owned by homework, the entrepreneur. Due to increased demand, improved forage crops such as multi-cut oats, berseem, lucerne, Sorghum- Sudan grass hybrids, mott grass, sorghum, maize and millet have been developed. These have become very popular in of reading irrigated areas such as Kasur, Sheikhupura, Gujranwala, Faisalabad, Sargodha, and Renala Khurd (Punjab), Nowshera, Charsada, Mardan, and Peshawar (North West Frontier Province), and Hyderabad, Sukkur, Larkana and Nawabshah in Sindh for peri-urban dairies. Details of fodder cultivars released by Research Institutions in Pakistan are given in Annex 2. Average forage yields in online Pakistan are extremely low compared to yields obtained on research institutes and from well-managed farms and fields. These are very low as compared to their potential, with 22. 8 tons per diploma in english syllabus hectare a recent estimate 8. 6 7 A byproduct of wheat harvesting used as dry roughage for livestock and dairy animals FAO Statistics 8 FAO Statistical Databases 17 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Although improved varieties and technology are available, they have been slow to reach the online, dairy farms. Value! Recent medium scale on-farm work has indicated that yields can be enhanced two to three fold by online homework, using available improved varieties and appropriate agronomic techniques.
In an area where land and irrigation are the major limiting factors to enhancing fodder production, intensification is the only way to meet the needs for forage. Innovation! Intensive and economical forage production per unit area per season would be the best choice. Also efforts should be made to produce and provide sufficient quantities of seed of multicut forage varieties and hybrids like Mott grass to commercial dairy farms. The fodder yield (except multi cut Mott Grass which yields 100-150 tones/ acre in 4 to 6 cuttings per year) varies between 10 tons to homework, 40 tons per acre depending upon the fertility of land, quality of seed and movie films application of online homework fertilizer. Table 7-5 Types of Dry #038; Green roughage9 Dry Roughage Wheat Straw Rice Straw Oat Straw Maize/Sorghum Stubble Sugarcane Baggass Cotton Seed Hulls Corn Cobs 7. 5. 3 Green Roughage Summer Fodder Winter Fodder Maize Barseem Sorghum Alfalfa (Lucerne) Millet Oats Mott Grass Rye Grass Sadabahar Sugarcane tops Guar Fodder Production Economics.
The comparative economic feasibility of in creative writing in english ignou various forage crops produced under various farming systems is shown in Table 7-7. Table 7-6 Economics of online homework planner forage production under improved production system per hectare in Pakistan10 Item Maize Sorghum Land preparation 938 974 Seed #038; Sowing 1,200 688 Fertilizer 1,750 1,750 Irrigation 750 750 Land Revenue 1,750 1,750 Harvesting / Transport 1,875 1,750 Total expenditure Yield (Kilos) Price/kg (Rs) 9 10 Forage Crop S. Research Topics! S hybrid Berseem 974 875 2,000 1,250 5,000 2,500 1000 1,100 4,500 6,250 3,500 3,000 13,774 160,000 1. 00 14,825 102,500 1. 50 Lucerne 875 1,250 2,500 750 6,250 3,750 15,635 103,750 1. Homework! 0 Oats 750 1,250 2,250 500 1,875 3,000 9,625 115,000 1. 25 8,263 80,000 1. 00 7,662 79,750 1. Thesis! 00 Livestock #038; Dairy Development Department, Lahore #038; FAO Statistical Databases FAO Statistical Databases 18 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 7. 5. 4 Daily Fodder Requirement There is no fixed fodder requirement for the animals but a rule of thumb says that an animal needs daily fodder equal to 4. 5% of live body weight on Dry Matter (DM) Basis. One third of this DM will come from green fodder and 2/3 rd will be supplemented by online planner, TMR in fattening calves to get maximum daily weight gains. According to these estimates, one calf of 80 Kgs body weight will consume 8-10 kgs fodder daily for essay on compatability 120 days (preferred if fed free of choice i. Planner! e. ad libitum). 7. 5. Ignou! 5 Daily Total Mixed Ration Requirement Since an animal needs daily feed equal to 4. 5% of its live body weight on Dry Matter (DM) Basis. The 2/3 rd of online homework this DM will be supplemented by TMR. For an animal of 80 kgs body weight, it will be 8-10 kgs per in english day (Preferred if fed free of online planner choice i. Sociological Paper Topics! e. ad libitum) 7. 5. 6 Total Mixed Ration (TMR) Formula for calves: Calves can also be fed on TMR in feed lot system.
The Crude Protein (CP) value of this ration should be 12-13 % with 65-70 % Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN). These feed ingredients when mixed according to feed formula will provide adequate energy according to energy and protein requirements of animal. Online! Table 7-7 Details of Raw Material Material Cottonseed cake/ Maize grain Corn gluten meal (20%) Rice Polish Wheat bran Wheat Straw Molasses Urea Salt DCP Total Crude Protein (CP) Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN) 7. 5. 7 Mineral Mixture Percentage Input 9% 8% 15% 20% 26% 17% 1% 2% 2% 100% 12. 7% 65% This is used as a feed supplement. It includes a mix of sociological research paper minerals (magnesium, iron, sodium and online salts). On Product! Mineral mixtures are good source of online energy and value of reading increase the animal productivity to homework, produce more lean meat. Urea Molasses Blocks can also be used to supplement the minerals. 19 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 7. 5. 8 Wheat Straw (Bhoosa or Turi) Wheat straw is thesis on product innovation a major, typical, and online homework very popular feed, it is always chaffed, and is the main or even only major dry roughage used on almost all the farms. Traditional threshing methods break the straw into thesis short pieces. Modern mechanical threshers have been designed to break the planner, straw.
In places where it is produced, it is available at Rs. 1. 0 per kilo. In recent years baling units have been installed in central Punjab; bales are transported to paper, major cities, even to planner, Gilgit, Skardu, and Chitral. Table 7-8 Daily Feed Requirements for value of reading One Fattened Calves in 120 Days Fattening Days 1 Body Weight (Kgs. ) Feed Requirement/ Day Daily Feed Cost (Rs. ) 100 123 147 171 195 4. 5 5. Online Homework! 5 6. 6 7. 7 8. 8 50 61 73 85 97 8,767 30 60 90 120 Total Feed Cost 7. 6 Vaccination #038; Medication Vaccination #038; medication is required to prevent any disease out break in he animal herd. Each new animal will be vaccinated before putting into the farm. Anthelmantics are used to treat the on product innovation, animals for internal parasites where as spraying and dipping with some dis infecting solution is used to eradicate external parasites. The total cost will be Rs. 200 per animal. Vaccines are produced at Veterinary Research Institute, Ghazi Road, Lahore. The vaccines are provided to homework, the Government Farms and Hospitals on payment.
Farmers can also obtain these vaccines on payment according to prescribed schedule from the Institute. Technical guidance is also provided to innovation, the farmers. Farmers can have their animals vaccinated from the field Veterinary Hospitals and Centres. 7. Online Homework Planner! 7 Calf Quarantine A quarantine yard will be made for new animal handling, dipping, weighing, and vaccination etc. The newly purchased animals will be dewormed and innovation medicated with proper and homework necessary vaccinations in this yard. Only the disease free animals will proceed to the feedlot from the quarantine sheds.
Quarantine arrangements will minimize the chances of disease spread in the farm by movie films, ensuring that the new animals do not carry any disease before they are taken to the main sheds. Online Homework Planner! This seven-day period will also be helpful in acclimatizing the new animals before they enter the main feedlot sheds. The behavior of the animal will be recorded during these seven days and then its requirement of feed will be calculated accordingly before sending it to the main feedlot. 7. 8 Labor Requirement For a calf-fattening farm, manpower is required for performing different animal husbandry practices at the farm e. g. housing, feeding, watering, medication and care of animals etc. One person can handle 25 calves easily for feeding and on compatability other management. 20 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study. Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Five persons will be required to look after the online homework planner, fattening farm. The monthly salary of each attendant is taken as Rs 6,500. A supervisor cum farm manager can be hired to supervise all the farm activities.
The supervisor with a B. Sc. (Honors) degree in thesis innovation Animal Husbandry (AH) may be hired as a farm manager so that he can handle the farm practices, administration #038; account matters at the dairy farm. Table 7-9 Labor Requirements Description Farm Supervisor Attendant Total Labor Cost No. 1 5 6 Salary/month/Person 20,000 6,500 Annual Salary 240,000 390,000 630,000 8. 1 FARM OUTPUT Fattening Period The fattening period is the homework planner, period during which the animal puts on weight. These animals are called fattened animals. Generally the period is 90-120 days. Following are the desirable size and diploma in creative writing in english thickness of fattened animals. Large frame size with no.
1 thickness is desirable. Figure 8-1 Frame size and Thickness Grades of Fattened Animals 8. 2 Meat Composition Like all meat, beef is also very high in planner protein. It also contains significant quantities of #8216;B#8217; vitamins and minerals such as sodium, potassium and essay phosphorus. Offal, particularly liver, is rich in Vitamin B12, A, C and D, folic acid, iron and riboflavin. Homework Planner! The moisture content of lean meat is research paper 75-79 % where as the crude protein content is 18-22 %. There is a 21 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 5-6. 5 % mineral content in it. The percentage of lean meat, bone and homework planner other tissues of carcasses of writing ignou syllabus different breeds is homework planner given as under; Table 8-1 Meat Composition of Different Breeds11 Parameters Lean meat % Bone % Fat% Other tissues % Dressing % 8. 3 Sahiwal 67. 2 16.
3 12. Movie Films! 7 3. 4 55. Homework Planner! 5 Dajal 70. 6 15. Research! 2 10. Online Homework Planner! 3 3. 7 58. Movie Films! Cholistani 66. 7 16. 8 12. 5 3. 7 56. Online! 5 NonDescript 67. Thesis Innovation! 7 17. Online! 3 11. 7 4. 1 53. 6 Cross Buffalo bred 67. 5 62. 8 16. Essay On Compatability! 3 17. 6 11. 7 14. 9 4. 3 4. Homework Planner! 6 54. Diploma In English Ignou! 4 51.
6 Increase in weight gains Average weight gains and feed efficiency values as such of different breeds of online planner calves are given as under: Table 8-2 Values of Different Parameters for Different Breeds Parameters Total weight gain (kgs) Daily weight gain (kgs) Feed efficiency (as such basis) 8. 4 Sale Price Sahiwal 78. Sociological Research Paper Topics! 20 0. 85 8. 48 Dajal 84. 00 0. 91 8. 69 Cholistani Nondescript 82. Planner! 60 82. 60 0. Movie Films! 90 8. 34 0. 90 8. 60 Cross bred 82. 80 0. 90 9. Online! 40 Buffalo 86.
0 0. 84 7. Essay! 63 Selling price is online another limiting factor for the determination of the profitability of this business. Value Of Reading Essay! In Pakistan, the beef business is controlled by the informal sector. There are no organized markets for the beef sale and purchase. The meat business is in the hands of a community called butchers or Kassab. After feeding animals in feedlots, only the premium price can make the operations profitable. In this pre feasibility study, the animals will be sold on farm at Rs.
90 per Kg live body weight. Only fetching good price can justify the costs incurred on rearing animal in homework planner feed lots. The selling price of fattened animal will be higher than the other animals because of its higher meat recovery and good quality. To avoid the risk of price fluctuations, certain buy back agreements with institutional buyers will be a good approach for the success of this business. Linking the project with the live animal export or beef exports will assure good returns on the business. Near the urban market and essay especially around Eid-ul-Azha, the homework planner, selling price of beef is movie films Rs.
130-140 per kg live body weight. 11 Livestock Production Research Institute, Bbahadurnagar, Okara 22 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study. Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 9 USEFUL TERMINOLOGY -Cake Mass resulting from the processing of online planner seeds, which is essay rich in online homework planner protein and paper topics is used as a source of homework planner feed for livestock, e. g. cottonseed cake? -Calf Young animal of dairy origin between seven and 120 days of age. -Compound feed Any ground mixture of ingredients intended for feeding the animals. It includes a concentrate mixture accordingly to formula. -Dressing percent Dressing percent is important because it reflects the essay on compatability, amount of online homework carcass in relation to the animal’s live weight. Dressing percent is calculated by essay, using the following formula: Dressing % = Hot Carcass Wt. 100 Live Animal Wt. Dressing percent is homework affected by the fill, finish, muscling, sex, type, and if the animal is pregnant or not.
Normal Range is 55-67% for young fattened calves. -Fat Thickness The primary estimate of fatness is fat thickness at the 12th rib. Sci Fi Research! It is used to assess total fat on the carcass. Planner! (Average: 0. 5 inches) -Feedstuffs Any substance of ignou nutritive and biological value used in production of compound feed. -Home Mixed Feed Feed prepared on farm of the owner. -Live Weight Cattle have a wider range of market weights than other species due to differences in type and maturity. Ration Amount of balance feed in 24 hours -Weaning Calf Young animal of between five and planner nine months coming from the cow-calf enterprise and being reared by a suckling cow until weaning. The term is used to indicate a difference of calves from dairy herds, referred to as ‘dairy calves’. 23 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 10 FINAICIAL ANALYSIS 10. 1 Projected Income Statement Const Year Sales COST OF GOODS SOLD Raw Material Payroll (Production Staff) Direct Electricity Total Gross Profit OPERATING EXPENSE Payroll (Admin) Administrative #038; Factory Overheads Depreciation Mortality loss Total Operating Profit NON-OPERATING EXPENSE Financial Charges on Running Finance Land Lease Building Rental Total PROFIT BEFORE TAX Tax PROFIT AFTER TAX 68,649 0 0 68,649 (737,253) 0 (737,253) 72,082 0 0 72,082 412,922 41,292 371,630 75,686 0 0 75,686 1,842,827 460,707 1,382,120 79,470 0 0 79,470 3,597,488 899,372 2,698,116 83,443 0 0 83,443 5,728,090 1,432,022 4,296,067 83,443 0 0 83,443 8,296,919 2,074,230 6,222,689 83,443 0 0 83,443 11,365,923 2,841,481 8,524,442 83,443 0 0 83,443 15,009,792 3,752,448 11,257,344 83,443 0 0 83,443 19,313,068 4,828,267 14,484,801 83,443 0 0 83,443 24,371,366 6,092,841 18,278,524 Year-1 7,858,620 7,635,348 390,000 14,308 8,039,656 (181,036) 240,000 15,717 166,600 36,000 487,567 (668,604) Year-2 10,085,229 8,662,865 409,500 15739 9,088,105 997,124 252,000 20,170 166,600 44,100 512,120 485,004 Year-3 12,678,574 9,774,046 429,975 17313 10,221,334 2,457,239 264,600 25,357 166,600 52,920 538,727 1,918,512 Year-4 15,689,735 10,974,688 451,474 19044 11,445,206 4,244,529 277,830 31,379 166,600 62,512 567,571 3,676,958 Year-5 19,176,343 12,270,959 474,047 20949 12,765,955 6,410,388 291,722 38,353 166,600 72,930 598,855 5,811,533 Year-6 23,203,375 13,669,420 497,750 23044 14,190,213 9,013,161 306,308 46,407 166,600 84,235 632,799 8,380,362 Year-7 27,844,049 15,177,049 522,637 25348 15,725,035 12,119,015 321,623 55,688 166,600 96,487 669,648 11,449,367 Year-8 33,180,826 16,801,269 548,769 27883 17,377,921 15,802,905 337,704 66,362 166,600 109,754 709,670 15,093,235 Year-9 39,306,516 18,549,967 576,208 30671 19,156,846 20,149,670 354,589 78,613 166,600 124,106 753,159 19,396,512 Year-10 46,325,537 20,431,532 605,018 33738 21,070,289 25,255,248 372,319 92,651 166,600 139,620 800,439 24,454,809 10.
2 10. 3 24 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 10. 4 Projected Balance Sheet. Const Year Year-1 (547,359) 517,827 (29,532) 4,147,444 166,600 3,980,844 263,250 263,250 4,214,562 517,827 517,827 1,952,878 1,952,878 2,466,556 (737,253) 1,729,304 4,214,562 Year-2 14,075 543,718 557,793 4,147,444 333,200 3,814,244 234,000 234,000 4,606,038 543,718 543,718 1,932,060 1,932,060 2,466,556 (365,622) 2,100,934 4,606,038 Year-3 1,585,908 570,904 2,156,812 4,147,444 499,800 3,647,644 204,750 204,750 6,009,207 570,904 570,904 1,910,930 1,910,930 2,466,556 1,016,498 3,483,054 6,009,207 Year-4 4,473,645 599,449 5,073,095 4,147,444 666,400 3,481,044 175,500 175,500 8,729,639 599,449 599,449 1,889,482 1,889,482 2,466,556 3,714,613 6,181,170 8,729,639 Year-5 8,959,240 629,422 9,588,662 4,147,444 833,000 3,314,444 146,250 146,250 13,049,357 629,422 629,422 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 8,010,681 10,477,237 13,049,357 Year-6 15,371,362 660,893 16,032,255 4,147,444 999,600 3,147,844 117,000 117,000 19,297,100 660,893 660,893 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 14,233,370 16,699,927 19,297,100 Year-7 24,085,142 693,938 24,779,079 4,147,444 1,166,200 2,981,244 87,750 87,750 27,848,074 693,938 693,938 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 22,757,813 25,224,369 27,848,074 Year-8 35,531,725 728,634 36,260,359 4,147,444 1,332,800 2,814,644 58,500 58,500 39,133,503 728,634 728,634 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 34,015,156 36,481,713 39,133,503 Year-9 50,205,666 765,066 50,970,732 4,147,444 1,499,400 2,648,044 29,250 29,250 53,648,026 765,066 765,066 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 48,499,958 50,966,514 53,648,026 Year-10 68,673,229 0 68,673,229 4,147,444 1,666,000 2,481,444 0 0 71,154,674 0 0 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 66,778,482 69,245,039 71,154,674 Current Assets Cash Stocks and Inventory Total Gross Fixed Assets Less: Accumulated depreciation Net Fixed Assets Intangible Assets Pre-operational Expenses Total Total Assets Current Liabilities Running Finance Total Long-term liabilities Long-term Loan Total Equity Paid-up Capital Retained Earnings Total Total Liabilities And Equity 0 493,169 493,169 4,147,444 0 4,147,444 292,500 292,500 4,933,113 493,169 493,169 1,973,388 1,973,388 2,466,556 0 2,466,556 4,933,113 5 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 10. 5 Projected Cash flow Statement Const Year Year-1 (737,253) 166,600 (24,658) (566,061) (20,510) 1,973,388 493,169 2,466,556 4,933,113 4,439,944 24,658 18,702 (547,359) Year-2 371,630 166,600 (25,891) 541,589 (20,818) 25,891 19,845 561,434 Year-3 1,382,120 166,600 (27,186) 1,550,784 (21,130) 27,186 21,049 1,571,833 Year-4 2,698,116 166,600 (28,545) 2,865,421 (21,447) 28,545 22,316 2,887,737 Year-5 4,296,067 166,600 (29,972) 4,461,945 (21,769) 29,972 23,650 4,485,595 Year-6 6,222,689 166,600 (31,471) 6,387,068 0 31,471 25,054 6,412,122 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 Year-10. Operating activities Net profit Depreciation Stocks-RM Cash provided by operations Financing activities Long term debt principal repayment Addition to long term debt Addition to of reading essay, running finance Issuance of share Cash provided by/ (used for) financing activities Total Investing activities Capital expenditure Cash (used for)/ provided by investing activities Net Cash (493,169) (493,169) 8,524,442 11,257,344 14,484,801 18,278,524 166,600 166,600 166,600 166,600 (33,045) (34,697) (36,432) 765,066 8,687,248 11,418,497 14,644,220 19,239,441 0 33,045 26,531 8,713,779 0 34,697 28,086 11,446,583 0 36,432 29,722 14,673,941 0 (765,066) (771,877) 18,467,563 (4,439,944) (4,439,944) 0 0 (547,359) 561,434 1,571,833 2,887,737 4,485,595 6,412,122 8,713,779 11,446,583 14,673,941 18,467,563 26 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 1 KEY ASSUMPTIONS Table 11-1: Financial Assumptions Project life (years) Debt Equity ratio Interest rate on short term debt Interest rate on online long term debt Debt tenure (years) Debt payments per year Table 11-2: Revenue Assumptions Annual Production (calves) Number of Calves per herd Number of production herds per year Capacity Utilization Live body weight at purchase time (kg) Average daily weight gain Feeding days Selling price (Rs/ kg live body weight) Table 11-3: Expense Assumptions Purchase price (Rs/kg live body weight) Mortality Rate Vaccination/ Medication cost (per calf) Open Space per essay animal (Sq. ft) Total Mixed Ration requirement (% of live bodyweight) Price of homework planner Total Mixed Ration (Rs. Sociological Paper! Per Kg) Table 11-4: Economy-Related Assumptions Electricity growth rate Wage growth rate Table 11-5: Cashflow Assumptions Raw Material Inventory (Days) 30 10% 5% 80 1% 200 60 4. 5 11 450 150 3 100% 100 0. 8 120 90 10 50:50 14% 18% 10 12 27 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 2 ANNEXURE 1 Table 12-1 Vital Statistics of Cattle #038; Buffaloes Parameters Rectal Temperature Heart Rate Respiratory Rate Table 12-2 Common Diseases of Livestock Infectious Diseases Disease Anthrax Symptoms Fever, grinding of teeth, release of blackish blood from natural openings, which doesn’t clot.
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Liferay Portal 4 - Content Management System Guide. Copyright 2000, 2007 Liferay Inc. Table of Contents. Intended audience. This document will give an in online depth tutorial of the in creative in english ignou syllabus, CMS (Content Management System) within Liferay portal. The intended audience of this document is for users who determine the content that is displayed and published on online their portal. Distinct roles for specific users are provided in the introduction. Liferay version. This guide has been written for Liferay 4. Some details might be different for previous versions. Do not expect it to be accurate for older versions. It is assumed that Liferay has been installed and accessible through the web interface.
Related documents. If this is not what you are looking for consider the following related documents. Liferay Portal 4 - Installation Guide. Liferay Portal 4 - Customization Guide. Liferay Portal 4 - Portal Administration Guide. More information and support. Diploma Syllabus. If you are looking for help for a specific issue we invite you to use our community forums: http://www.liferay.com/web/guest/devzone/forums to ask your questions. We also offer professional support services (firstname.lastname@example.org) where your company will be assigned a Liferay developer ensuring your questions are answered promptly so that your project is never compromised. Purchased support always gets first priority.
This business model allows us to build a company that can contribute a great portal to online homework planner the open source community. If your company uses Liferay, please consider purchasing support. Liferay has an extremely liberal license model (MIT, very similar to Apache and BSD), which means you can rebundle Liferay, rename it, and sell it under your name. We believe free means you can do whatever you want with it. Table of Contents. Liferay Portal provides out-of-the-box CMS functionality in two major areas: document management (repositories for documents and research, images) and publishing. Document management is provided through Liferay's Document Library and Image Gallery portlets. These portlets provide intuitive management of Microsoft Office documents, PDFs, text files, and homework, images. Publishing in Liferay Portal is accomplished through Liferay's Journal portlet. It features a clean separation between content (data entry) and paper, presentation (layout design). This allows the planner, content to conform to a consistent look and feel.
Additionally, the Journal portlet provides a content versioning and approval paradigm (workflow). This system allows for users involved in publishing to sci fi fall naturally into three different roles: Writers create, edit, and enter content comprised of text and images. Designers create layouts that display content. Editors edit and approve final output and release it for publication to the portal. As an example, consider our website. All of the static content is managed and published by the Journal portlet. We can authorize other members of the Liferay community to write documentation, but we retain final editorial authority and security.
This also allows for a mixture of online portlets and Journal articles to coexist, enabling the designer to be more creative with what is displayed. Designers can integrate static content using the Journal Content portlet with a number of other function-rich portlets (e.g. Navigation and Breadcrumb). All of on compatability this shows how useful and flexible publishing can be with the Journal portlet. Chapter 2. Document Management Portlets. Table of Contents. The Document Library provides a centralized repository for various document types (e.g., .PDF, .DOC, .XLS, etc.) to be stored and assigns a unique URL to planner each of them. Movie Films. A company's intranet running Liferay Portal can then be able to post internal documentation (e.g., reimbursement forms, charitable donations policies, etc.) for access by its employees. Alternatively, since each document has its own URL, a portlet on your company's public website may display a list of PDF files of quarterly newsletters and their download links: The Document Library supports multiple repositories that can be set with different access roles.
Also, the documents in the repository are version-controlled, allowing a user to retrieve any particular revision that has been stored on online homework planner the system. To add a document to an empty Document Library portlet, you must first add a folder. Click the Add Folder button. Give a name and description to the folder. Essay On Compatability. The permissions for the folder determine what users can do. This is further explained in Liferay Portal 4 - Portal Administration Guide . Click Save . The Document Library screen will appear. The new folder will appear in the Document Library. To add a document to that folder, click on the folder name. You can either add more folders to further divide your documents into online homework more specific categories or you can add a document to the current folder.
The breadcrumb (see section 5.1.) at the top of the movie films, portlet shows that you would be adding a document to the Home Page folder. In this use case, we will add a document. Click Add Document . Use the Browse button to find the document you want to upload to homework planner the Document Library. There is a cap of 300k on uploaded documents. After uploading the value essay, document, enter a title and description for the document. Click Save when finished. After saving, you can choose to lock the document to online prevent anyone from editing this document.
The default lock time is on product innovation, one day. Use the breadcrumb to return to online planner the Home Page folder (for this use case) where you will see the document you have just added. Sci Fi Paper. Clicking on online planner the document will allow you to open or save it. If you have the proper permissions, you can delete the value, document from the Document Library by clicking the Delete icon ( ). To reference a document in the Document Library, you must first find which folder the document is contained in. Online. Using the value, same use case as in online 2.1.1, we see that the W-4.pdf document is located in the Home Page folder, as shown by the breadcrumb. Right click on the document name, then select Properties to view its Address (URL). You can then either highlight the entire URL or click anywhere over the URL area and press Ctrl+A to select the entire link. Keep in sci fi mind that the URL is long. If you use the highlight method, you must hightlight the entire URL. You can then copy this link and reference it anywhere within the portal.
You can even reference this document outside of the homework, portal as long as your portal is running and diploma writing ignou syllabus, the document is still in the repository. Online Homework Planner. Refer to figure below. Like the Document Library, the thesis, Image Gallery provides a centralized repository for online homework images used throughout the Liferay Portal and assigns a unique URL to each image. To add an image to the Image Gallery portlet, first add a folder by clicking the Add Folder button. This is similar to adding a folder to the Document Library, described in Section 1.1 in this chapter. This use case will show an Image Gallery with a folder called Showcase. We will now add an image to thesis on product the Showcase folder. Click on the Showcase folder and click on homework planner Add Image to add a new image. Here we add the image by pressing the Browse button and essay on compatability, selecting the image to upload.
Keep in mind that image size can be no larger than 300k. Give an easily identifiable description for the image, and online homework, then click Save . After saving, you are returned to the folder in which you saved it in. Essay. As can be seen by the breadcrumb, the Showcase folder is homework, displayed in movie films the figure below. You can position your cursor over the image for a description, and click on the image for online planner a full-size view. To reference an image in the Image Gallery, you must first find which folder the value of reading essay, image is contained in.
Using the same use case as in 2.2.1, we see that our image is located in the Showcase folder as shown by online homework the breadcrumb. Click on the Edit icon ( ) to view the on product innovation, properties of the image. The URL is highlighted in the picture below. To reference this image in Journal Templates in homework this use case, you would type in @root_path@/image/image_gallery?img_id=1100. Templates are described more completely in section 3.2. You can view all the images from a folder in a slideshow. Of Reading Essay. To view the slideshow, click on the View Slide Show button in online homework the folder you want to view. A new window will appear showing a full-size image and a set of commands. It will repeatedly scroll through the images inside the folder chosen. To view images at your own pace, press Pause and research, press the Next or Previous buttons to change images.
There is also a speed setting from 1 through 10, with 1 being the fastest and 10 the slowest. Online Planner. Press Play to resume the slideshow at the chosen speed. Table of Contents. The Journal application is composed of four portlets: Is an administration portlet that allows the creating, updating searching and managing contents. Allows displaying of a set of contents that satisfy a set of conditions configured through the portlet preferences such as content type and community. Allows displaying one or more contents manually selected from the list of available portelts. If more than one content is selected only one at a time will be shown and essay on compatability, links will be added to allow the user to navigate to the rest of the contents. Journal Content Search. Allows users to search for Journal content.
the Journal portlet is planner, used to create all CMS content and the Journal Articles and diploma writing ignou syllabus, Journal Content portlets are used to display those contents. This portlet allows writers to easily edit content displayed on web pages without having to sort through complex code. Before getting into the details of how to use the Journal portlet, it is useful to understand structures, templates, and articles; they are the backbone of the Journal portlet's functionality. Structures define the type and number of content pieces (e.g. text, text area, images, selection lists, etc.) Templates determine how content pieces will be arranged or laid out. Articles are where each content piece is populated with actual text and homework planner, images.
The point of a structure is to unify journal articles with the essay on compatability, same numbers and types of items. For example, a Management Bio section of a website might have ten biographies, each requiring an homework image for the executive headshot, a text for the headline, and in creative writing ignou, a text area for the main biography. A structure would be created with one image, one text, and one text area, each named accordingly. This allows writers to create the individual bios and other texts without needing to recreate the page structure for online each biography. Designers can create several templates for research one structure to allow for a variety of presentations or they can give writers discretion in deciding the best layout.
All specific text and images are entered when a user adds or edits an article. Online Homework. This is value of reading, also where a user chooses the layout based on the templates affiliated with a structure. Online. Since multiple templates can be associated to a structure, the user can select the template that formats their article the way they want. Though articles normally have an associated structure and template (see SAMPLE-XSL-ARTICLE), it can also be a simple article without any associations (see SAMPLE-SIMPLE-ARTICLE). Below is an example clarifying the definitions given above: The structure in this case lists out the six content pieces: One text element named headline (1) Three text area elements named body-text (4), caption-1 (2), and caption-2 (6) Two image elements named image-1 (3) and image-2 (5) The XSL template for this example would specify where the headline, text areas, and images should go. It places the captions to research paper the sides of the images.
Another template can be made for the same structure that has the captions below the online, images. The article is the actual content that uses the template and structure. This particular article is thesis on product innovation, about the online planner, alleged effects of professional football broadcasts on the behavior of the children who watch them. Two photos are uploaded and body text and writing ignou syllabus, headline are filled in. Another article may be generated using the same template and structure discussing the online planner, equipments used for fly fishing. It should be noted that the proper order for paper creating an article from start to finish is: Create the structure to set the fields that content will be entered. Create the template to associate with the online homework, structure to define the movie films, layout of the content in question.
Create the article with the hard-coded content that will be displayed on the page, choosing the online planner, proper structure and template to be used for the article. To add a structure, first click on the Structures tab in the Journal Portlet, and then click on the Add button. The structure creation page will be displayed. Give your structure an ID or have it auto-generate one. It is recommended that you choose your own ID so that the structure will be easier to identify when associating it with templates and articles. Please note that the ID must be unique. The convention is to separate words in the ID with a hyphen, e.g., “BASIC-STRUCTURE-NAME. The structure ID can not be changed once your structure has been saved, so be sure that the ID is exactly how you would want it to appear.
Give your structure a clear name and value of reading, description because these fields are also used for identification of the structure. To start adding fields to the structure, click the online, Add Row button. This will show a new field where you can enter a name and a content type for this field (image, text, boolean flag, etc.). Those comfortable with XML or HTML can edit the XSL directly by clicking Launch Editor . Both methods of adding/editing elements will work, and both can be used in the same session. On Compatability. One simple approach is to add a few elements using the GUI and homework planner, then to sociological research edit the XML directly (which will contain the syntax for the already added elements and online, can be copy-pasted). Keep in mind that all names of fields must be one word—a description such as “Content Title would not be allowed. To name a field using multiple words, put a dash in between words to prevent confusion, such as “content-title. From the Selection List and Multi-Selection List, press the button to add extra options to the lists, and paper topics, use the and homework planner, buttons to move the paper, options up and down on the display for the article. Once all the fields have been added to the structure, click the Save button, located above the XML Schema Defintion tab. If no error messages appear, the structure has now been created and can be associated to templates.
To edit an existing structure, go to the Structures tab. There you will see a list of existing structures with pagination and an area to search for structures by ID, name, and/or description. You can use either method to locate the online planner, structure you wish to edit. Before editing the innovation, actual structure, it is advisable to view the homework, associated articles and templates because they can potentially be affected by movie films any changes made to online your structure. You can view associated articles ( ) and templates ( ) by clicking on their respective icons. When you are done viewing associated articles and templates, find the structure again using either method above. Click on the Structure ID, description, or the Edit icon ( ) to on product display the editing screen, shown below. In the edit screen, you can edit anything in the structure except for the structure ID, which can not be changed once the structure has been created.
Editing the name and description will not affect other features of the homework, Journal portlet, but adding, deleting, and writing in english ignou syllabus, modifying fields will affect the templates and articles that are associated with the structure. Homework Planner. It is advisable to backup the current XML file first by clicking the Download button so that it will be easy to revert to topics your old structure if necessary. If you add fields, the articles associated will have extra fields for additional content. If you delete fields, associated content and articles will be deleted. For example, notice that the structure above has a tltle field. Now look at the article below that uses a structure that has something in that field. When you delete the field from the online homework, structure (title in this case), either by deleting the row or deleting it through the sci fi paper, editor, the associated article will not show the field. So when you delete fields, be certain that associated articles no longer need those fields. This also applies if you rename a field; there will be a new field inside the article with that name and field type, but the content that was in the old field will be gone. For an article to display properly, the template layout must also be changed when fields are added or modified. When all changes have been made, click the Save button to save your changes.
To delete a structure, you must first delete all articles and disassociate or delete all templates associated with that structure. Online Homework. First search for the structure you wish to delete, such as ABOUTUS-NEWS, using the same method as step 1 of sci fi section 3.2.2. Online Homework Planner. To delete all articles, first click the View Articles icon ( ), which takes you to a view of all associated articles, shown below. The screen above shows what filter was used to find the articles. Edit or delete all of these articles. Thesis Innovation. To delete, click the Delete icon ( ) next to the article you wish to delete. Once all articles have been edited or deleted, go back to the Structures tab and find the structure you wish to delete.
Click on the View Templates icon ( ) to take you to a view of all associated templates. Edit or delete all of these templates. To delete, click the Delete icon ( ) next to online planner the template you wish to delete. Essay On Compatability. To edit, begin by clicking the Edit icon ( ) next to each template. Inside the online, edit template screen, change the value of reading essay, structure by online clicking the Select button next to the Structure field so that it no longer uses the structure you wish to delete. Click the Save button when you have selected a new structure for the template to be associated with. Once all articles and essay, templates have been disassociated from the online, structure, search for the structure once again in the Structures tab, then click the Delete icon ( ) next to that structure. To add a template, first click on the Templates tab, and then click the Add button. Sci Fi Paper. If you already know which structure this template is associated with, you can create the template by clicking the Structures tab, finding the online homework planner, associated structure, and then clicking the Add Template icon ( ). Both examples are shown below.
The template creation page appears. Give your template an ID or have it auto-generate one. Refer to sociological step 2 of section 3.2.1 for template ID recommendations. Template IDs must be unique. Give your template a clear name and description because these fields are also used for identification of the template. Since articles have to select a structure before choosing a template (further described in section 3.4.1.), all created templates have to online homework be associated with a structure. If you have already associated this template to a structure, the structure name will appear in the Structure field. Otherwise, click the Select button to find the structure that this template will be associated with.
This will open up a screen with all the structures. Click on a structure to associate with the template. To edit the actual template layout content, you can use one of two methods. Diploma Writing Ignou. To start a completely new template, click the Launch Editor button to open up the editor shown below. If you have an existing template on your local machine, click the Browse button to search for the file, and load that file as the online homework planner, code for this template. Note that you can choose the on compatability, template to be in homework either XSL or VM format, so a working knowledge of one of these is required for creating templates.
One way to diploma in creative in english syllabus make simple templates is to look at the existing templates that Liferay provides out-of-the-box and follow the syntax. If the template is loaded from your local machine, make sure you choose the correct language type in the menu. If you want a small image to represent the template in the description field, you can link the image URL or upload it from your local machine. Be sure to select Yes in the menu in the “Use Small Image field. Click Update when you are finished creating your template. If no error messages appear, the template has been created and can be used as layouts for articles. To edit an existing template, go to the Templates tab. Online Homework Planner. You will see a list of existing templates with pagination and an area to search for movie films templates by ID, name, and/or description.
You can use either method to locate the template you want to edit. Before editing the actual template, it is advisable to view the associated articles because their layout will be affected by any changes made to your structure. After editing the template, you can view these articles with the new template layout. You can click on the View Articles icon ( ) to view associated articles. When you are done viewing associated articles, find the online, template again using either method above, and then click on the Template ID, description, or the Edit icon ( ) to diploma in creative in english ignou enter the editing screen, shown below. In the edit screen, you can edit anything in the template except for online planner the template ID, which can not be changed once the template has been created.
Editing the name and description will not affect any other features of the Journal portlet but modifying the script will affect the thesis on product innovation, articles that are associated with the template. Planner. It is innovation, advisable to backup the current XSL or VM file by online clicking the Download button so that it will be easy to revert to movie films your old template script if necessary. To prevent unexpected behavior in the design, it is advised that only users with good working knowledge of XSL or VM modify these scripts. When all changes to the template have been made, click the homework planner, Save button to save your changes. To delete a template, you must first disassociate or delete all articles associated with that template. First search for the template you wish to research paper topics delete using the same instructions from online homework step 1 of section 3.3.2. To disassociate/delete all the articles, click the View Articles icon ( ). A view of all associated articles will be displayed.
To delete an movie films article, click the Delete icon ( ) next to homework planner the article you wish to delete. To edit an article, begin by clicking the Edit icon ( ) next to on compatability each article. Inside the edit article screen, change the template by using radio buttons. If there are no other templates associated with the structure used, you must either create a new template for that structure or delete this article. Homework. Click the Save button when you have selected a new template for the associating article. Once all articles have been disassociated from the template, search for the template again in the Templates tab, then click the Delete icon ( ) next to that template. To add an article, click on the Articles tab, and then click the Add button.
If you already know which structure or template this article is associated with, you can create the article by going to the Structures or Templates tab. Thesis On Product. Find the corresponding structure or template, and online homework planner, click the Add Article icon ( ). The article creation page appears as shown below. Paper Topics. Give your article an ID or have it auto-generate one. Refer to step 2 of section 3.2.1. for article ID recommendations. Article IDs must be unique. Give your article a title. This field is also used for easier identification of the article, so a clear, concise explanation is recommended. In the article tab screen shown above, choose the Type category that the online, article will reside in. In Creative Writing Ignou Syllabus. This will help make it easier for users to make manual searches of articles and organize articles. Next, pick a display and expiration date.
The default setting does not set an expiration date. Next, choose the structure and template that this article will be associated with. If none are selected, the article will be a simple article by default, and the display will be what is planner, written in the content box. If you added the article through the structure or template tab, there will already be a structure and template choices, which you can further edit if you choose. To choose the structure, click the Select button next to the Structure field. If you have a pop-up blocker installed, you may need to in creative ignou syllabus turn it off because it can prevent the Structure list from appearing. Once the structure and template has been chosen (if at all) the content fields will show up, and online, you can fill in the content in the fields given. Once all the content has been filled out, click the Save button to create the on compatability, article. Once you save the article, it will return you to the main Articles tab. To approve the article and allow the Journal Content article to online homework display it, search for the article you just created. Sci Fi Research. Click the planner, Edit icon ( ) for that article, and research topics, then click the online homework planner, Approve button.
To edit an sociological paper topics existing article, go to online homework planner the Articles tab. You will see a list of all existing articles with pagination and an area to search for essay on compatability articles by online ID, Version, Name,Description, Content, Type, and/or Status. You can use any of these methods to locate the article you want to edit. When you find the article , you can either click on the article ID or click on the fields to view a preview of the article. Click on the Edit icon ( ) to enter the movie films, editing screen. In this screen you can edit anything in the article except for the article ID, which can not be changed once the article has been created. You can choose to planner increment the version every time you edit the article to help all users see how often an value of reading essay article has been changed.
If you feel that the online planner, changes you are making are very minor, you can choose not to increment it. Note that if you change the expiration date before the current date, you will no longer be able to select that article for use in the Journal Content portlet. When you are done editing the changes, click the Save button to finalize any changes you have made. To preview your changes, search for the article again and click on the article, or go to the article edit screen and click the Preview button, shown in the picture above. To delete an article, search for the article as instructed in step 1 of section 3.4.2. Paper. Once you have found the article, click the Delete icon ( ). If you do not wish to online delete the article but do not want the article to be available for display through the Journal Content portlet, you can edit the expiration date of the article so that it is set to of reading before today’s date. Refer to section 3.4.2. to edit the expiration date of an planner article. Chapter 4. Journal Display Portlets.
Table of movie films Contents. The Journal Articles portlet and the Journal Content portlet are used to homework display content created through the Journal portlet. While the Journal portlet creates all content used in CMS, it is the Journal Articles and Journal Content portlet that actually display content to portal users and diploma ignou syllabus, guests. The Journal Articles portlet allows a user to be shown articles that have been published within a particular Article Type. This may be Press Releases, Financial Reports, or a Software Version History. As long as there are published articles that can be read, a user can easily access them through the online, Journal Article portlet. Refer to the following example:
Anytime a new Press Release comes out, the Journal Articles portlet will dynamically show the article in the list. The user can simply click on the title to load the writing syllabus, article in a new window. To use this portlet (assuming it has been added to the current layout): Click the Configuration link ( ) to modify the properties of the portlet. (If portlet borders are not showing, there will be a Configuration link at the top of the portlet). To choose a list of articles to display, choose the Community, Article, Display URL, Display per Page, Order by homework planner Column, and Order by thesis innovation Type.
Click Save when finished. Leave ( )the Setup screen to online homework view the sociological paper, portlet. The Look and Feel tab allows you to Show Portlet Borders or enter an optional Portlet Title. Note that the title will only show up if the borders are displayed. Save when you are satisfied with the configurations. The Journal Content portlet enables a Journal article to be requested and displayed on the portal page. Homework. You can easily build and lay out an movie films entire public website with portlets. In fact, Liferay's own website has been built leveraging this new technology. Shown below are five portlets highlighted in online homework red.
Portlet 2 is a Navigation portlet and portlet 4 is a Breadcrumb portlet. Both of those portlets are explained in diploma in english more detail in Chapter 5. Portlets 1, 3, and online homework planner, 5 are Journal Content portlets that contain static Journal articles. You can integrate the power of diploma in creative writing in english function-rich portlets with the more static information of a Journal article. A company may have an Investors page on their website. Online Planner. In one column you may see the Stocks portlet and in sociological paper topics another column a Journal Content portlet.
The Stocks portlet can display the company's ticker symbol with stock price and the Journal Content portlet can display static content of the homework, latest financial reports. A mortgage company may want to have a Loan Calculator portlet right next to a Journal Content portlet showing an article with current rates and plans. To use a Journal Content portlet: Click the diploma in english ignou, Configuration icon ( ) to modify the properties of the portlet. Position cursor over the portlet border to access the Configuration icon. To display a list of articles to online select from, select the Setup tab. Select from the Type and syllabus, Community drop down menu.
Click on planner the article you want to display. With the Look and Feel tab selected, you can select whether to Show Portlet Borders or enter an optional Portlet Title. Note that the title will only research paper topics, show up if the planner, borders are displayed. Click Save when finished. Exit the setup section by clicking on the return arrow ( ). Writing Syllabus. This will return you to the page that the Journal Content portlet was added with the new Journal Article displayed. Refer to figure below. Table of planner Contents. There are other portlets that utilize CMS features. These portlets work together with CMS to add extra functionality to your portal. The Breadcrumb navigation portlet shows the location of the value, current page in context of the site. Homework Planner. This form of navigation helps the user visualize the structure of the site and quickly move from a page that is very specific to a broader grouping of information.
Simply add the Breadcrumb portlet to each page you want it on. The portlet will determine its place in movie films the structure of the website and dynamically build its proper path. The Navigation portlet is similar to the Breadcrumb portlet in that it helps the online homework planner, user visualize the structure of the site and provides hyperlinks to quickly move from page to page. The advantage of the Navigation portlet is paper, that it displays more information about the current page. To configure the Navigation portlet, click on the Configuration icon ( ). With the Setup tab selected, you can select a Bullet Style and a Display Style.
Below are several examples showing different bullet and display styles: With the Look and Feel tab selected, you can select whether to Show Portlet Borders or enter an optional Portlet Title. Note that the title will only show up if the borders are displayed. Click Save when finished. Exit the setup section by clicking on the return arrow ( ). 3.1. Associating with an Article Link.
To associate navigation links with an article, click on Page Settings . To associate a page with an article, select Article Save enter article ID Save . 3.2. Homework Planner. Associating with a Portlet Link. To associate navigation links with a portlet and URLs, click on Page Settings . To associate a page with an article, select Portlet and movie films, click Save . 3.3. Associating with an online planner Embedded URL. To associate navigation links with an of reading essay embedded URL, click on Page Settings . To associate a page with an embedded URL, select Embedded . 3.4. Associating with a URL that Opens in a New Window.
To associate navigation links with a URL that will open in a new window, click on Page Settings . To associate a page with a URL that will open in a new window, click URL . Enter _blank in the Target field. Our new layout design templates provide incredible flexibility for laying out portlets. Planner. Instead of being constrained to placing portlets under one, two, or three columns, you can now mix and match. Look at this example below: Highlighted in red are four different portlets arranged in a 1-2-1 layout design template. The Message Boards portlet is movie films, laid across the entire width of the online, page, the Blogs and Polls portlets are distributed across the middle columns, and the stretch of the bottom column contains the Currency Converter. To select a layout, click on the Layout button.
Select a layout and click Save . Drag the portlets to a desired location. If the preloaded templates are insufficient for your needs, you can create your own deployable layouts, use a sample layout template, or use a community-submitted one. Table of Contents. If Browse Server is selected, choose a community where the image will be stored in. Click Create New Folder to add images to. Any folders and images that are added here will be placed in the Image Gallery.
The Image Gallery provides a centralized repository for images to be stored and given a unique URL. Type the name of the new folder and click OK . Click on the newly created folder to add an image to it. Click Browse and select an image. Click Upload to add the movie films, image to the folder. Click on the image and click OK to add the online homework, image to the document. Click Save to save the updates. Select text to link. You can add an URL directly or you can click Browse Server . If Browse Server is selected, in the Resource Type menu you have the option to link it with a document, image, or page. To link to a new document, select a community where document will be stored in. Click Create New Folder . Any documents added here will be placed in the Document Library. Enter the movie films, name of the new folder.
Click on the newly created folder to homework add a document to it. Click Browse and locate document. Click Upload to add the document to the folder. Click on the document and click OK to link the document with the selected text. Select the community where the page is located in. The FCKeditor will show a site structure. Thesis. Click on the page that you want to link the homework, selected text to.
Select the community where the image is located in or will be stored in. If the image is stored in the system, click on in creative writing in english ignou syllabus theimage to link with the selected text and click OK . To link to a new image, select a folder to upload the image to or click Create New Folder to add a new folder to place the image in. Any images added here will be placed in the Document Library. If using an existing folder, skip to Step 8. Enter the name of the new folder. Click on the newly created folder to add an online homework planner image to it. Click Browse and locate the image. Click Upload to add the image to the folder.
Click on sociological paper the image and click OK to link the image with the homework, selected text.
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Your Ultimate APA Format Guide Generator. APA stands for the American Psychological Association, which is an organization that focuses on psychology. They are responsible for creating APA Style. APA Style, or APA citing, is used by many scholars and researchers in the behavior and social sciences, not just psychology. APA Style is a way to format citations. There are other citation formats such as MLA and Chicago, but APA is most popular in the science fields.
Following the same standard format for citations allows readers to understand the types of sources used in a project and also understand their components. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is currently in its 6th edition. It outlines proper ways to organize and structure a research paper, explains grammar guidelines, and also how to properly cite sources. This page focuses on how to create APA citations. We cite sources for many reasons. One reason is to homework, give credit to the creator of the work that you used to thesis on product, help you with your research.
When you use another person’s research or information to help you with your project, it is important to give acknowledgement to that individual. This is one way to prevent plagiarism. Another reason why we create citations is to provide a standard way for others to understand and possibly explore the sources we used. To learn more about citations, check out this page on crediting work. Click here to online homework planner, learn more on how to be careful of plagiarism. There are two types of citations in on compatability, APA. In-text citations are found in the body of the project and are used when adding a direct quote or paraphrase into your work. Reference citations are found in homework planner, the reference list, which is at the end of the assignment and includes the full APA citations of all sources used in a project. Depending on the types of sources that you used for your project, the format you use for your citations is different for each source type. There is a certain format for books, a different one for journal articles, a different one for websites, and so on. Scroll down to find the appropriate APA citation format for your sources.
Even though the structure varies across different sources, see below for a full explanation of writing ignou syllabus, APA in-text citations and reference citations. To learn more about APA style format, including APA’s blog, formatting questions, APA referencing explanations, click on this link for further reading on the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing information from a source, include an in-text citation in the body of your project, immediately following it. APA In-text citations may look something like this: “Direct quote” or paraphrase (Author’s name, Year, page number). See the planner section below titled, In-Text or Parenthetical Citations, for a full explanation and APA format instructions.
Each source used to help with the innovation gathering of research or information for your project is listed as a full citation in online homework, the reference list, which is usually the last part of a project. The APA citation format for each source is based on the type of source used. Scroll down to see examples of movie films, some common source formats. Most citations include the following pieces of online planner, information, commonly in this order: Author’s Last name, First Initial. (Date published).
Title of Source. Research. Location of Publisher: Publisher. Homework. Retrieved from URL. To determine the exact format for your full APA citations, scroll down to the section titled, “Common ALA Examples.” If you’re looking for an easy way to create your citations, use BibMe’s APA citation machine. Our APA citation maker automatically formats your citations quickly and easily. Authors are displayed in reverse order: Last name, First initial, Middle initial, followed with a period. In an APA citation, include all authors shown on a source.
If using BibMe’s APA reference generator, click “Add another contributor” to add additional author names. Our free APA citation creator will format the writing ignou authors in the order in which you add them. If your APA reference list has multiple authors with the same last name and planner initials, include their first name in brackets. Brooks, G. [Geraldine]. (2005). March . Brooks, G. [Gwendolyn]. (1949). Annie Allen . When no author is listed, exclude the author information and start the citation with the title.
When citing an entire edited book, place the names of editors in the author position and follow it with Ed. or Eds. in parentheses. See below for examples of essay, citing edited books in online homework planner, their entirety and also chapters in edited books. How to Structure Publication Dates in APA: Place the movie films date that the source was published in parentheses after the name of the author. Online. For periodicals, include the value of reading essay month and day as well. If no date is available, place n.d. in parentheses. How to Structure the Title in APA:
For book titles: Only capitalize the online homework first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle in your APA citation. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. On Compatability. Place this information in italics. End it with a period. Example: Gone with the wind. For articles and chapter titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and the same for homework the subtitle. On Product. Capitalize the homework planner first letter for any proper nouns as well. Do not italicize the title or place it in movie films, quotation marks. Online Homework. End it with a period.
Example: The correlation between school libraries and test scores: A complete overview. For magazine, journal, and newspaper titles: Write the title in value essay, standard form, with each important word starting with a capital letter. The Boston Globe. If you believe that it will help the reader to understand the homework planner type of diploma in creative in english, source, such as a brochure, lecture notes, or an online homework audio podcast, place a description directly after the title. Only capitalize the first letter.
New World Punx. (2014, February 15). A state of trance 650 [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://soundcloud.com/newworldpunx/asot650utrecht. How to Structure Publication Information in diploma in creative writing in english ignou syllabus, APA: For books and homework sources that are not periodicals: Give the city and state (or city and country if outside of the U.S.) for the place of publication. Abbreviate the research paper state name using the two-letter abbreviation. Place a colon after the location.
For journals, magazines, newspapers, and other periodicals: In APA format, place the volume number after the title. Online Homework Planner. Italicize this information. Place the issue number in writing ignou syllabus, parentheses and do not italicize it. Online Homework Planner. Afterwards, include page numbers. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 57 (1), 79-82. If you’re citing a newspaper article, include p. or pp. before the page numbers. How to Structure the Publisher in APA: In APA format, the diploma writing in english ignou syllabus names of publishers are not necessary to include for newspapers, magazines, journals, and online homework other periodicals. For books and other sources: It is not necessary to type out the sociological research topics name of the publisher exactly as it is shown on the source. Homework. Use a brief, but understandable form of the publisher’s name.
Exclude the terms publishers, company, and paper incorporated. Include Books and online Press if it is part of the publisher’s name. End this information with a period. Little Brown and Company would be placed in the APA citation as Little Brown. Oxford University Press would be placed in writing ignou, the citation as Oxford University Press. For sources found online, after the publication information, add a period. Then, add: Retrieved from online URL. Do not place a period after the URL. If you’re citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to it.
This stands for Direct Object Identifier. Of Reading. If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the URL as the DOI number is static and never changes. If the source you’re citing has a DOI number, after the publication information add a period and then doi:xxxxxxx The x’s indicate where you should put the online planner DOI number. Do not place a period after the DOI number. If you’re using BibMe’s automatic APA reference generator, you will see an paper topics area to type in the DOI number. Lobo, F. (2017, February 23). Planner. Sony just launched the world’s fastest SD card. Mashable . Value Essay. Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2017/02/23/sony-sf-g-fastest-sd-card/?utm_cid=mash-prod-nav-sub-st#ErZKV8blqOqO. Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. Online Homework Planner. (2016 April-June). Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and press and open Oregon State.
Open Praxis, 8 (2), 123-130. doi:EJ1103945. APA Citations Format and Examples: Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of book . Saenz, B.A. (2012). Aristotle and Dante discover the secrets of the universe . Looking for an APA formatter? Don’t forget that BibMe’s APA citation generator creates your citation quickly and on compatability easily. Citations for E-Books found online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of book . Retrieved from URL.
Colwin, L. Homework Planner. (2014). Happy all the time. . Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=EemmBAAAQBAJlpg=PP1dq=happypg=PP1#v=onepageq=happyf=false. Notice that for movie films e-books, publication information is excluded from the online planner citation. Citations for Chapters in Edited Books: Chapter author’s last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of chapter. In F.M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of book (p. x or pp. x-x). Thesis On Product. Location: Publisher. doi:xxxxxxx. Longacre, W.A., Ayres, J.E. (1968). Archeological lessons from an Apache wickiup.
In S.R. Binford L.R. Binford (Eds.), Archeology in cultural systems (pp. 151-160). Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=vROM3JrrRa0C=PP1=archeology=PR9#v=onepage=archeology=false.
Editor, A.A. (Ed.). Planner. (Year published). Title of edited book . Location: Publisher. Gupta, R. (Ed.). (2003). Research. Remote sensing geology . Germany: Springer-Verlag. Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of article or page . Online. Retrieved from URL. Mardell, M. (2017). Facing the robotic revolution . Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-39028030.
Looking for an APA formatter to movie films, cite your website sources? Use BibMe’s APA citation generator! Citations for Journal Articles found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Date published). Title of article. Title of planner, journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:xxxxxx.
Spreer, P., Rauschnabel, P.A. (2016, September). Selling with technology: Understanding the resistance to mobile sales assistant use in retailing. Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management, 36 (3), 240-263. doi:10.1080/08853134.2016.1208100. Don’t forget, BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps your cite your sources quickly and easily! Our free APA citation maker is simple to use! Citations for Newspapers found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year, Month Day).
Title of sci fi, article. Title of online homework planner, Newspaper . Retrieved from URL. Khullar, D. (2017, February 22). Bad hospital design is making us sicker. The New York Times . Retrieved from research https://nyti.ms/2lujQ76.
Looking for homework an APA formatter to help you cite your newspaper sources? Check out BibMe’s APA citation machine! Our APA format generator, or APA citation builder, creates your citations quickly and easily. In Text and Parenthetical Citations. What is an of reading APA In Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation? The purpose of APA in text and online homework parenthetical citations is to of reading essay, give the reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while they’re in the middle of reading or viewing your project. You may include direct quotes in the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source. Planner. Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased into essay your own words. These are called parenthetical citations. Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include an in text citation directly following it. You also need to include the full citation for the source in the APA reference list, which is usually the last item in a project.
In Text Citations for Direct Quotes: In APA format, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote. It should include the page number or section information to help the reader locate the quote themselves. Buck needed to adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in Canada. He states, “no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to do but loaf and planner be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moment’s safety” (London, 1903, p. Of Reading. 25). In Text Citations for online Paraphrased Information:
When taking an idea from another source and placing it in your own words, it is not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the source is large and you want to direct readers right to writing, the information. At the time, papyrus was used to create paper, but it was only grown and available in mass quantities in Egypt. This posed a problem for the Greeks and Romans, but they managed to have it exported to their civilizations. Papyrus thus remained the material of choice for homework paper creation (Casson, 2001). How to Format In Text and Parenthetical Citations: After a direct quote or paraphrase, place in parentheses the last name of the author, add a comma, and then the year the source was published. If citing a direct quote, also include the page number that the information was found on. Close the parentheses and add a period afterwards. In APA format, if the author’s name is included in the text of diploma in creative, your project, omit their name from the in-text citation and only include the other identifying pieces of information. Smith states that, “the Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works” (2014, p. 82).
If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text citation. If your source has three, four, or five authors, include all names in the first in-text citation along with the date. In the following in text citations, only include the first author’s name and follow it with et al. 1st in-text citation: (Gilley, Johnson, Witchell, 2015) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Gilley, et al.) If your source has six or more authors, only include the first author’s name in the first citation and follow it with et al. Include the online planner year the source was published and the page numbers (if it is a direct quote). 1st in-text citation: (Jasper, et al., 2017) 2nd and paper any other subsequent citations: (Jasper, et al., 2017) If your source was written by a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the group’s name in full in the first in online planner, text citation.
In any in text citations following it, it is acceptable to shorten the group name to something that is simple and understandable. 1st citation: (American Eagle Outfitters, 2017) 2nd and subsequent citations: (American Eagle, 2017) Check out this page to learn more about parenthetical citations. Also, BibMe’s APA citation machine creates your parenthetical citations quickly and easily. Towards the end of creating a full reference citation, you’ll see the option to create a parenthetical citation in the APA format generator. The listing of all sources used in your project are found in research paper, the APA reference list, which is usually the last page or part of online, a project. Included in this reference list are sources you used to gather research and other information. In APA format, it is not necessary to include personal communications in the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. Sci Fi. These specific sources only need in-text citations, which are found in the body of homework planner, your project.
All APA citations, or references, are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If you have two sources by the same author, place them in order by diploma ignou syllabus, the year of publication. Thompson, H.S. Online Planner. (1971). Fear and loathing in Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the American dream . Thompson, H.S. (1998). Research Paper Topics. The rum diary . If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title. Dr. Planner. Suess. In English. (1958). The cat in the hat comes back. New York, NY: Random House. Dr. Homework. Suess. (1958).
Yertle the sci fi paper turtle. New York, NY: Random House. In an APA citation, if a source does not have an author, place the source in alphabetical order by planner, the first main word of the title. Need help creating the thesis citations in your APA reference list? BibMe’s APA formatter can help! Our APA citation machine creates your citations by entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information. Need to planner, create APA format papers? Follow these guidelines to produce a research paper in APA format: In an APA style paper, the font used throughout your document should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and headings. Margins should be 1 inch around the entire document and indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard.
Place the pages in the following order: Title page (An APA format title page should include a title, running head, author line, institution line, and author’s note). Movie Films. (Page 1) Abstract page (page 2) Text or body of research paper (start on page 3) Reference List Page for tables (if necessary) Page for figures (if necessary) Appendices page (if necessary) The title page counts as page 1. Online. Number the pages afterwards using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4…). What is a running head? In an APA paper, next to on compatability, the page numbers, include what is called a “running head.” The running head is online, a simplified version of the diploma title of your paper. Online Homework. Place the running head in the top left corner of your project and place it in capital letters. On the title page only, include the phrase: Running head. Title page example:
Running head: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. For the rest of the paper or project, do not use the term, Running head. Example of subsequent pages: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and many other word processing programs allow you to set up page numbers and on compatability a repeated running head. Use these tools to make this addition easier for you!
If you’re looking for an APA sample paper, check out the other resources found on BibMe. Using BibMe to Create Citations for your Reference List or Bibliography. Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps you generate your APA citations by entering a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information. Background Information and History of APA: The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts. APA style format was developed in 1929 by scholars from a number of different scientific fields and backgrounds.
Their overall goal was to online homework, develop a standard way to document scientific writing and research. Since its inception, the essay on compatability APA Style Manual has been updated numerous times and it is now in its 6th edition. The 6th edition was released in 2010. In 2012, APA published an addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for creating APA citations for electronic resources. Today, there are close to 118,000 APA members. There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and journal publications. Some of online homework, their more popular resources include the sci fi paper database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of Applied Psychology and Health Psychology. Our citation guides provide detailed information about all types of sources in planner, MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles.
If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. Remember to evaluate your sources for accuracy and credibility. Questionable sources could result in a poor grade!
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Getting ready for online homework the ACT exam goes beyond just reviewing trigonometry and grammar rules. Doing well on the ACT pacing and stamina, so you can keep up your focus over hours of testing. So just how long is the ACT test? And how many questions do you have to answer per minute?
Learn the ins and outs of ACT timing so you can study to maximize your time on the ACT. The ACT is 2 hours and essay 55 minutes long (or 175 minutes), but 3 hours and 35 minutes long (215 minutes) if you take the ACT Plus Writing. Each section is given in one chunk, and takes between thirty and sixty minutes. You will receive just one 10-minute break after the first two sections , and a 5-minute break after the online multiple choice sections if you are taking the ACT Plus Writing. Essay? Definitely use that time to stretch, drink some water, and have a snack, since you will be testing for online planner over an movie films hour before and after the break. Despite the fact that the ACT is almost three hours long (or three and a half hours if you take the ACT Plus Writing), the time pressure can be intense. This table illustrates about planner, how much time you have to spend on each question on the ACT. Of course, in practice, your pacing will vary depending on question type and difficulty. Sci Fi Paper? But this gives you an idea of online homework just how much you need to accomplish during each minute of the diploma in creative writing syllabus ACT. The ACT’s sections are given in single chunks.
This means that developing your stamina and online planner focus will be key to doing well on the ACT. Movie Films? You could be the best mathematician in the world, but that won’t mean anything on online homework the ACT unless you can work quickly and keep your energy up for sociological a full hour of math problems . Let's talk about how to hone your time management skills on each of the four sections. The English subject area will feel the fastest, since you have to answer 75 questions in just 45 minutes. Especially if this is a challenging subject for you, take time to practice not only the content but the pacing of this section. To improve your speed, start by giving yourself unlimited time on online homework planner practice English sections.
Then narrow that time to value of reading 60 minutes. Finally decrease that to 45 minutes. This will help you build accuracy and speed as well as get comfortable with the ACT’s format. The ACT math section has 60 questions in 60 minutes. This is nice because it will be easy to planner keep track of pacing – try to average one question per minute. Essay? Similarly to the English section, if that speed is difficult for you, start by giving yourself unlimited time to online get used to the type of Math questions the ACT asks, then decrease that to 75 minutes, and finally 60. The goal is to movie films increase speed without sacrificing accuracy.
Although these are very different subject areas, the ACT’s Reading and Science sections are formatted very similarly. Both sections deal with breaking down information – whether that is a chart or a research report or a longer passage. As you study, develop a system . Will you skim the passage or chart first and then read the online planner questions, or will you read the questions first and then look at the information? Both systems can work equally well, so choose what will work best for you. Once you choose your system, practice so you can execute it smoothly. Paper Topics? The goal is to planner be able to on compatability very quickly break down passages and online data without going so fast that you make mistakes. The best way to prepare for the ACT’s intense pacing, and to increase your test-taking stamina, is to in english take full, strictly-timed practice tests. If you can, take these on online planner Saturday mornings, so you can prepare for essay on compatability your energy level during that time of day.
Taking practice tests will help you get used to the ACT’s format and online homework pacing, especially in the English section where you have about 36 seconds per question. When you are taking practice tests, simulate actual test conditions as much as possible. Bubble in your answers to account for the slight bit of time that will take. Finally, if you are taking the ACT Plus Writing, practice writing your essay after you do all of the multiple choice sections. Yes, it’s definitely tough to movie films write an essay after nearly three hours of multiple choice, but that is what you will have to do on test day.
Practicing beforehand will give you the best chance of online homework overcoming fatigue and focusing on the day of the diploma in creative writing in english syllabus ACT. Mark your calendar – Saturdays are for practice tests! Test Day Tips to Deal with ACT Length. The day of the test, you'll have woken up early that morning (possibly after being nervous and not sleeping well). Homework? You'll be two hours into in creative writing the test, and you might feel an energy crash. What do you do? Here are quick tips: Eat a nutritious breakfast that isn't too greasy or sweet.
Complex carbohydrates can give you lasting energy. Always take advantage of breaks. Use the restroom even if you don't fully feel like you need to, since you don't want to have to use the bathroom in the middle of the test. Bring a snack and water so you can replenish your energy and thirst without wandering through the school halls. Now that you are prepared for the ACT’s pacing, get other advice for planner doing your best on of reading test day. Read our test day tips so you can be both mentally and physically prepared for planner the ACT. Where is the best place to take the ACT? Read our guide to on product innovation find the homework best testing location near you. Sci Fi Research? Want to improve your ACT score by 4+ points? Download our free guide to the top 5 strategies you need in your prep to improve your ACT score dramatically. Have friends who also need help with test prep?
Share this article! Halle Edwards graduated from Stanford University with honors. Online? In high school, she earned 99th percentile ACT scores as well as 99th percentile scores on SAT subject tests. She also took nine AP classes, earning a perfect score of thesis 5 on seven AP tests. As a graduate of a large public high school who tackled the college admission process largely on her own, she is passionate about helping high school students from different backgrounds get the knowledge they need to be successful in the college admissions process. You should definitely follow us on social media.
You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. Online Planner? SAT® is thesis a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . Online Homework? The College Entrance Examination.
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Debate Essay Essays and Research Papers. in the Debate industry – ranging from debate development to homework marketing debating club to public affairs. For the one year just . prior to joining the Institute Of Business Administration Debating Club (IBA-JUEDC), I was the marketing and public affairs leader for the organization. Then I realize I may initiate one environment debating club. MD. Thesis On Product? SAIDUR RAHMAN: What can you tell me IBA-JUEDC and its history? What is the mission of the online planner IBA-JUEDC? MR. SIMANTA: IBA-JUEDC is a non-profit Debate association. Debate , Debates , Debating 1599 Words | 5 Pages.
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