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Introduction in philosophy essay

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The 10 Best Sites to Post Your Resume Online. Introduction In Philosophy Essay! There are a lot of ways to business get your resume in front of the introduction in philosophy, right people, and thesis on environmental management your best chance for in philosophy essay success is to do everything you can to for a business paper get yourself out there. One of the easiest actions you can take is to distribute your resume on several sites and increase your chances of finding your next opportunity. You could be found by your future employer, or even a recruiter could take an interest in essay your background and then do the work for critical you. After reviewing all the best resume sites, we recommend using ResumeRobin to distribute your resume because you can get in front of introduction essay a lot of biological data analysis people without investing too much of your valuable time.

It's also a great value when you factor in how much time it takes to go to every job site. We’ve hand-picked our favorite 10 sites and services to post a resume online to help you find your next opportunity. We’ve included some options that are industry-specific, but only essay if the essay ged hard, sites cater to a wide variety of applicants. We also took into in philosophy essay, consideration the number of real inquiries job seekers received because spam can be a problem with some resume posting sites. The Best Places to Post Your Resume Online. ResumeRobin - Massive distribution for just $25.

Try it now! Dice - The place to go for tech jobs. Statement For A Paper! Indeed.com - The biggest job search engine. LinkedIn - Make sure your profile matches your resume. ZipRecruiter - A major up-and-comer in job search. CareerBuilder - Highly visited job board with full-time opportunities. Monster - Popular job site with all kinds of jobs, including part-time.

Facebook - Leverage your friend network as a professional network. Twitter - Employers will look at your account if you have one. University Career Centers - Leverage your education even more. Compared to the other places to post your resume, ResumeRobin.com is probably a lesser known option, but it may be the only website you have to visit. That’s because it’s a resume distribution service, meaning you upload your resume and then let them do all the work.

The cost is pretty low when you consider how much time it takes to post your resume on every single website. Essay! You’ll have the option to post within your metro area for $25 (includes up to 150-plus recruiters and job sites), within your state for $55 (includes up to 250-plus recruiters and job sites), or nationwide for thesis on environmental management $65. To get started, you just have to introduction upload your resume to the system. From there, ResumeRobin creates an HTML and of critical profession plain text version. They enter your resume into the daily feed file, which is uploaded to a network of partner websites (including most of the sites mentioned below) via an API and send the resumes to introduction essay recruiters via email. Thesis On Environmental Management In Nigeria! Additionally, once your resume is introduction, uploaded to the various job sites, ResumeRobin job seekers get preferred treatment so that means your resume will show up at the top of keyword searches used by employers.

That’s worth the essay about television, cost alone if you ask us. When it comes down to it, ResumeRobin is the most job-seeker friendly place to post your resume online. It might cost you a little in the process, but don’t forget about the value of your time as well as the visibility boost you’ll receive. Many people are raving about their experiences with ResumeRobin online. One person noted that it does take about 48 hours for the service to introduction get ramped up, but received an inquiry from a Fortune 500 company just three days later. Essay Ged Hard! Another had three job interviews within two weeks after using the service. While the website looks very basic and generic, don’t judge the book by introduction its cover.

The company is apparently worth close to $800 million. If you have a background in tech or you’re looking for an IT job, Dice is the place to go. It’s probably the biggest specialized job board on the Internet. With a growing number of companies looking to thesis statement business hire tech talent, posting your resume on Dice is a great way to get found if you have a tech background. There are also a good number of contract jobs available on Dice. The quality of introduction job seekers on Dice is pretty high, which is more of a positive than a negative because recruiters and employers are likely to keep coming back to find talent. Of the registered users on Dice, 65% have 10 years or more experience and about television influence 75% have a bachelor's degree. To post your resume, first create a MyDice account. From there, login and click on the Manage/Add Resumes link within the MyResume section. Then, you can upload your resume.

The next step would be to make your resume searchable. Introduction In Philosophy! Go back to your account, click on the MyResume button, and select the resume you want recruiters or employers to find. For A! You can upload up to essay five resumes at thesis on environmental management a time, so be sure to pick the right one and then click on essay, Make Searchable. Keep in mind, you only want to be searchable if you’re actively job seeking and ready to work within 30 days. On Environmental In Nigeria! If you want to post your resume anonymously, edit your profile, go to Search Settings, and click the button next to introduction Confidential. Now, your contact info will be hidden. About Television Influence! Indeed is at the top of our list for places to post your resume online (and search for introduction essay jobs). Indeed.com has traditionally been ranked as the number one external method of hiring for small businesses in the world. In terms of visibility, no other job site gets more action. We also recommend Indeed for job searching because it has the most comprehensive database of any job site. There are more than 200 million people visiting the site every month.

Posting your resume on Indeed.com is pretty simple as well. All you have to do is create a free account and then either create your resume from scratch or upload it if you have it saved as a file. Indeed also covers global job seekers, since recruiters and employers can search in many countries. While some say that posting your resume on a job site isn’t worth it, many job seekers have reported success using Indeed. Thesis Statement Business! Alright, so you can post your resume on your LinkedIn account, but we don’t advise that. LinkedIn is a living, breathing resume itself so you should always keep it updated. The reason why posting your resume on LinkedIn doesn’t make a lot of sense is because a resume is often an adapting document depending on the type of employment you’re seeking. LinkedIn not only introduction in philosophy essay shows your professional expertise and accomplishments -- it also helps tell a more active story about who you are and what you want. Plus, every recruiter uses LinkedIn so make sure your profile is optimized with the titles or words you want to be found for. Use your LinkedIn account in conjunction with your resume and just be sure both are always synced up.

The last thing you need is inconsistencies in your story. Some people still want to take advantage of LinkedIn’s resume import feature. If you want your resume living on your LinkedIn profile, you click Profile, select Import Resume, then browse to find your file, and upload it. Again, we’d recommend using your LinkedIn profile as your public resume and thesis business know that recruiters and potential employers will be taking a careful look at introduction in philosophy it. It’s one of the less familiar names on this list, but ZipRecruiter is making some major strides in the industry.

Unlike some of the other major long-standing job boards, ZipRecruiter promises no spam or banners, which results in a more pleasant experience for job seekers. You can post your resume online by on environmental in nigeria creating a free account as well as a job alert. From there, you’ll get job alerts via email, your resume will be searchable, and in philosophy you’ll be matched to in nigeria jobs that are hiring now. ZipRecruiter has a resume database that is easily searchable for recruiters and essay employers. All they have to do is search specific skills or keywords as well as a location. Just be sure to optimize your profile and resume according to what you’d like to be searched for essay so that you increase your visibility to prospective employers. One cool feature about ZipRecruiter is essay, that you can see how many people have looked at your resume, in addition to management in nigeria other data. The mobile app also has very positive reviews so you can expect a seamless transition if you’re using ZipRecruiter on the go. Essay! Compared to the other major online job boards, CareerBuilder has more candidates that have college degrees and also leans more towards full-time employment opportunities.

CareerBuilder costs more to critical emotional post a job on than the introduction, other industry giants, but it weeds out on environmental in nigeria, more unqualified applicants for employers. Introduction In Philosophy Essay! CareerBuilder has rolled out some exciting features in the past year for job seekers who post their resume online. They now provide insights that show how many times your resume has been opened in the past week and essay ged hard what companies are looking at you. Regardless if you think you’ll get hired using CareerBuilder, just having those insights along is valuable and probably worth posting your resume. Introduction In Philosophy Essay! All you have to thesis on environmental management in nigeria do to get started on CareerBuilder is sign up, add your desired job title, and then upload your resume. From there, you’ll have the option to display your resume and introduction in philosophy contact info or hide it.

Obviously, if you want to be found, you should choose to display your resume and essay ged hard contact info (and you’ll get the benefit of the insights into who is looking at your resume). Beyond the ability to post your resume online to their massive database, Monster.com also has tons of useful career resources. There’s also a premium resume service that sends your resume to influential recruiters so that you’re seen by more employers and the right ones. It costs $68 as a one-time fee, but it might be worth the extra push to essay stand out above the rest. Monster is no stranger to resume posting, as the company was the critical styles emotional, first job search site online and also had the first resume database in the world. To post your resume, create an account and sign up manually or use one of the social account sign in options. As part of essay creating your account, you’ll have to fill out some personal information and then choose a file to essay ged hard upload your resume. From there, you have the option to choose if you want to introduction in philosophy be searchable or not. If you’re posting your resume, you likely want to be found by a recruiter or employer, so we’d recommend choosing the searchable option. Television Influence! You can always hide it after if you want to.

Taking it a step further, you can submit your resume for free to be evaluated by a resume expert who can offer you some tips, but it will likely lead to in philosophy trying to get you to pay for a service. Critical Emotional! Lastly, just be sure to spend the time to fill out your profile so you that it’s visible and you’ll match with the right search terms to increase your chances of being found. More recruiters and in philosophy employers are turning to other methods to find candidates. One out of critical thinking six job seekers says social media is the reason for landing their current job. Remember, many opportunities come through relationship building and networking.

A lot of that happens on essay, social media. Let’s look at Facebook first and then Twitter next. While LinkedIn clearly leads the charge online (if you consider it social media), Facebook is number two, according to analysis recruiters (25% of recruiters have hired through Facebook). In order to be taken seriously, you must tailor your Facebook page around your work versus your personal life. You don’t have to cut out the personal stuff completely as it will show you’re a real person. Make sure you have a professional profile picture and applicable cover photo. You’ll also want to include all of your work and education information.

You can also include links to your personal website and in philosophy essay other social media accounts (if relevant). We’d suggest staying clear of biological data analysis expressing religious and political views. There’s something intriguing about a candidate being able to sell themselves in essay 140 characters or less. While it’s not a huge number, 15% of thinking emotional recruiters have hired someone through Twitter. Given the limitations, it’s impossible to in philosophy essay post your resume on essay ged hard, Twitter, but this is more about leveraging Twitter by linking to your resume or marketing yourself with tweets. You can get yourself under the 140-character limit by using a URL shortener if you’re posting your resume in a Tweet.

Hey, who knows, maybe it’s worth blasting the company you want work for by mentioning them in in philosophy your Tweet. You can also create hashtags with keywords that recruiters might search for essay about so you can be easily found. Leveraging Twitter to post your resume online and get in introduction in philosophy front of more people is a no-brainer for someone who is unemployed or actively seeking work. A great resource (especially for recent grads) is to utilize the career center from influence your college to post your resume online. To be clear, university career centers are for all alumni -- not just recent grads and introduction essay current students. Many employers browse career centers of specific colleges because they’ve had success with talent from a handful of universities. As an example, one company we spoke with that employs over 3,000 people specifically looks for analyst positions from one university.

It’s hard to critical imagine other companies don’t do the same thing. Having your resume on your university career center can also open up opportunities for the university itself to promote you. Several alumni associations have groups on LinkedIn and in philosophy essay Facebook. Many also offer resume writing help, cover letter writing help, and about interview assistance. At the end of the in philosophy essay, day, the success rate might still depend on the reputation of essay ged hard your university and the type of employers coming to the university career center website to find candidates.

If your skills and career trajectory match those employers, you’re probably going to get a lot better result than someone who doesn’t. Introduction Essay! CareerCloud is at the forefront of social and thesis statement for a business mobile in the job search and recruitment process. We are a career media company that publishes articles and in philosophy essay avice for today's job seeker.

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Optimization of the ion extraction from an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) by IBSimu modeling. Questo lavoro di tesi ¨ nalizzato a raggiungere una pi¹ profonda comprensione del processo di estrazione di un fascio di ioni da un Inductively Coupled Plasma accoppiato a uno spettrometro di massa (utilizzato per l'analisi di soluzioni radioattive). In particolare, lo studio ¨ stato focalizzato sulla plasma torch e sull'extraction interface - costituita da sampler e skimmer. Per capire i processi che avvengono tra lo skimmer - a valle del quale il plasma perde la sua quasi-neutralit - e la prima lente ottica, ¨ stato utilizzato IBSimu, un software appositamente creato per simulare l'estrazione di ioni ed elettroni da una sorgente di plasma. As said in the previous section, nowadays one of the introduction essay, most important meth- ods in methods of critical accounting profession, atomic spectrometry is the ICP-MS: the two main reasons for its success are the true multi-element capabilities and the extremely low detec- tion limits. All ICP sector eld instruments consist of [41]: ¿½' an ion source (see chapter 3 for introduction, a detailed description); ¿½' a sampling interface (see chapter 4 for a detailed description); ¿½' an electrostatic lens system, used to guide, focus and accelerate the positively charged ion beam onto the entrance slit and to shape the beam, giving it a more rectangular prole (in accordance to in nigeria, the ge- ometry of the entrance slit); ¿½' a magnetic sector, which bends ions according to their momentum; the electromagnet is introduction typically operating in methods thinking profession, static mode (that is, at a constant eld) and the eld strength can be changed varying the electric current; ¿½' an electric sector, where dierences in ion energies are compensated to a certain extent; ¿½' a curved ight tube, between the poles of the electromagnet; ¿½' an entrance and introduction essay an exit slit, to shape the biological data analysis, geometry of the ion beam and to achieve a good resolution (which depends on in philosophy essay the width of the incident ion beam and thus on essay ged hard the width of the entrance slit) ; ¿½' zoom and/or lter optics: in introduction in philosophy essay, the Neptune, a zoom lens and essay ged hard an en- ergy lter, in order to maintain the direct guidance of the incoming ion beams into introduction essay, the detector and to permit ions with suciently high kinetic energies to pass only; ¿½' a detection system, consisting - in the Neptune - of a number of Fara- day detectors, arranged along the thesis statement, focal plane to measure all isotopes of interest simultaneously; in essay, addition, there are also electron mul- tipliers, discrete dynode detectors and channeltrons to monitor low isotopic abundance nuclides; ¿½' a vacuum system, otherwise the ions would scatter and there would be a signicant loss of transmission and sensitivity (see later for thinking styles, more details about dierent pressure regions). It has to be underlined that two dierent congurations are possible; in the studied case the plasma source and in philosophy the extraction interface are grounded, as ions are accelerated by the lens system potential. Thesis Statement Paper. Other instruments have the opposite conguration, with the ion acceleration provided by the 8 Figure 2.5: Schematic drawing of the Neptune MC-ICP-MS (Thermo Sci- entic) [41]. interface, posed at a high voltage. The disadvantage of this solution is that all mechanical parts have to introduction, be isolated. Moreover the risk of discharges caused by the conducting plasma is high [24].

The number of articles re- porting this alternative arrangement is low [16] [17] [24]. With both this settlement is possible to do High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HR-MS). The present work is focused on the mass spectrometry rst step: the biological data analysis, analyte ionization through an introduction in philosophy essay ICP; therefore the following argumentation will be focused on the plasma source.9 2.3 ICP-MS applications. In order to complete the ICP-MS introduction, an statement paper overview on the possible applications is provided in the following. Referring to the examples chosen by Jakubowski et al. [42] in the sector eld devices area, it is possible to group the applications in three categories: ¿½' multi-element analysis, ¿½' isotope ratio applications, 9Nowadays, ICP sources have a similar design in all commercially available instru- ments, independently on the type of mass separator [41].

9 Figure 2.6: Schematic of an ICP-MS system. Various gaseous (dashed lines) and liquid (solid lines) sample introduction devices are shown [46]. ¿½' speciation analysis. Multi-element analysis has been the major application area of sector eld (SF) instruments during the last 15 years. The main reasons for in philosophy essay, their success are the capability of multi-element measurements, high sensitivity, low detection limits and television fast and accurate direct data acquisition of the majority of nuclides suering from spectral interferences at low mass res- olution. ICP-SFMS is used for introduction in philosophy essay, biological and environmental analyses: to determine element concentrations in body uids - such as blood, urine and cerebrospinal uid -, for the detection of trace elements in sections of hu- man hairs, for monitoring Ca in biological samples - to study Ca pathways and metabolism -, in water research, to monitor the fate of heavy metals (including Rare Earth Elements) in the environment, for the direct multi- elemental determination of trace elements in diluted sea water and for soil samples analysis - in order to monitor heavy metal mobilization. In in- dustrial applications and about materials research, ICP-MS is mainly used in the semi-conductor industry and in the characterization of pure and in philosophy ultra-pure materials; other applications are quality control of ultra-pure water, am- monia and essay ged hard acids, determination of the stoichiometry and in philosophy trace impurities in thin barium strontium titanate perovskite layers (used in microelectron- ics), assessment of the purity of TlBr single crystals and forensic studies or provenance determination. Laser Ablation coupled to ICP-SFMS has to be mentioned because it is used either for bulk quantication of thinking in the accounting elements, for depth proling or the identication of contamination spots. Concluding, multi-element analysis is used in food and nutrition science - for beverages, 10 vegetables, sh and infant food - and in introduction essay, geological and radionuclide appli- cations - for studying trace element concentrations in about television, geological samples, soils, sea water or sea water particulates10 and introduction essay radionuclide determination. The superior sensitivity and the capability to avoid spectral interferences by statement for a, operating at high mass resolution are undeniable advantages for isotopic analysis as well. Applications range in in philosophy essay, many elds: from biological to en- vironmental samples, from geological to essay television influence, provenance and essay migration studies.

Tracer experiments were conducted to investigate elemental uxes in, e.g., the environment or metabolic processes; natural variations in thesis, the isotopic composition of selected elements are used for solving problems in a biological context; Pb composition analyses are used to distinguish between natural, geogenic Pb and anthropogenic Pb; through Sr isotopic analysis11 is introduction essay pos- sible to trace the provenance of goods, agricultural products, food or even animals and humans - in accounting profession, archaeometry and forensics. Even radionuclide applications are important: ICP-SFMS measurements have proven useful in introduction essay, the nuclear industry and in the related environmental and safety aspects. Irradiated nuclear fuel has been analyzed by television, means of MC-ICP-MS for introduction in philosophy, the optimization of the fuel cycle and for safeguard aspects. At last, ICP-MS instruments are used in management in nigeria, analytical problems related to biological systems or environment studies; information on speciation is required in introduction in philosophy essay, order to understand processes related to toxicity, transport and bio-availability of statement for a paper metals or biological processes in which metals are involved. In life science and environmental applications high mass resolution is essay needed for data analysis, proteins studies (e.g. for the characterization of metal containing or metal-binding proteins in biological systems), analysis and quantication (e.g. for selenoproteins, metalloproteins and protein-bound metals). 10Sea water temperatures can be calculated from Mg/Ca ratios.

11Isotopic and elemental signatures bear the potential of introduction in philosophy providing unique ngerprints which can be directly related to on environmental management, the origin of the sample investigated. 11 Chapter 3 Plasma torch The ICP is essay generated in a discharge gas (Argon, in our case) without using any electrode, by the application of a high frequency electrical current to an induction coil, enveloping the plasma torch [41], as it will be explained in the following. The development of ICP sources began in 1942 [5], when Babat published his rst paper on the properties of electrodeless discharges and realized the methods of critical thinking profession, rst ICP operating at atmospheric pressure. About 20 years later, Reed published two articles on his ingenious approach to the stabilization and thermal isolation of the producted plasmas. He under- lined three properties that make ICP a superior source of atomization and ionization: high gas temperatures, capability of being sustained in noble gas environments and in philosophy essay freedom from electrodes (representing a contamina- tion). As a result of biological data analysis these good analytical performances, studies on ICP were started in 1962 and introduction in philosophy essay the rst use of an Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma as an thesis statement business paper ion source for introduction essay, mass spectrometry dates from 1978 [12]. Sciex, Inc., introduced the critical styles emotional, rst commercial instrument for ICP-MS at the 1983 Pittsburgh Conference, which catalyzed an explosive growth of introduction interest in critical styles emotional, the technique [12]. In fact, until that year, commonly used ion sources were not suitable for the rapid, direct examination of aqueous samples because extensive sample preparation was required.1 Then, several other instrument companies conducted ICP-MS research and, between 1985 and introduction in philosophy essay 2010, about 20 commercially available instruments were introduced to critical styles, the market (con- sidering both the in philosophy, ICP and the GD plasma source) [41]. Data. For a complete list of the commercial sector eld mass spectrometers with plasma based ion sources see Table 3.1.

To understand how an ICP works, it has to be known that high frequency currents owing in an induction coil generate an oscillating magnetic eld, whose lines of force are axially oriented inside the coil. Introduction In Philosophy. In an ICP, the plasma torch - where plasma is generated - is enveloped in 2 or 3 turns of copper tube, cooled with either water or Argon; this settlement produces an electromagnetic inducted eld by a time-varying magnetic eld. The power 1The sample was evaporated onto a lament for thermal ionization or incorporated into an electrode for spark ionization before the sample-containing substrate was physi- cally mounted in the vacuum system. The associated time requirement for these opera- tions was rendering the essay ged hard, routine analysis of large numbers of solutions impractical. Introduction. 12 Table 3.1: Commercial sector eld mass sp ectrometer with plasm a based ion source s 1985-2010 [41] Name Man ufacturer a Y ear of Status T yp e of instrumen t Geometry in about television influence, tro duction V G 9000 V G Elemen tal 1985 discon tin ued GD-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Plasmatrace I V G Elemen tal 1988 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson JMS-Plasmax I JEOL 1991 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Plasma 54 V G Elemen tal 1992 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Elemen t Finnigan MA T 1993 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Plasmatrace II V G Elemen tal 1994 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson JMS-Plasmax 2 JEOL 1995 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Nu Plasma Nu Instrumen ts 1997 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Axiom V G Elemen tal 1998 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Axiom MC V G Elemen tal 1998 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Elemen t 2 Thermo Quest 1998 av ail able ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Nu Plasma 1700 Nu Instrumen ts 1999 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Neptune Thermo Quest 2000 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson IsoProb e-P GV Instrumen ts 2004 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS magnetic se ctor + hexap ole collision ce ll Elemen t XR Thermo Electron 2004 av ail able ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson A ttoM Nu Instrumen ts 2004 av ail able ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Elemen t GD Thermo Electron 2005 av ail able GD-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson SPECTR O MS Sp ectro Analytical Instrumen ts 2010 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Mattauc h-Herzog Nu Plasma II Nu Instrumen ts 2010 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Astrum Nu Instrumen ts 2010 av ail able GD-SFMS Nier-Johnson Neptune plus Thermo Scien tic 2009 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson a Man ufacturer names are according to their names when the instrumen t w as in tro duced. 13 supply is given by introduction in philosophy essay, a radio-frequency (rf) generator, that ranges typically between 1 and thinking emotional 1.5 kW, at a frequency of about 27 MHz. A sketch of the plasma torch used by Neptune MC-ICP-MS is represented in Figure 3.1; it is usually referred to as a Fassel torch, from the american chemist Velmer A. Fassel. The following treatise, which aims to give an introduction in philosophy overall description of the torch, is mainly based on the publications by Fassel [5] and Houk [12], while a detailed nomeclature description of the system can be found elsewhere [7]. Essay Television Influence. To form a stable plasma, a pattern of three Argon ows is needed; so the Fassel torch consists of three concentric quartz or fused silicate glass tubes, carriyng a total Argon ow between 11 and 18 L/min. Since the essay, plasma temperature is so high, a thermal insulation is needed; the outer tube main operation is thus to insulate the essay ged hard, device from the outside environment. Introduction In Philosophy Essay. To this aim, the analysis, Reed's vortex stabilization technique is used [5]: a ow of Argon tangentially introduced streams upward, cooling the inside walls of the outermost quartz tube and centering the plasma radially in the tube.

The outer tube has a 2.5 cm diameter and carries a plasma ow between. 10 and 15 L/min; it is also responsible for the main supply of Ar to the plasma. Introduction In Philosophy Essay. The middle tube provides the auxiliary gas (0.5 ¿½'' 2 L/min), whose role is to lift the plasma o the injector. The auxiliary gas is injected tangentially too, in order to create a vortex and stabilise the plasma. The eect of the previous two tubes is to generate a stable toroidal plasma through the centre tube, in which the sample aerosol is injected. The Argon ionization is data started by a spark produced by a Tesla coil; the ions and introduction essay electrons this way formed interact with the oating magnetic eld given by the load coil. The result is a high frequency oscillating electron and ion current, which heats the plasma gas to high temperatures: gas-kinetic temperature of 5000 ¿½'' 8000 K, ionization temperature of about 7500 K, excitation temperature of biological 6500¿½''7000 K, and electron temperature of about.

10000 K; then plasma is maintained by inductive heating. The aerosol generated from the introduction in philosophy essay, sample is either created by critical, nebulization of introduction in philosophy a liquid sample solution or consists of solid particles carried by a gas ow when sample material is ablated by a laser; it is biological then transferred into in philosophy essay, the centre of the plasma by an Argon gas ow (0.8 ¿½'' 1 L/min), through the essay ged hard, inner tube. Introduction In Philosophy. To be eectively atomized and excited, the sample aerosols should remain localized in the interior high-temperature environment of the plasma as long as possible. Essay Ged Hard. The sample species employ about 2 ms to reach the observation height of 15 to 20 mm above the load coil (ALC); this time is sucient in an environment with such a temperature (between 5000 K and essay 8000 K) to give rise to an ecient volatilization and atomization of the sample components and subsequent excitation and ionization of the atoms thus formed [5].2 The Saha-Eggert equation [1] can be used to estimate the eciency of 2Just for a comparison, the residence times and temperatures experienced by the sample are approximately twice those found in methods in the accounting, the hottest combustion ames common used in AAS [5]. 14 Figure 3.1: Inductively Coupled Plasma conguration [5]. Introduction In Philosophy Essay. 15 the ionization for the resulting analyte atoms, using the electron densities and temperatures typical for the ICP discharge: it results that all elements with rst ionization potentials below 8 eV are completely ( 90%) ionized and even elements with rst ionization potentials between 8 and essay ged hard 12 eV are ionized by more than 10% [41]. So the plasma source ionization eciency is much higher for the ICP than for the other devices;3 moreover, referring to atomic spectroscopy, it is also economically convenient.4 Predominantly singly charged ions are generated for introduction in philosophy essay, all elements of the periodic table. Thus, the on environmental in nigeria, mass spectrum observed mainly consists of signals corresponding to the singly charged elemental ions of the nuclides of all elements present in the sample. ICP sources had been developed for in philosophy essay, optical spectroscopy; when they were adapted for mass spectrometry, secondary discharges (called pinches or pinch eects) between the plasma and the sampler arose. They were caused by the rf potential in the plasma and they gave rise to biological, numerous deleterious eects: rapid deterioration of the in philosophy, sampling and the skimming cones, contamination of the plasma with sampler and thesis on environmental skimmer material, high photon noise and high ion energies with large energy spreads [31]. In order to decrease this phenomenon, the in philosophy, Neptune torch is equipped with a guard electrode (GE), also called torch shield or capacity decoupling.

This is thinking styles a grounded platinum foil placed in between the plasma torch and the load coil. Since one end of the coil is introduction connected to the rf source and the other end is grounded, a potential gradient exists along the coil, which becomes capacitively coupled into statement business paper, the plasma. Introduction In Philosophy. The plasma, in turn, is electrically coupled through the sheath (see chapter 4) to the sampler. These two impedance sources act as a potential divider; if plasma potential is too high a strong secondary discharge forms between the plasma and the sampling orice [29]. Gray showed [11] that insertion of a grounded, slotted metal cylinder (the torch shield shown in Figure 3.2) between the load coil and the outer wall of the methods, torch shields the d.c. potential component from the plasma and provides a low plasma potential - in the following it will be shown that this last gain improves the operation of the ICP-MS. In addition, the guard electrode decreases the ion energy spread, and introduction essay thus can help to increase the overall ion transmission [41]. In order to minimize the plasma potential and secondary discharge, mainly two other dierent load coil congurations have been used:5 ¿½' inverted (or reversed) load coil: the load coil is of critical in the grounded at the down- stream end nearest the sampler; ¿½' center-tapped load coil: a high voltage of introduction equal amplitude but opposite phase is applied to essay influence, the coil edges, while the center is connected to ground. In Philosophy. 3In the biological analysis, Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry is lower than 5%. 4The operating cost of these plasmas owing in the Fassel torch, exclusive of the in philosophy essay, electrical power, is lower than the cost of the critical thinking styles, gases needed to operate the introduction in philosophy, nitrous oxide- acetylene ame commonly used in methods of critical thinking, Atomic Absorption Spectroscpy (AAS).

5Also the introduction essay, interleaved and the balanced load coils have been studied [31]. In Nigeria. 16 Figure 3.2: Sketch of a plasma torch in which is clearly visible the guard electrode. Figure 3.3: Design features of an inverted load-coil (A) and a center-tapped coil (B) [20]. 17 Chapter 4 Extraction interface In coupling an essay Inductively Coupled Plasma and a Mass Spectrometer, the essay ged hard, trouble is that ICP operates at atmospheric pressure, whereas MS requires an ultra high vacuum (UHV) condition (operating pressure less then 10¿½''7 Pa), otherwise the ions would be scattered by the gas atoms. Introduction In Philosophy Essay. The solution to such a pressure discrepancy is to interpose three interfaces between the gas source and the analyzer, resulting in on environmental management in nigeria, a four-regions solution. While the rst one is at introduction essay ambient pressure (105 Pa), the second region (called interface) is pumped by a regular rotary pump, to obtain a pressure of for a business paper 2 · 102 Pa.

The higher is the grade of vacuum, the introduction in philosophy essay, better are the biological analysis, instrumental performances features, such as transmission eciency or abundance sensitivity; as a con- sequence, stronger vacuum pumps are becoming popular. To preserve the high vacuum condition in the third region, a slide valve is interposed; it is only opened when the plasma is introduction essay operating stable and is closed before plasma shutdown, to isolate the essay ged hard, high vacuum. The third region, where lenses are located, has a pressure of about 5 · 10¿½''2 Pa, while the mass spectrometer (nal region) operates in ultra high vacuum conditions (about 10¿½''7 Pa). It has been found that such a low pressure is advantageous in the case of multi collector devices [41]; in order to provide this result, the introduction in philosophy, analyzer is separated from the lens system by a second valve and additional ion getter pumps are required. The development and improvement of the ion sampling interface for essay, ICP-MS have been crucial aspects of the success of the in philosophy essay, technique. The rst analytical mass spectrometer for critical, ion sampling from an ICP used a stagnant layer type sampling interface [6] [10]1. At the end of the plasma torch, an interface was present to extract a small fraction of plasma with its ions into a vacuum system.

This interface was composed by two cones, a sampler and a skimmer. The rst one consisted of a water-cooled copper cone, on whose tip was mounted a molybdenum disk, through whose center was drilled a 50 µm diameter orice. Due to this small diameter, an introduction in philosophy aero- dynamically stagnant layer of gas formed between the two cones, as shown in analysis, Figure 4.1. Introduction. 1This type of pinhole sampler was adopted in the early days from ame and management plasma sampling methodology and from the original work of Gray with a d.c. capillary arc plasma [6]. 18 Figure 4.1: Diagram of in philosophy boundary layer sampling interface for ICP-MS [10]. Since electrons are faster than ions, a space-charge sheath containing an excess of essay ged hard ions builded up around the introduction in philosophy, tip of the cone. This stagnant bound- ary layer was in thermal contact with the critical styles emotional, relatively cool sampler, making the layer temperature intermediate between the in philosophy, plasma one and the sam- pler one. As the boundary layer was extended across the sampler tip, ions were extracted only after a large number (about 106) of essay television influence collisions with the layer. This transport through the boundary layer induced several liabilities: rst of all it was probably facilitating ion-electron recombination, ion neu- tralization at the sampler walls, charge exchange, ion-neutral attachment, nucleation and condensation of solid deposits (mainly due to the formation of involatile metal compounds) and some occurring reactions might have been catalyzed by the metal surface of the introduction, orice disk. Secondly, consid- ering the supersonic jet downstream the sampler cone, collisions leading to data, clustering, ion-electron recombination or charge exchange also occurred. Consequently, sample deposition occurred in in philosophy essay, the sampling orice - metal oxide and metal hydroxide ions had been observed.

Progressive solid con- densation of sample material both made the extraction eciency of analyte ions gradual decreasing and restricted the useful life of orices. Even nowa- days the rst components that have to biological data, be changed in a mass spectrometer are the sampler and the skimmer cones: their lifetime is limited by in philosophy essay, the sputtering in the region immediately behind the essay ged hard, aperture [8]. Introduction. Back to thesis management in nigeria, the problem of solid deposition, with this conguration biological uids required a dilution factor of in philosophy essay several hundred before analyses of such solutions could be performed for statement for a business paper, more than one hour. The consequent deterioration in powers of detection for analyte elements was not acceptable for various ap- plications. Owing to the diculties arised with this type of sampling, a new 19 sampling interface has been adopted: the supersonic nozzle and skimmer [10].2 The version of this technique used in our ICP-MS consists of a large sampling orice: with this conguration it is possible to break through the intermediate sheath and to have a continuum gas ow condition. The sheath is in philosophy essay a thin ply around the inner edge of the sampling orice; in this ply the charged particles shield the rest of the gas ow from the potential on the sampler (usually grounded). Therefore the extracted ow passes through the sampler as a quasineutral plasma,3 i.e. with essentially equal densities of ions and electrons.4 Cool layers are still present, but they form obliquely around the inside edge of the orice, instead of across its mouth [29]. Consequently the salt deposition and the oxide ion formation are much less severe [10]. So, this conguration provides several advantages: ¿½' a much higher total ow of ions; ¿½' a more representative sample of ions from the biological data, plasma; ¿½' greater resistance to plugging from deposited solids.

The improved resistance to erosion and expansion is also because such an orice is made with relatively thick metal near the in philosophy, tip. Figure 4.2 is a scale drawing of essay ged hard continuum sampling interface. Introduction In Philosophy Essay. The sampler (or nozzle) (A) is a nickel-made cone, in thesis paper, which tip is drilled a 0.8 mm diameter orice with a length of in philosophy 0.25 mm. The internal and external sampler angles are 90¿½'¿½ and 120¿½'¿½, respectively. Coaxially placed, 7 mm downstream the sampler, there is the skimmer, made from stainless steel with 50¿½'¿½ and 60¿½'¿½ internal and external angles, respectively.5 The short distance between the thesis on environmental in nigeria, two cones allows a sequential pressure decrease and it could be varied by changing the thickness of the Teon spacer (C). Both the sampler and skimmer are grounded; nevertheless there could be some benets applying a voltage to the skimmer - see section 7. Essay. From the work by biological, Hu et al. Introduction In Philosophy Essay. [22] it results that larger sampling orices could bring higher ion signals: the plot in Figure 4.3 shows how the Co and Bi ion count rate increased drilling out the circular aperture progres- sively. Since also the background pressure increased after each drilling, it was necessary to empirically adjust the separation between the sampler and the skimmer to maximize the ion signal. Moreover, a small orice is more subjected to clogging compared to a bigger one: as it can be seen in methods of critical thinking accounting profession, Figure 4.4 a pressure decreasing in the case of the smaller orice is observed, since it plugs quickly. Introduction In Philosophy. In conclusion, enlarging the orice could provide a double 2This type of sampling interface have been in use since the pioneering work of Kantrowitz and critical emotional Grey in 1951 [2]. 3The charge density is considered to be suciently high as to ensure that the charac- teristic Debye length is small with respect to the dimensions of the interface components - under this condition it's possible to introduction in philosophy, consider the beam as neutral.

4This concept is supported by calculations based on a paper by Axford and Hayhurst. 5Nowadays, dierent skimmer cone designs are available, characterized by dierent transmission eciency [44]. Critical Thinking Styles Emotional. 20 Figure 4.2: Scale drawing of in philosophy continuum sampling interface for ICP-MS [10]. 21 Figure 4.3: Ion count rates as a function of sampler orice diameter [22]. benet: a higher ion signal and an improved tolerance to orice plugging. Critical Thinking Emotional. However it has to in philosophy, be underlined that these studies were conducted with a continuous ow ultrasonic nebulizer, which transported material to the plasma at a rate at statement for a business paper least 10 times greater than the one obtained with a con- ventional pneumatic nebulizer. As a consequence, the second improvement would not be relevant in our case. In order to understand the performance of this interface and particu- larly to nd the parameters needed in the simulations (see section 6.4) the essay, gas ow (in molecules/s) through the sampler can be calculated through equation (4.1) [9] used by Olivares and critical styles Houk in their article (dating 1985): U0 = ¿½'f (³)NAD 2 0 P0 4 ¿½'' mRT0 (4.1) where f(³) = ¿½'' ³ · [2/(³ + 1)](³+1)/2(³¿½''1) , NA is Avogadro's number, D0 the orice diameter, P0 the ICP pressure, m the essay, mean molecular weight of Argon, R the gas constant, T0 the source gas temperature of the ICP, and ³ is the specic heat ratio at thesis on environmental management in nigeria constant pressure and essay volume (Cp/Cv) of Argon. 22 Figure 4.4: Normalized interface pressure as a function of time for continu- ous nebulization of 1000 ppm Y at sampling orice [22]. 23 The ow through the of critical accounting, skimmer cone is given by the following equation: US = U0 · f (³) DS XS 2 (4.2) where DS is the skimmer diameter and XS the skimmer-to-sampler distance. Essay. These theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimentally obtained values for an ICP with 10 mg/l Co solution [10].

In a 1988 article, Douglas and French provided another way to describe the gas expansion through these two orices; in their article the essay ged hard, gas ow across the essay, sampler was given by [47] G0 = 0.445 n0 a0 D 2 0 (4.3) where n0 is the source number density and essay a0 the speed of sound in the source: a0 = ³ k T0 m (4.4) (k is the Boltzmann's constant). The equation for the gas ow through the introduction in philosophy, skimmer uses the gas density and essay ged hard the ow velocity at introduction the skimmer tip, n(xS) and v(xS) respectively, and the area of the skimmer orice AS:6 GS = n(xS) v(xS) AS (4.5) These two models (the one by Olivares and Houk and the one by Douglas and French) are based on a common assumption: as the plasma plume is expanding from a sonic orice into a region of lower pressure, it produces the development of the free jet shock wave system [4]. Thesis On Environmental. As it can be seen in the cross sectional view showed in Figure 4.5, the ow eld consists of a dark core portion, named zone of silence (unaected by the pressure changes along the jet boundary), laterally bounded from a barrel shock and ending with the so called Mach disk (its thickness has been found to introduction essay, be of the order of magnitude of the essay influence, mean free path [34]). This phenomenon has been well characterised by Ashkenas and Sherman [3]; they calculated the distance downstream the sampler at which the Mach disk forms: xM = 0.67D0 · p P0/P1 (4.6) where P1 is the interface background pressure. This relationship has been conrmed experimentally by optical measurements of emission excited in the Mach disk [29]. As the gas passes through the sampler, it expands adiabatically into the low pressure region; since the in philosophy, mean free path (») is much smaller than the diameter orice, several collisions between fast atoms from the emotional, dark core and background atoms occur. This phenomenon causes the in philosophy essay, formation of the thesis statement business, Mach disk and the barrel shock, depicted in Figure 4.5. Moreover, through 6The ow velocity is nearly constant at p5kT 0/2m . 24 Figure 4.5: Cross sectional view of supersonic expansion behind the sampler [29]. this scattering process, the random thermal motion of atoms in introduction essay, the plasma is converted into directed motion in the zone of silence: the ow velocity can than exceed the local speed of sound and the Mach number becomes greater than one (M 1).7 The Mach disk formation is observable analyzing atom velocities and temperatures (showed in Figures 4.6 and 4.7) as a function of emotional distance downstream the sampler cone. The rapid acceleration and cooling of the atoms are expected from a supersonic expansion [34] and is represented by the series of introduction point that start about 2 mm downstream the sampler. Thesis On Environmental In Nigeria. At a position of about 10 mm another population of atoms forms: this new population, slow and hot, is given by fast atoms which collide with background atoms and constitutes the Mach disk.

In order to nd a numerical result for the gas ow through both the sampler and the skimmer using the two models previously shown, some other relations are needed. The Mach number in the plasma is less than one (M 1); as the gas passes through the sampler the density decreases, the ow speed increases and M increases too. Essay. In this region the centerline Mach number for a monoatomic gas - as in this case - is given to a very good approximation by M = 3.26(x/D0) 2/3 ¿½'' 0.61(x/D 0) ¿½''2/3 (4.7) where x is the axial distance behind the methods of critical thinking profession, orice. This means the Mach number reaches 1 at a distance equal to 0.5 orice diameters downstream 7The Mach number is dened as the ratio between between the gas ow speed (u) and the local speed of in philosophy essay sound (a0). 25 Figure 4.6: Axial velocity dependence downstream from the sampler cone: 4 fast, cold component, slow, hot component [34]. Figure 4.7: Axial temperature dependence downstream from the sampler cone: 4 fast, cold component, slow, hot component [34]. 26 Figure 4.8: Scatter plot of the gas temperature as a function of the distance from the sampler in the free jet, obtained from equation (4.9). the sampler. Furthermore the gas density and temperature decrease inside the thesis statement paper, jet, according to the following equations: n0 n = 1 + M 2 ³ ¿½'' 1 2 1/(³¿½''1) (4.8) T0 T = 1 + M 2 ³ ¿½'' 1 2 (4.9) where n0 and T0 are the gas density and temperature in the source.

Equation (4.8) could be approximated back to the onset of the Mach disk by essay, n(x) = 0.161 n0 (D0/x) 2 (4.10) This relation, that describes the thesis for a, drop in essay, intensity of neutral species along the centerline, has been experimentally conrmed by Niu and Houk, when in 1994 they measured electron densities in the interface with a Langmuir probe [27]. The plot in Figure 4.8 represents the temperature drop described by equation (4.9); this decrease corresponds to thesis management in nigeria, a narrowing of the width of the introduction essay, velocity distribution (Figure 4.9) as the random thermal motion is converted into thesis in nigeria, directed motion with a relatively uniform speed. A combination of all the displayed equations have been used to in philosophy, obtained the results highlighted in Table 4.1. The gas ows have been obtained with two dierent equations and management in nigeria are in in philosophy essay, good agreement, especially in essay about influence, correspondence of the sampler cone. In 27 Table. 4.1: Parameters and. constan ts used to calculate the. o w - highligh ted.

skimmer with tw o dieren t mo. Houk [10] Douglas and. h [14] ³ 1 .67 sp ecic heat ratio C p /C v ³ 1 .67 sp ecic heat ratio C p /C v f (³ ) 0 .726661 T 0 5000 K gas. temp eratur e D sa 0 .8. mm sampler diamete r m 6 .6 · 10 23 g relativ e atomic mass P 0 10 5 Pa ICP pressure D sa 0 .8. mm sampler diameter M 39. g/mol relativ e molecular w eigh. t a 0 1317 .97 m/s sp eed. of sound in the. source T 0 5000 K gas. temp erature n 0 1 .5 · 10 18 cm ¿½'' 3 source densit y x 7. mm sampler to in philosophy essay, skimmer distance U 0 5 .4 · 10 20 atoms/s gas.

o w through the. sampler G 0 5 .6 · 10 20 atoms/s gas. o w through the. sampler D sk 0 .8. mm skimmer diame ter M sk 14 Mac. mm sampler to skimmer distance n sk 3 .0 · 10 15 cm ¿½'' 3 gas. densit y at the. skimmer P i 861 Pa impact pressure at the. skimmer v 1 .6 · 10 5 cm/s o w velo cit y D sk 0 .8. mm skimmer diameter U S 5 .1 · 10 18 atoms/s gas.

o w through the. skimmer G S 2 .5 · 10 18 atoms/s gas. o w through the. skimmer 28 Figure 4.9: Wide velocity distribution in the plasma compared to the nar- rower distribution in the supersonic jet [29]. the region close to the skimmer there is a factor 2 between the statement, two models results; this dierence is negligible since the gas ow probably depends on many other contributions - e.g. the analyte species, the nebulizer gas ow - that can signicantly aect the nal result. Regarding the sampler to skimmer distance, Douglas and French showed that the best arrangement corresponds to having the skimmer tip about. 2/3 of the way back to in philosophy essay, the onset of the essay ged hard, Mach disk [14] [29]. This result approximately agrees with the one obtained for the maximum intensity in the case of a neutral beam from Campargue expansion [29]: XS = 0.125 D0 D0P0 »P1 1/3 (4.11) Even if here » is referred to as the in philosophy, mean free path inside the sampler orice, it has no particular subscript as it is expected to be nearly equal to essay ged hard, the one for the gas outside the sampler in the ICP.

The skimmer protrudes into introduction in philosophy, the zone of silence so that shock waves form behind the skimmer tip o the outside walls of the on environmental in nigeria, skimmer, as shown in in philosophy essay, the sketch in Figure 4.10. With this conguration, the metal wall of the skimmer where the second shock wave begins is thick enough to conduct away the heat generated and of critical in the accounting profession the thin edge of metal at the skimmer tip remains stable. Otherwise, if the skimmer was located after the Mach disk, the sampled gas would be reheated by collisions with background gas in the Mach disk; this process would lead to the formation of a spherical white emitting region. The heat this way producted would be directly transferred to the skimmer tip, too thin to properly conduct the heat away; the result would be the melting or the rapid degradation of the introduction in philosophy essay, skimmer tip [29]. Calculation of the Knudsen number Kn, especially at the skimmer, is also instructive; it is dened as the ratio of the mean free path » to essay ged hard, the 29 Figure 4.10: Eect of dierent sampler-skimmer distances. (a) Skimmer at in philosophy essay normal position used for analysis. Methods In The Accounting. (b) Skimmer outside the essay, zone of silence [29].

30 skimmer diameter DS: Kn = » DS (4.12) In the small scale Kn quanties the failure of the Navier-Stokes description: in fact this model corresponds to thesis, the collision-dominated transport limit of small Knudsen number Kn 1. More specically, in in philosophy, the presence of hy- drodynamic gradients in a homogeneous gas over lenghtscales characterized by Kn 1, the Chapman-Enskog expansion procedure can be applied to the governing kinetic (Boltzmann) equation to show that the gas response can be described by linear-gradient constitutive relations which lead to the Navier-Stokes description [33]. Essay Television. Practically, the in philosophy essay, lower the Kn, the smaller the number of collisions is; Kn would have to be much less than unity (i.e. » DS ) for the beam to thesis, expand through the introduction, skimmer without collisions. The mean free path » can be expressed through the following relation, based on viscosity measurements and data kinetic theory arguments [47]: » = 16/5 µ nm q 2¿½'kT m = 16/5 µ n ¿½'' 2¿½'kT m (4.13) where n is the molecular number density, m the particle mass and k the Boltzmann's constant. Introduction In Philosophy Essay. It is possible to refer to styles, the viscosity coecient both with µ and ·. Niu and Houk report another relation for essay, the Knudsen number: Kn = » DS = 1 1.414¿½'¿½'nDS (4.14) where ¿½' is the gas kinetic cross section for Ar (4.1 · 10¿½''15 cm2). The result obtained applying these two relations with the settings previously described are Kn = 0.3 and » = 0.2. These values are consistent with several articles [10] [14] [26] [29]. The literature concerning supersonic expansions indicates that in this case two main disturbances are to critical styles, be expected around the tip [26]: a thin shock in front of the skimmer and perturbation of the straight line beam ow by collisions of the beam with atoms reected from the in philosophy essay, skimmer wall. Considering now the gas ow rate calculated for our particular case, the- oretically the total ion current at the base of the skimmer should be about.

0.4 mA; this result is consistent with several papers: for of critical thinking in the profession, example, Gillson et al. [15], even if with a slightly dierent setting, calculated an ion current of. 1016 ions/second, corresponding to 1.5 mA. This current has been calculated considering that through the skimmer passes only 2.6% of the central ow of the ICP. Considering the theoretical loss of analyte ions for Y, Chen and Houk calculated a transmission eciency from the introduction essay, skimmer to the detector is 0.02%. As a consequence, the overall eciency of an ICP-MS is about. 5·10¿½''6 ; in essay ged hard, other words, theoretically, for every 106 analyte ions in the central channel of the introduction essay, ICP, only ve ions reach the detector. Thinking. As it will be explained later, this number is even lower in the reality. Through a comparison with a three-aperture ICP-MS interface, they deduced that many ions are lost between the skimmer tip and the ion optics or inside the ion optics itself. So 31 it is crucial to introduction in philosophy essay, understand what happens in critical styles, this region and how ions are lost. Chapter 6 is aimed to simulate the region where particles y, including the skimmer and the rst lens (named extraction lens), in order to study and characterize the formed beam.

Resuming the work by Gillson et al., they repeated the ion current measurements8 with the same settings for a heavier ion (U+); the ux resulted higher. In Philosophy. This phenomenon is profession called instrumental mass discrimination and has been deeply investigated (e.g., by Kivel et al. [43]), since it hampers accurate determination of absolute isotope ratios. In general, it consists in in philosophy, having at methods of critical thinking in the accounting the spectrometer a stoichiometric composi- tion dierent from the one characterizing the original sample material. It has been reported that, typically, analyzing two isotopes, the introduction in philosophy, heavier has a higher transport eciency: the dierence is about 10 ¿½'' 20% in the case of light elements and down to thesis on environmental in nigeria, 1% for heavy elements. Four main factors are at in philosophy the base of mass discrimination: ¿½' sample introduction and data analysis ion generation; ¿½' collisions; ¿½' space charge eect; ¿½' energy-selective ion transmission. Introduction In Philosophy Essay. The rst and the last one are not studied in the present work, since it is limited to the region dened by the skimmer and the rst ion lens. As the plasma is quasi-neutral until the starting of the analysis, skimmer, it's reason- able to assume that mass discrimination in introduction essay, the interface is mainly caused by collisions.

This hypothesis is essay ged hard consistent with the work by Taylor and Farnsworth [44]: they found the absence of any space charge eect dur- ing the introduction in philosophy, ion transfer from the source to the spectrometer. Critical Styles. Moreover, for the present work, collisions have been considered a negligible contribution compared to space charge eect. As a consequence, mass discrimination upstream the skimmer has not been considered; the following investigation is limited to the region downstream the in philosophy essay, skimmer cone, up to the extraction lens.9 Resuming mass discrimination due to space charge eects, it can be explained by essay ged hard, postulating that the ion beam within the introduction in philosophy, skimmer is statement for a space charge limited: its density is so high that mutual repulsion will not allow the essay, ions to critical thinking styles emotional, remain tightly focused. Since all ions have the same charge, they are subjected to the same force: as a consequence, lighter ions are de- focused (and then colliding on the skimmer walls) much more readily than heavier ones. More than upstream, the space charge is introduction in philosophy essay considerable in thesis statement for a paper, the region downstream the skimmer. In fact, according to the model by Douglas and French [14], plasma is sampled without signicant charge separation.10 8They used a stainless steel collector - situated 1 in. from the base at the skimmer - consisting of three concentric rings and a central circular stop.

9Study of mass discrimination after charge separation can be found elsewhere [43]. 10In an introduction alternate model, presented by Chambers et al., it is assumed that signicant charge separation occurs between the sampler and styles the skimmer; therefore the essay, ion current through the skimmer would be signicantly less than that estimated in on environmental management in nigeria, this work. 32 Behind the skimmer, where the essay, beam expands, there are three main con- tributions to the loss of the ions: the density decreasing - proportionally to 1/x2 (where x is the distance from the skimmer) - as a consequence of the expansion, the beam spreading and the preferential loss of of critical thinking electrons. This last phenomenon could be explained considering the Debye length »D; downstream of the skimmer »D is signicant compared to in philosophy essay, the dimensions of the beam and electrons are lost readily to the inner wall of the skimmer because their high mobility. Moreover, in this stage, the electrostatic eld penetration from the extraction lens becomes signicant; as a consequence of these two eects, electrons leave a net axial positive space charge [21]. Its signicance can be quantitatively described using the perveance P [28]: P = I V 3/2 (4.15) where I is the essay ged hard, total current and V the accelerating potential. P depends only on in philosophy essay the geometry of the methods in the accounting profession, extractor and on the type of the introduction essay, particle [28]. For a singly charged ion beam, space charge is critical thinking styles emotional negligible if P 10 ¿½''8 · (m ion/me) ¿½''1/2 (4.16) where mion and me are, respectively, the mass of the particle and of the electron. Introduction Essay. So, for Argon ions, the maximum perveance without signicant space charge eects is 3.7·10¿½''11. In the proximity of the skimmer P is equal to 1.9 · 10¿½''7 [28], which exceeds the maximum perveance by more than a factor 5000. To obtain a rough estimate for the maximum electron current (for argon), it is on environmental possible to assume the skimmer as a cylinder with diameter.

D and length L:11 Ie,max(A) = 38.6 · 10 ¿½''6V 3/2 D L 2 (4.17) The ion current is related to the electron one: Iion Ie = r me mion (4.18) therefore Iion,max(A) = 9.04 · 10 ¿½''7 r z mion V 3/2 D L 2 (4.19) As hinted before, another cause of losing ions is the rarefaction of the beam as it travels farther from the skimmer tip. The Debye length in- creasing, by introduction essay, virtue of its inverse square root dependence on methods of critical the ion density, causes also the ions (not only the in philosophy, electrons) spreading. Analysis. So, to enhance the transmission eciency, the distance between the skimmer tip and the ion optics has to be minimized. A substantial increase in ion signal was 11The diameter at the base of the skimmer is equal to its length; the average diameter of the skimmer is then about in philosophy, L/2 and the ratio D/L is about 0.5. 33 seen when this separation was reduced to 2.4 cm [22]. At this position, the mouth of the rst lens was only 5 mm from the nearest surface of the styles emotional, skimmer wall. Closer separations were tried, but the voltage output for the rst lens became unstable, because of an essay electrical discharge between the ion lens and about influence the skimmer wall or due to introduction essay, a high current ow to the lens. In the management in nigeria, Neptune MC-ICP-MS is the thickness of the in philosophy essay, separation valve limits the smaller distance between the skimmer and thesis on environmental management in nigeria the lens.

Table 4.2: Resume of the torch and the extraction interface operating pa- rameters Forward power 1350 W Guard electrode Grounded Gas ows: Cool 14.6 L/min Auxiliary 0.9 L/min Sample 0.8 L/min Make-up 0.3 ¿½'' 0.5 L/min Injector Sapphire (narrow bore) Spray chamber APEX HF Cones:12 Sampler Aluminium 0.9 mm Skimmer Aluminium 1.0 mm 12Custom design by in philosophy, PSI. 34 Chapter 5 IBSimu To simulate what happens during the essay ged hard, beam extraction from the in philosophy, plasma source, an ion optical computer simulation package have been used, IBSimu. On Environmental In Nigeria. This software is designed especially for the ion source community [40] and it is well suited for our particular aim because it is conceived for ion (both positive and negative) and electron plasma extraction. Its development started at LBNL in 2004 where it was used to design a slit-beam plasma extraction and nanosecond scale chopping for in philosophy essay, pulsed neutron generator. Later, at the University of Jyv¤skyl¤ (Finland), Department of thesis on environmental management in nigeria Physics (JYFL), the code was made modular and suitable for many dierent types of problems. Introduction In Philosophy. IBSimu has been documented and released with an open source license (it can be downloaded at: http://ibsimu.sourceforge.net/) and so it's well suited for use in essay ged hard, the scientic community. It is used as a computer library through a C++ interface and introduction in philosophy essay it presents several peculiar advantages: ¿½' power and data versatility; ¿½' customization and inclusion of new modules; ¿½' automation and batch processing; ¿½' incorporation of essay code in other software; ¿½' easiness of use (on the main site there are two tutorials http:// ibsimu.sourceforge.net/tutorial.html and biological analysis the reference manual http://ibsimu.sourceforge.net/manual_1_0_5new_solver/index. html); ¿½' possibility to do the in philosophy essay, diagnostics from code or with an interactive tool; ¿½' data exporting and visualization. Biological Data. The code is capable of solving electric elds in 1D, 2D (planar or cylin- drical symmetry) or full 3D simulation geometries and it can calculate rel- ativistic continuous wave or pulsed particle trajectories taking into account the in philosophy essay, space charge density. The starting point is the denition of the ge- ometry, where the simulation is done, and the electrodes (including the 35 Figure 5.1: Operational diagram for essay about, solving the Poisson problem[40]. Introduction In Philosophy Essay. grounded interfaces), using a mathematical description. In order to calcu- late the electric potential, the simulation domain is divided in methods accounting, square meshes with constant step size, which dimension can be specied in the geometry section of the code. So the essay, eld where particles y is discretized: for each cell the Poisson's equation ¿½'' 2¿½' = ¿½''  0 (5.1) is solved using nite dierence method (FDM) on the nodes of the mesh.

Then, the electrostatic potential is calculated through a solver, using an iterative approach (described in the following). The nite dierence representation for a vacuum node i is: ¿½'i¿½''1 ¿½'' 2¿½'i + ¿½'i+1 h2 = ¿½'' i. 0 (5.2) while Neumann (5.3) or Dirichlet (5.4) boundary conditions can be used for boundary nodes. ¿½''3¿½'i + 4¿½'i+1 ¿½'' ¿½'i+2 2h = d¿½' dx (5.3) ¿½'i = ¿½'const (5.4) To achieve smooth electric elds on biological data analysis the solid edges, the essay, edge nodes within the solids are adjusted to virtual potentials using subnode information about the geometry: ²¿½'(x0 ¿½'' ±h) ¿½'' (± + ²)¿½'(x0) + ±¿½'(x0 + ²h) 1. 2 (± + ²)±²h 2 = ¿½'' (x0) 0 (5.5) On the edges of the simulation domain, every solver supports Dirich- let and Neumann (rst and second order approximations) boundary condi- tions. The calculation can also include the generally accepted nonlinear plasma model for positive ion extraction; thermal background electrons of the plasma are modeled analytically in Poisson's equation (5.1) where.  = ion ¿½'' e0 exp[(U ¿½'' Up)/(kTe/e)] and the plasma potential Up and the electron temperature Te are the model parameters. Ion charge density ion is calculated from beam current density and electron charge density e0 is set to thesis statement business, ion at plasma potential. Introduction In Philosophy. The electric eld (needed for particle 36 trajectories) is obtained by numerical dierentiation and interpolation of potential, using nine closest neighboring mesh nodes.

Then, the code cal- culates the particles trajectory integrating the equations of motion, derived from Lorentz force, with adaptive Runge-Kutta Cash-Karp (fourth and fth order) algorithm. In 2D and with a null magnetic eld: dx dt = vx dy dt = vy dvx dt = ax = q m Ex dvy dt = ay = q m Ey This method has an automatic step-size adjustment for required trajec- tory accuracy. The implementation of the Runge-Kutta algorithm is data analysis used from the GNU Scientic Library. As the introduction in philosophy essay, CPU available was multicore and the particle tracer is multithreaded, for a high eciency calculation eleven cores were used for ying particles and one for the potential determination. The particle tracer algorithm nds all the meshes the trajectory passes through and deposits the charge of the particle on the four (eight in 3D) surrounding mesh nodes.

The same procedure checks for analysis, collisions in the mesh square. The code in in philosophy essay, Appendix A was the starting point in my work; to under- stand the extraction process and to optimize the fundamental parameters (Up and Te), I changed some parts of it, as it will be explained in the next chapter. Hereinafter there is a description of the main operations done by thesis on environmental in nigeria, this rst code. After including all libraries needed (most of introduction essay them have been written by Taneli Kalvas), some denitions are present: the number of iterations, the rst lens acceleration voltage V acc, the plasma potential. Up, the electron temperature of the plasma Te, the number of particles per species n_particles and the kinetic factor Ekin_factor (KF ). The last one is given by the ratio between the kinetic energy KE and the mass m; it is methods profession dened in this way in order to be equal for all the introduction essay, particles, regardless of management their mass (in fact they are sent with a given velocity, not energy). To have the kinetic factor in eV/amu it has been used the introduction in philosophy essay, following equation: KF [ eV/amu] = 1.66 · 10¿½''8 3.2 v 2 (5.6) where v is in m/s. Following the code, a rst array is dened to list the analysis, masses of the simulated ions in addition to in philosophy essay, Argon and another one is for the beam current (in µA). In the section Output denitions it is possible to set (through boolean variables) what to biological, print during the compiling and at the end of the 37 code: debug and verbose provide some status information, the GTK plot represents the in philosophy, trend of both the biological data analysis, electric potential and introduction in philosophy space charge error and plotting produces several les (it will be explained in detail later). Before starting the geometry section, the function fname is dened; it is used in the plotting phase, to print the name of the dierent les produced in it.

Then, in the geometry section, the skimmer, the interface and the ex- traction lens are dened, using a cylindrical simmetry: only the essay, upper part is described and then, through a mirror function on x axis, the in philosophy essay, electric eld in the lower part is obtained. In this section the mesh dimension - really important in the next chapter - is essay ged hard also dened. Introduction In Philosophy. After the insertion in thesis for a, the geometry of the solid objects, boundary conditions are setted: at the edges of x and y (numbers from 1 to 4) they are of Neumann type, while for essay, the user dened electrode (7 and 8) they are of Dirichlet type. At this point the initialization of the plasma and of the thesis for a, solver takes place: since several nonlinear solvers are available, the rst task was to decide which one was more tting our requirements (see section 6.1). The Argon charge density is calculated and the particles are setted to be mirrored along the x axis. Thus it is possible to start the iteration loop.

This is necessary since there are two contributions to the electric potential: the accelerating voltage (usually. ¿½''2000 V) of the introduction in philosophy essay, ion lens and the space charge of the ying particles. As this second factor depends on the particles trajectories, which in turn are determined by the total electric potential, an iterative approach has been adopted. The number of iterations can be set in the beginning of the code: const uint n _iter = 21 Then the on environmental, i index spaces in the range 0 · niter in order to reach the convergence. In the following a brief explanation of the operations executed in every cycle is provided: i = 0 : In the rst iteration the introduction in philosophy, electric potential is calculated taking into account the essay ged hard, electrodes contribute only, i.e. for  = 0. After computing the electric eld, particles are sent. i = 1 : As particles are now present, space charge is calculated and set as a variable in the plasma model; in fact, with IBSimu, plasma is introduction a function of space charge , electron temperature Te and plasma potential Up. Then electric potential (and subsequently electric eld) is recalculated, now as a function of statement for a business paper both electrodes and ying particles. As the charge density only changes passing from the rst to the second iteration, plasma is calculated only in this step; there is no need to introduction in philosophy essay, recalculate it in the other steps. For i ¿½'¿½ 2: The potential and eld are recalculated and so are the particle trajectories, until both electric potential and space charge converge - i.e. About Television Influence. until the dierence for these two parameters between two iteration is nearly zero.

There are dierent function to produce particles, depending on which beam parameters are known: 1. add_2d_beam_with_energy (uint32_t N, double J, double q, double m, double E, double Tp, double Tt, double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) 38 2. add_2d_beam_with_velocity (uint32_t N, double J, double q, dou- ble m, double v, double dvp, double dvt, double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) 3. add_2d_KV_beam_with_emittance (uint32_t N, double I, double q, double m, double a, double b, double e, double Ex, double x0, double y0) 4. add_2d_gaussian_beam_with_emittance (uint32_t N, double I, dou- ble q, double m, double a, double b, double e, double Ex, double x0, double y0) where N is the number of particles, J the beam current density (A/m2), q the charge of beam particle (in multiples of e) and m the mass (u). For the rst two functions, the in philosophy essay, beam is dened on a line from (x1, y1) to (x2, y2) and it propagates into biological data, a direction 90¿½'¿½ clockwise from the direction of vector pointing from (x1, y1) to in philosophy essay, (x2, y2); at the beginning the beam prole is uniform. For the rst function E represents the beam energy (in eV ), while Tp and Tt are the parallel and transverse temperature, respectively, in thesis for a paper, eV. The particle speeds in direction i are sampled from a gaussian distribution with standard deviation dvi = p(Ti · e/m), where Ti is the beam temper- ature in direction i (eV), e is the essay, electron charge (C) and m is the mass of the about, ion (kg). With the third function, particles are own in the positive. x -direction from a starting location (center point) dened by (x0, y0) and the beam spread in the projectional space is made according to KV/hard- edged (Kapchinsky-Vladimirsky) distribution. I represents the beam total current (in A) and Ex the introduction, starting energy of the thesis statement for a, beam (in eV). The beam is made to match Twiss parameters ± (a) and ² (b) in projectional direction (y,y'). Introduction. The rms-emittance of the thesis, beam is made to match rms (e). After iterating trajectories (through a special object), electric potential and introduction essay space charge are recorded in the convergence.dat le; at the end of the simulation process this le can be found in the same folder where the source code is. If setted true in the beginning, it starts the last phase, the plotting one; this is the list of all the plots produced: ¿½' particle traces in the geometry eld; ¿½' zoom of particle traces in the range 0 ¿½'' 1 mm (the zone including the essay ged hard, skimmer and in philosophy essay the focus point); ¿½' electric potential as a function of x, usually a curve starting near 0 (the skimmer is grounded but there is the of critical accounting, plasma potential contribution) and ending at ¿½''2000 V (the lens voltage); ¿½' a 3D plot representing the electric potential as a function of x and y in the skimmer region; ¿½' emittance at in philosophy essay 50 mm, as a function of y and the angle y0, reporting the values of ±, ², ³ and ; 39 ¿½' charge density (in C/m3) as a function of x; it is critical thinking emotional maximum at the beginning - at the skimmer tip -, then rapidly drops to essay, zero, with a peak in correspondence to the focus point; ¿½' space charge as a function of x and y in the skimmer region; ¿½' kinetic energies (in eV) of thesis business paper ying particles, in a scatter plot, as a func- tion of particles mass; ¿½' signal intensity, in arbitrary units, for introduction, each mass, at 8, 50 and 56 mm; ¿½' beam prole histogram plot at 4 and 50 mm; ¿½' a scatter plot for the beam prole, representing the y value as a func- tion of the particles mass, both at methods of critical thinking in the 50 and 56 mm.

40 Chapter 6 Simulation 6.1 Task 1 - solver. The rst task was to nd and compare the dierent available solvers, in order to nd out which one is the fastest. With this aim, the computing time for 1 and 2 iterations has been determined, using one thread only and introduction in philosophy essay considering an Argon beam with 20k particles, a beam current of 1 mA and a mesh size equal to 100 µm. The outcome of this comparison is the accounting profession, bar plot in Figure 6.1. As it can be seen, the UMFPACKSolver is the introduction, fastest. Moreover this solver can also use multi-thread; this feature makes the UMFPACKSolver the more suitable;1 accordingly, it was used throughout the entire project. 6.2 Task 2 - computing time vs mesh size.

As explained in the previous chapter, to calculate the electric potential and the charge density, IBSimu divides the simulation domain in small cells, with uniform size: for each cell UMFPACKSolver solves the problem, i.e. Poisson's dierential equation, and returns a value. So the mesh size has a large eect on the quality of the approximation: the smaller the mesh size, the higher the quality of the simulation is (down to the limit of mesh_size ¿½'' 0, representing the exact solution of the problem). The trouble is that it is impossible to television, decrease the mesh size innitely. The limits are the essay, available memory (with 8967201 nodes - equivalent to a 10 µm mesh size - the system reports a memory allocation error) and the computing time. Critical Thinking. In fact, the higher the number of nodes, the longer is the time needed to essay, solve the problem. So it is biological data analysis useful to nd a compromise to solve the problem with a good approximation and in a relatively short time. In Philosophy Essay. The relation between computation time and mesh size was investigated for mesh sizes in the range of 15 ¿½'' 300 µm.

In Table 6.1 and Figure 6.2 the data are given and data analysis plotted for a 20k particles Argon beam, with a current beam of 20 mA and introduction 41 iterations. 1Twelve threads were available on the computer used. 41 Figure 6.1: Computing time for biological data analysis, dierent solvers. Table 6.1: Computing time for dierent mesh sizes mesh (µm) no of nodes time (s) 300 10197 77.85 250 14625 97.61 200 22761 131.92 150 40303 163.45 100 90321 259.35 50 359841 619.59 40 561801 853.01 30 997957 1343.57 25 1436481 2021.08 20 2243601 3608.08 15 3987023 8676.87 42 Figure 6.2: Computing time as a function of the number of nodes. It seems that the introduction in philosophy, data points plotted have 2 dierent trends: the of critical thinking, rst data can be tted with a root function, then (from the 50 µm mesh) the data can be tted with really good approximation through a square function. The functions used to t the two curves are respectively y = a · (1 + x) b (Figure 6.3) and y = A + B · x + C · x2 (Figure 6.4); (6.1) for the rst curve a = 0.32399, b = 0.59039, for the second curve A = 390.06724 , B = 6.03498 · 10¿½''4 and introduction C = 3.71075 · 10¿½''10. As the adjusted R2 are, respectively, 0.99772 and critical styles 0.99998 these could be considered good ts. In Philosophy Essay. As explained before, the mesh size has an impact on thesis the quality of the results: a too large mesh could lead to a simulation not well representing the in philosophy, reality. Thesis Statement For A Paper. In Figures 6.5 and 6.6 beam proles at introduction essay 50 mm for dierent mesh sizes are plotted; this trend has been used as judging parameter to test the thinking in the profession, quality of the results. A brief description of the beam prole evolution from the nest mesh to the coarser one is provided, comparing each one with the former. Because 15 µm is the smallest mesh size that can be used, the introduction in philosophy, 15 µm prole has been taken as the plot which best represents the beam prole.

All the other plots, obtained increasing the mesh size, will be compared to this one. The main task is to essay ged hard, reach a good compromise between the in philosophy, beam representation quality and the computing time: it is biological data useful to nd a minimum number of nodes which would guarantee a good nal result to attain the time optimization. In the following (through a dierent geometry) the beam prole was tted with a nonlinear function, taken from the models 43 Figure 6.3: Fit for the rst six points plotted in Figure 6.2. Essay. Figure 6.4: Fit for thesis for a paper, the second part of the data plotted in Figure 6.2. 44 Figure 6.5: Beam proles for introduction, mesh sizes between 15 and on environmental in nigeria 50 µm. Introduction In Philosophy Essay. Figure 6.6: Beam proles for mesh sizes between 100 and essay ged hard 300 µm. 45 available in Origin. Before starting the analysis it is important to introduction essay, underline that every plot is symmetrical due to the applied geometry: the code creates only the upper half of the simulation eld (i.e. the interfaces and methods of critical thinking accounting profession the lens) and then it reects all the essay, elements through a mirror function.

Considering the rst four beam proles (mesh sizes from 15 to essay television influence, 30 µm) one can note that there are no meaningful dierences: increasing the mesh size in this range the beam prole is unaected. As there are small dierences, the number of counts could be considered constant: the in philosophy, dierence between the 15 µm and the 30 µm plot counts is less than 0.2%. On the contrary, increasing the mesh size to 40 µm, considerable dierences appear: even if the total number of counts is nearly equal, the statement for a business, curve clearly shows an atypical evolution when approximating to the center. Introduction In Philosophy. A sharp increase occurs in the very central range: the percentual dierence between the number of counts at 0.25 mm and the one at 0.75 mm is about 22%. Thinking Styles. Further increasing the mesh size the result becomes more pronounced: the total number of counts decreases (till the dierence with the nest mesh is greater than 31% - for the 300 µm mesh) and also the shape changes. In the 100 µm plot there is a very high central peak (the ratio between this peak and the 15 µm peak is more than 1.5), so the introduction in philosophy essay, trend is about television already much dierent. In Philosophy Essay. Considering coarser approximations, the outer peaks trend becomes more uniform, while the central one broadens and then splits in two dierent peaks (in the 300 µm histogram the thesis on environmental management, central counts number is in philosophy very low). In short, large mesh sizes produce unrealistic results and have to be avoided.

In conclusion the best compromise between quality and computing time is represented by the 30 µm mesh. As it has been shown before, approxi- mately 22 minutes are requested for this geometry (for a 20k particles Argon beam with a current of biological data analysis 20 mA and in philosophy 41 iterations). Furthermore, the space charge density was calculated (data not shown). Essay Ged Hard. With increasing mesh size, almost nothing changes close to the skimmer orice. But a peak between. 0.01 and 0.02 m - where the beam is focused - decreases when larger mesh sizes, until it disappears at 50 µm. The ratios between the peak height for essay, three medium meshes, 30 µm, 40 µm and 50 µm, and the smaller mesh used are 60%, 48% and 40%, respectively. Looking for a compromise, the former choice of a 30 µm mesh size can be considered a good solution.

6.3 Task 3 - full 2D geometry switching. As the 2D mirrored geometry could not be considered a good representation of the simulation area (some troubles arise for particles traveling on the x axis), the styles, third task was to modify the code in order to dene a 2D full geometry. This conguration is not using the mirror function anymore, as the interfaces and the lens are completely dened. After the switch to introduction in philosophy essay, this new geometry, some simulations were run in order to compare the new computing time with the former one. Table 6.2 shows the biological analysis, time for both geometries. It is important to underline that with the same mesh size the full geometry has a doubled number of nodes with respect to the mirror 46 Table 6.2: Computing time for 2D mirror and full 2D geometry 2D mirror full 2D mesh (µm) no of nodes time (s) no of nodes time (s) time ratio 300 9956 77.85 24889 161.90 2.0 250 14336 97.61 35840 211.69 2.1 200 22400 131.92 56000 292.98 2.1 150 39822 163.45 99556 385.92 2.3 100 89600 259.35 224000 620.14 2.3 50 358400 619.59 896000 1493.79 2.4 40 560000 853.01 1400000 2164.20 2.5 30 995556 1343.57 2488889 4239.65 3.1 25 1433600 2021.08 3584000 7784.64 3.8 one, because the electrodes and the simulation eld are dened in the lower part too.

These values are referred to a 20k particles Argon beam, with a beam current of 10 mA and 41 iterations. The last column displays the ratio between the time taken by the full 2D geometry and the 2D mirror. The data ouput was used to evaluate the beam prole for the smaller mesh sizes (50 µm, 40 µm, 30 µm and introduction 25 µm). The dierence between the full 2D and thesis paper the 2D mirror beam proles gets obvious: they are no more com- pletely symmetrical, because particles are sent randomly. Introduction. The member func- tion used in styles emotional, these rst simulations was add_2d_KV _beam_with_emittance(). It adds a 2D beam with dened KV emittance (KV stands for Kapchinsky- Vladimirsky, whose distribution is in philosophy essay used for the beam spread in the projec- tional space). It becomes clear that the perfect beam symmetry could be achieved only with a large number of on environmental particles. Analyzing the in philosophy essay, number of counts in the two sections (the left and the right one) of each plot, it results that the percentual dierence is less than 1%; moreover the bias is anti correlated to the mesh size: 0.54% for 25 µm, 0.45% for 30 µm, 0.27% for. 40 µm, 0.09% for 50 µm. In order to essay, compare the beam prole obtained with the two dierent geometries, one simulation with a 100k particles Ar- gon beam, with a current of 10 mA and a 30 µm mesh size was used. The comparison with the corresponding 2D mirror result is in philosophy essay displayed in Figure 6.7.

The dierences can be summarized in the following way: rst of all, even if the trend at the edge is similar, the midmost increasing is larger in the full 2D case. Moreover, the number of central counts is much higher in thesis in nigeria, the full 2D case: the ratio between the peak heights is about 1.2 and in philosophy the percentual dierence of the total number of counts between 2D mirror and full 2D curve is about 19%. This result shows the thesis on environmental management, importance to switch to the new geometry; in fact it clearly proves that the mirror 2D case was aected by in philosophy essay, some errors in the trajectories calculation for emotional, particles in the center of the beam, the region we are mostly interested in. Finally, some attempts have been done to t the full 2D beam prole 47 Figure 6.7: 2D mirror - full 2D beam prole @ 50 mm comparison. (using the data obtained with the 30 µm mesh) with a known distribution: as the introduction in philosophy essay, Gauss t had a R2 adjusted of only 0.99134, it has been chosen a Lorentzian t, obtaining a better result (R2 adjusted = 0.9963). This t is displayed in critical thinking, Figure 6.8. Olney, Chen and Douglas [30] measured gas ow proles downstream the skimmer using an introduction in philosophy essay impact pressure probe. It consisted of a small 0.254 mm diameter orice in a at plate at the end of a 6.35 mm od tube that was connected to a pressure gauge. The gas ow proles were measured for an interface arrangement with a rst stage pressure (P1) of 3.3 Torr and a sampler-skimmer spacing of thesis for a 6.4 mm; this interface is similar to introduction in philosophy essay, that used on thesis statement for a business paper commercial ICP-MS systems.

Using French calculations [47], they found the in philosophy essay, density o the centerline: n(r, ¿½') n0 = B cos 2 ¿½'¿½' 2C r r0 ¿½''2 (6.2) where ¿½' is the polar angle between the centre axis and biological data analysis the point of interest, r0 the orice radius, r the distance of the probe from the source (r2 = x2 p +z 2 p , where zp is the distance of the probe from the centerline) and B and C are, respectively, 0.643 and 1.365 (for Ar). The impact probe was scanned radially across the introduction in philosophy, beam at 13 mm down- stream the skimmer; Figure 6.9 shows the free jet gas ow prole obtained from impact pressure measurements made at several distances from the centerline. Data. Considering the geometry and settings dierences between the case on study and the work by Olney, Chen and Douglas, the beam prole obtained with IBSimu is consistent with the one shown in their work. 48 Figure 6.8: Lorentz t. Figure 6.9: Free jet proles calculated - dotted line - and measured - lled circles; the density eld of equation 6.2 is multiplied by an additional factor. cos¿½' to account for essay, the decrease in thinking in the accounting profession, the apparent area of the introduction essay, probe (solid angle) viewed from the biological data, source orice as the probe moves o-axis [30]. 49 6.4 Task 4 - Up and Te investigation. The optimum mesh size for a mirrored geometry was determined to introduction in philosophy, be 30 µm.

Since with a full 2D geometry the number of nodes doubles, some simulations have been done to see if a mesh bigger than 30 µm guarantees good results. Styles Emotional. It has been found that using a 50 µm mesh the in philosophy essay, beam prole does not change; so for the following task, this mesh size has been used. The aim was to analyze the thesis for a business, eect of plasma potential (Up) and electron temperature (Te) on the beam prole. These parameters have been chosen because they dene the plasma itself and introduction in philosophy essay they represent the main contribu- tion to analysis, the particles trajectories. After few simulations it became clear that it was necessary to essay, change the particle seeding function; we soon realized that add_2d_KV _beam_with_emittance() did not take into account the business paper, charge density and it was initializing the introduction in philosophy, plasma potential to a Null value (no dierences were seen varying the plasma potential). However, the beam proles calculated in the former task were correct, because with such a high current beam the space charge eect was signicant. So, the new used function was add_2d_beam_with_energy(), which adds particles with kinetic energies sampled from a gaussian distribution. Management In Nigeria. Unfortunately, it was not possible with this new function to introduction in philosophy, set a beam current greater than 5 µA; for higher values, particles are grouped in bundles (needless to say that this result can not be true). So, with a 100k particles Argon beam, a current of 5 µA and methods of critical thinking in the profession 21 iterations (after having checked the con- vergence) some runs have been done with dierent plasma potential values: 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 8, 10, 15 and in philosophy 20 V. The outcome beam prole does not have any signicative dierence until 1 V, then, increasing the plasma po- tential, the number of counts and the peak height decrease. Moreover, above.

10 V all plots are almost identical, both in shape and number of counts; as a consequence it does not make sense to investigate low or high intervals and the study was concentrated on the range 2 ¿½'' 10 V. This interval of for a business survey is in a good agreement with the available literature data [13][18][19]. The trend shown in Figure 6.10 is probably due to introduction in philosophy, the space charge eect: it becomes more intense with a higher potential, especially in the center of the beam, where the number of particles is high. So, increasing. Up, more and more particles are lost on the skimmer walls; in a calculation for on environmental in nigeria, 10 V, this number could be near to 80% of the total number of starting particles. With a low plasma potential value, some particles are colliding on the skimmer wall too, but this number is smaller - with Up = 2 V it is about 40% - because the beam is spreading less than in the case of high Up. Regarding the charge density plot, its trend does not change. The only introduction, dierence is in essay ged hard, the peak corresponding to the focus point: its height halves from 2 to 6 V and then remains constant until 10 V. In conclusion of the plasma potential evaluation, one can say that the sharpest beam proles are achieved at lowest potential, in introduction essay, particular at Up = 2 V. A similar study has been conducted for the electron temperature, be- tween 2000 and 8000 K (corresponding to 0.259 and 1.035 eV, respectively, using the equipartition theorem). The number of publications inquiring this 50 Figure 6.10: Beam proles for Te = 5000 K and dierent plasma potentials. topic is considerable [18][26][32][35][36]; the reported values range between. 1000 and 16000 K, depending on many factors (distance from the load coil, radial position, dry or wet plasma, introduced analyte and radio frequency power setting). The results for dierent plasma potentials (summarized in Figures 6.11 and thesis statement for a paper 6.12) show a dierent behaviour. At low Up, increasing the electron temperature results in a rise of counts at the boundaries and a decrease in the center.

Probably due to a greater thermal agitation, the beam prole becomes smoother (this attening is essay more uniform than the one obtained increasing Up). On the thesis statement for a, contrary, if the potential is high the essay, plot is already at and by critical thinking styles emotional, varying the temperature nothing changes. The best solution would be having a sharp peak (like the introduction, one obtained for the lower temperature) with a high number of counts (as it happens for high Te). So choosing the best electron temperature is not easy: both 2000 and methods of critical in the profession 8000 K could be considered good solutions. In the introduction in philosophy, charge density plot, increasing the electron temperature, the peak corresponding to the focus point moves slightly toward the skimmer, while its intensity increases and the full width half maximum (FWHM) gets smaller. These changes are small, so they could be neglected. The best conguration would be a focus point far away from the skimmer, in order to minimize the space charge eect. In order to better understand how the plasma potential and the electron temperature aect the simulation and, above all, to nd the essay about, combination that gives the best result, three 3D plots have been done, representing the total number of counts, the in philosophy essay, peak height and the FWHM as a function of the two fundamental parameters. The results are depicted in Figures 6.13 51 Figure 6.11: Beam proles for Up = 2 V and dierent electron temperatures. Analysis. Figure 6.12: Beam proles for Up = 6 V and dierent electron temperatures. 52 Figure 6.13: Number of counts as a function of Up and Te. to 6.15.

As evaluated before, it was shown that Up = 2 V is the best plasma potential. Regarding the electron temperature, two dierent values could be good: with Te = 2000 K the peak is narrow (lowest FWHM) and his height is introduction in philosophy essay maximum. On the other hand, with Te = 8000 K there is still a good FWHM and the number of counts is increased. The good quality of these two combinations (Up = 2 V - Te = 2000 K and essay about television influence Up = 2 V - Te = 8000 K) is underlined in the plot represented in essay, Figure 6.16, obtained with a combination between number of counts and FWHM. Essay Ged Hard. From the literature review it can be postulated that 2000 K is a too low value for the present case.

In fact the electron temperature in a Fassel torch is introduction essay around 10000 K and the plasma bulk properties remain unchanged as it proceeds through the data analysis, sampling orice [19]; the only signicant electron loss at the walls of the sampling plate is conned to distances of the order of one Debye length - 10¿½''2 to 10¿½''3 mm. In conclusion for the next simulations the following values were adopted: Up = 2 V and Te = 8000 K. 6.5 Task 5 - dierent masses. Once completed the Argon beam simulations, the next step was to intro- duce other particles, to see the particles beam prole. Since the introduction in philosophy essay, plasma is constituted by Argon, the thesis management, number of the other masses is so low that their contribution to the electric potential is nearly negligible. So, to speed up the simulation, it was convenient to simulate only Argon in the rst runs 53 Figure 6.14: Peak height as a function of Up and Te. Figure 6.15: Full width half maximum as a function of Up and Te. 54 Figure 6.16: (number of counts)2 / full width half maximum. (to calculate the resulting electric potential) and then, in introduction, the last part, all the other particles. This topic will be discussed in thesis statement paper, detail in the next section.

The rst set of simulations was aimed to study how the number of counts is aected by the mass of the projectile at dierent potentials. The array of particles used (excluding Ar) was: 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 60, 80, 100, 140, 180, 220 , 260, 300 amu. 100k particles per species were seeded, with a 50 µm mesh, Te = 8000 K and for dierent plasma potentials: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10 V. The signal intensity per species, downstream the lens orice, is given in Figure 6.17. The trend obtained is logarithmic for each potential, even if with in- creasing Up the curves are attening. A good t has been found: the curve.

y = a¿½''b·ln(x+c) always provides R2 adjusted greater than 0.999. Compar- ing the plot in introduction, Figure 6.17 with the thesis for a business, one obtained at 50 mm (just before the lens orice) and introduction shown in Figure 6.18 clearly indicates that a lot of particles are lost on on environmental the lens walls, as the maximum intensity halves. Moreover, the most intense lost is for introduction in philosophy essay, low mass particles: considering the intensity ratio between 50 and on environmental management 56 mm, it passes from 7.57 for essay, m=1 to 3.87 for m=100 to 2.08 for m=300. This could mean that lower masses are mostly at the boundary of the beam - whilst higher masses are in the centre - or that the spread is higher for light particles - making the prole nearly at. In the following this particular distribution was studied through the beam prole plots. Thesis For A Business Paper. Considering instead the signal intensity per introduction essay species for dierent electron temperatures, the curves are not aected and the intensity dierence is nearly negligible (see Figure 6.19). Increasing the electron temperature, the 55 Figure 6.17: Signal intensity per mass @ 56 mm for Te = 8000 K and dierent plasma potentials.

Figure 6.18: Signal intensity per mass @ 50 mm for Te = 8000 K and dierent plasma potentials. 56 Figure 6.19: Signal intensity per mass @ 56 mm for Up = 2 V and dierent electron temperatures. number of counts also increases, in analysis, a non linear way: higher the mass, bigger the dierence from two dierent temperatures is. Nevertheless the gap is introduction in philosophy quite small: for m=300, the percentual dierence between 5000 and 12000 K (in respect to the lower Te) is about 6. Methods Of Critical Thinking In The Accounting. The eect of an electron temperature changing on the number of counts for m=300 is shown in Figure 6.20. In order to see in detail how plasma potential and electron temper- atures aect the beam prole, some simulations have been run with the three masses (in addition to Ar) which give an overall view on all possible particles: 1, 150, 300. The result is consistent with the one obtained in case of Argon: it validates 2 V as the introduction essay, best plasma potential and the trend for dierent Te is equivalent to the one showed in the previous section. As it resulted from signal intensity plots, the number of biological counts for lower masses is low. Running the same number of particles would make a comparison between beam proles of mass 1 and 300 impossible: the former one would be completely at compared to introduction in philosophy, the other. As the beam prole evolution (changing Up and Te) is the same for mass 40, 150 and biological data analysis 300, it is reasonable to presume this trend is essay identical for mass 1. The beam prole was studied in detail for dierent electron temperatures (Figure 6.21). As it is shown for m=150, increasing Te, the central peak decreases and broadens until 6000 K, then, it starts increasing again. Moreover, while its central width does not change, the boundary number of counts progressively decreases and so the transition from the boundary to thinking, the centre becomes sharper (the area under the curve being constant). The only dierence with 57 Figure 6.20: Signal intensity @ 56 mm for m = 300 and dierent electron temperatures.

Figure 6.21: Beam prole @ 50 mm for Up = 2 V, m = 150 and dierent electron temperatures. 58 Figure 6.22: Beam prole @ 50 mm for introduction, dierent masses, for Up = 2 V and. Te = 8000 K. argon is right in this area: in the analyzed case the thesis statement, boundary number of counts drops to zero (this feature is even more noticeable for m=300) at about 4 mm from the centre, giving to the prole a more sharp shape. This phenomenon has been more deeply investigated. With a set of in philosophy essay projectile similar to the one used for the rst plots, the beam prole for each species has been represented - for essay television, Up = 2 V and. Te = 8000 K. Essay. For low masses it was necessary to run more particles in order to have a good statistics. In The Accounting Profession. Especially in this plot the mass discrimination is obvious: most of the low species are lost on the skimmer and lens walls, so their contribute is about one order of magnitude smaller for high masses. As observed before the beam prole progressively changes: while Argon (previously studied) can be tted with a lorentzian curve, increasing the mass, the prole loses its tails and acquires a better dened shape.

Starting from introduction in philosophy, m = 160, the boundary number of counts drops to zero; in other words, high masses are well focused. This is an important result, because it means that all these particles will pass through the thesis in nigeria, lens orice. To better visualize the results it was convenient to represent the beam prole ratio between a given mass and mass 120. This value was choosen because its curve is the introduction essay, rst having nearly zero counts at the edge. Thesis For A Paper. As in the analyzer enters just the essay, central part of the beam, high boundary ratios were not take into account. The plot in Figure 6.23 clearly shows the mass discrimination as a function of atomic mass and radius (radial distance from the beam center - dened as 0.02 m). Essay Ged Hard. This plot underlines how much sharper the beam proles are for high 59 Figure 6.23: Counts ratio @ 50 mm for introduction in philosophy, Up = 2 V and Te = 8000 K. masses: it is important to notice that the resulting hollow for on environmental, low masses does not mean the total number of counts in in philosophy, the center is lower than at thesis on environmental management the boundaries, but just that the number of counts is essay increasing slower (to the centre) for low than for high masses. 6.6 Task 6 - iteration settings. As anticipated, with many projectiles it is convenient to split the iteration phase in two parts: in the initial runs only about, Argon is seeded, while in the last all the other particles (dened in the masses array) are added. In fact the one that contributes more to in philosophy, the total electric potential is Argon, while other particles have a negligible impact on it. Some simulations have been run to answer the data, following questions: ¿½' With a xed number of essay iterations, does the thinking accounting, beam prole change vary- ing the number of initial and nal iterations' How' Is the computing time aected' ¿½' How many particles are needed to y in introduction in philosophy, the last run(s) in order to have a good compromise between a good beam prole and a short computing time' ¿½' How many particles are optimal for the rst runs' The rst comparison was aimed to see which changes occur when the number of iterations in which all particles are sent vary.

With a xed 60 Figure 6.24: Electric potential dierence as a function of iteration number for the analyzed cases. Data Analysis. number of total iterations (25), dierent combinations have been tried: (case 1) 10+15, (case 2) 15+10, (case 3) 23+2, (case 4) 24+1. The rst parameter checked was the electric potential convergence: in Figure 6.24 the electric potential dierence is shown for the considered cases. There are two points that have to be underlined: (i) the y axis has a logarithmic scale - this means that the initial decrease is sharp - and introduction essay (ii) in for a business paper, case4 the electric potential dierence is not calculated after ying all parti- cles - because in the code the particles are sent after the electrical potential is in philosophy essay recalculated. 2 The increase in critical styles emotional, each curve is due to in philosophy, the addition of other species: considering that the total electric potential is 2000 V, this oper- ation does not signicantly aect the result. To validate this hypothesis, the obtained beam proles have been compared to for a business paper, the one obtained in introduction in philosophy, the rst case.

With 15 + 10 iterations the result is critical styles identical (exactly the same number of counts per interval) to the rst one, while case 3 and 4 have some small dierences, even if the prole shape remains unchanged. As the com- puting time decreases from 34 (case1) to 29 (case2) to 19 minutes (case4), the conclusion is the following: reducing the number of nal iterations does not signicantly aect the nal result; the dierence is negligible in in philosophy essay, all cases even for particles with low mass - in which case the total number of counts is low. This result has been validated also in the case of 20k particles in the rst runs and 100k in the last one. Then, two simulations with a dierent nal number of television influence particles have been performed: 50k and 100k. In Philosophy Essay. For low masses (m=1 in the analyzed 2So case4 represents the convergence for Ar only. Critical Thinking Emotional. 61 Figure 6.25: Ratio between the beam prole @ 50 mm with 50k particles and the one obtained with 100k particles, for m=1. In Philosophy Essay. case) the number of particles reaching the end of the simulation eld is low and random uctuations aect signicantly the beam prole. As the biological data, uctuation amplitude does not change passing from the rst to the second case, the former one represents a coarse approximation (as clearly indicated in introduction essay, Figure 6.25). Increasing the atomic mass the number of statement counts increases too and the background noise becomes negligible. Introduction In Philosophy. So it is better to split the following discussion in two cases. Essay Ged Hard. For high masses the solution is likewise the prece- dent: running with 50k instead of 100k particles is a good approximation and the advantage is that the simulation time is reduced - halved in the case of 10 + 15 iterations.

To see how much time is earned running less particles in the last run only, two simulations have been done, with 50k particles at introduction in philosophy the beginning and 50/100 in the last run. The dierence is about 15%, but is not really signicant as the total time needed is thinking emotional around 20 minutes (19 min in the rst case and 22 min in the second). The situation is critical for low masses: running few particles in the last run(s) does not provide a good statistics. In Philosophy Essay. Therefore, it is convenient to run more particles (in the critical thinking emotional, last run only), even if it takes a bit more time, to have a better statistic. To conclude this study, the last parameter to change was the introduction essay, number of particles in methods of critical thinking accounting profession, the rst runs: 3 the introduction, simulation result for 20k particles was compared to the one obtained for methods of critical thinking in the, 50k - with 100k particles in the last runs 3A variation in the number of Argon particles does not change the total charge density (it is dened as constant); the only quantity changing is the charge density carried by each particle. 62 - rstly for 10 + 15 and then for 24 + 1 iterations. In both cases there are no dierences between the two simulations - for the case 10 + 15 iterations every single beam has the same amplitude as in the other case and similarly for 24 + 1 iterations. In the introduction essay, rst case even the computing time does not importantly change, probably because the essay ged hard, time needed to seed only Argon is in philosophy essay smaller compared to thesis management, the one for all particles.

On the contrary, the in philosophy essay, dierence is of critical thinking notable in the second case: instead of 22, just 14 minutes are needed. Anyway, it is important to underline that this is not a general result: sending more species, the time needed for the last iteration will increase, while the time for Argon does not change. Essay. So the percentual time earned will decrease with the total number of methods thinking species increasing. Anyhow decreasing the number of Argon particles does not aect the beam prole quality, so it can be reduced to 20k. Essay. The following list summarizes the biological, settings that optimize both the results quality and the computing time: ¿½' number of iterations: 24 + 1; ¿½' number of particles in the last run: 100k; ¿½' number of particles in the rst runs: 20k. 6.7 Task 7 - Cadmium. In order to compare between simulation and experimental results, Cd can be used, with three of its isotopes: 110, 111 and 114. Through this com- parison it is in philosophy possible to nd out the plasma fundamental parameters that characterize the used instrument. In the following a short experimental description of the implantation and measure of of critical thinking accounting ions number is given.

In order to detect the radial distribution of introduction Cd - this element is used because it shows a signicant radial dependence -, an Aluminium target was placed at the base of the extraction lens. Thus implanted ions should represent the critical thinking emotional, spatially resolved composition of the extracted ion beam. The target is essay analyzed by Laser Ablation ICP-MS after implantation, performing a line scan from the rim region (A) toward the essay ged hard, center of the target (B), as shown in Figure 6.26. The spacing between two adjacent ablation spots (150 µm) is sucient to have a high spatial resolution density and, in the same time, to avoid overlapping [43]. Because laser ablation removes material in the range of several hundreds of nanometer per pulse, a complete removal of the im- planted ions is ensured. The calculated ratio 114Cd/111Cd in a single data set from a representative Cd isotope ratio analysis is represented in Figure 6.27, with the corresponding transient signal for 114Cd. Since laser ablation provides spatially resolved information on the im- planted matter, a relation between Cadmium signal and ion beam intensity has to be assumed in order to deduce the ion beam prole. However, the sputtering due to the high Ar-beam current jeopardizes this relation; the 63 Figure 6.26: Sketch of the Al target assembly mounted in the Neptune MC- ICP-MS instrument. The dotted line denes the area exposed to the ion beam and the position of the line scan is given by the black line [43]. Figure 6.27: 114Cd/111Cd isotope ratio (open circles) and in philosophy essay signal intensity [43]. 64 Table 6.3: Set of simulation run run number Up (V) Te (K) 1 2 8000 2 3 5000 3 4 10000 4 8 5000 5 2 5000 6 2 10000 signal intensity is high in an annulus around 1 mm from the centre and then decreases when moving toward the centre.

This drop coincides with optically observed material defect; at this location the low signal is probably caused by removal of material by sputtering. To plot the ratio 114Cd/111Cd against the distance from the centre, some simulations have been run, with the following conguration set: ¿½' 35 iterations, 20 with Argon only + 15 with all the particles, ¿½' masses array = 110, 111, 114, ¿½' beam current = 5 µA, ¿½' mesh size = 50 µm, ¿½' dierent plasma potentials (Up) and electron temperature (Te). As explained before, the aim of these simulations was to methods thinking accounting, nd a beam prole as similar as possible to the one shown in Figure 6.27. To reach this achievement, Up and Te were varied in their validity interval. The parameters for each run are summarized in Table 6.3. Beam proles have been plotted; increasing Up the in philosophy essay, trend becomes at, so Up = 2 V is the setting that resembles the real value best. Regarding the electron temperature, its contribute is not signicant as the Up is. Since the data analysis, ratio obtained with the simulation is slightly dierent from the experimental one, identifying the electron temperature real value results more dicult. In Figures 6.28 to 6.30 ratios are given for three values of Te. It seems that the intermediate case - 2 V and 8000 K - is the introduction in philosophy essay, closer to reality, even if the shape diers for critical emotional, some features.

While the experimental plot rapidly decreases in the center and its trend is clear, the simulated one decreases slowly; at the edge, it can be seen the same low point it can be found at 6 mm in Figure 6.27 - even if in Figure 6.29 is at dierent position, 2 mm closer to the center. The trouble is that data processing could give rise to dierent explanations, depending on which bin size is choosen plotting the histogram. More accurated and resoluted simulations are necessary in order to make this comparison more precise and reliable. 65 Figure 6.28: 114Cd/111Cd ratio for Up = 2 V and introduction essay Te = 5000 K. Figure 6.29: 114Cd/111Cd ratio for Up = 2 V and Te = 8000 K. 66 Figure 6.30: 114Cd/111Cd ratio for Up = 2 V and Te = 10000 K. Thesis Statement. 67 Chapter 7 Results and discussion The present work wants only to be a starting point in the understanding of the extraction process: in the future, on one hand more simulations and with dierent softwares can be performed and on the other some im- provements can be applied to the instrument.

IBSimu already represents a better simulation package compared to SIMION; with the latter, taking into account the introduction, space charge eects is dicult and really impractical. Nev- ertheless, IBSimu still has a liability: it is impossible to y neutral particles and then simulating the biological analysis, scattering process between neutrals. For this rea- son the group of introduction Kivel is developing new simulations, both with dsmcFoam1 and with PI-DSMC (Parallel Interactive Direct Simulation Monte Carlo). Both this programs use the probabilistic (Monte Carlo) simulation to under- stand the uidodynamics of the essay ged hard, free jet expansion. Essay. DSMC has been already documented in some articles [38] [39]; the particular implementation of the essay ged hard, algorithm is called FENIX. As the solver in IBSimu, the Monte Carlo al- gorithm models the introduction in philosophy essay, gas ow by dividing the simulation region into small spatial collision cells, each one smaller in the extent than the local mean free path. Critical Thinking Styles. Then, each particle is given a random chance to collide with its nearest neighbor in its collision cell, using the collision statistics appropri- ate to the density and temperature in the cell. A more detailed description of the algorithm can be found elsewhere [38] [39]. The aim of the FENIX simulation would be to make a more detailed calculation of the ow in the ICP-MS, not limited to the region downstream the skimmer anymore, but in the whole extraction interface. In this approach the study of the jet ex- pansion reported in chapter 4 is fundamental to make a comparison between simulated and theoretical results and in order to validate the model. This new simulation software is fundamental even for another reason: applying a modest voltage to the skimmer could improve the transmission eciency.

Usually about 10% of the introduction in philosophy, total number of ying particles is lost on the skimmer walls and the trouble is that most of these particles are the lightest. Electrically oating one or both the cones at various potentials could accelerate the ions and therefore reduce this phenomenon. It has been found, with IBSimu, that having the thesis for a, skimmer at few volts would focus the 1dsmcFoam is part of the introduction essay, open source CFD package OpenFOAM. 68 Figure 7.1: Sketches of the three used arrangements [23]. Business. beam; the downside of this action stands upstream the skimmer, where ions would see a repulsive force. For this reason simulating the entire extraction interface with DSMC is necessary, in order to understand the beam behav- ior. Introduction In Philosophy Essay. Hu and Houk [23] applied modest DC voltages (+10 to thesis management in nigeria, +50 V ) to both the sampler and the skimmer or, alternatively, left the sampler oating - i.e., deliberately not connected to any voltage source or to ground - with the skimmer biased. Three specic arrangements (shown in gure 7.1) were studied: (a) sampler and skimmer biased together, (b) sampler oated and skimmer biased and (c) sampler grounded and skimmer biased. The results are depicted in gure 7.2 with Co+ as analyte.2 There is an improvement in each case: by a factor of 4 (modestly) by applying the introduction essay, same DC voltages - about 20 V - to both sampler and skimmer (A), by a factor 5 of in case C, and by a factor of 6 by oating the sampler and applying a DC voltage of 30 ¿½'' 40 V to the skimmer. It results that conguration b is the one which gives the higher signal; 2Relative sensitivity refers to the sensitivity obtained for a given element with one of the new interface arrangements divided by that obtained for the same element with the conventional interface. 69 Figure 7.2: Relative Co+ sensitivity as a function of biasing voltage [23].

Table 7.1: Molar sensitivities for various elements expressed in terms of atomic concentration [23] molar sensitivity (counts/ (s · mM)) interface arrangement Co Rh Ho m/z = 59 m/z = 103 m/z = 165 conventional interface 5.6 · 107 8.5 · 107 2.2 · 108 interface b 3.5 · 108 3.3 · 108 3.0 · 108 in Table 7.1 molar sensitivities for various elements are compared. Another advantage given by this conguration is the thinking styles emotional, reducing of the mass bias: in fact, the sensitivity is improved for in philosophy, Co+ by a much greater factor than is in about influence, the case for the heavier Ho+. Even if it seems that the introduction in philosophy, ions have a sucient kinetic energy to ow through the sampling cones, some simulations should been run in statement, order to check what happens upstream the skimmer: applicating a positive potential could repel ions and prevent them from passing through the introduction in philosophy essay, orice. So in this case the essay ged hard, simulation eld has to be extended, in order to start the beam in correspondence to the sampler. 70 Chapter 8 Conclusions As explained in the introduction, the aim of this work was the optimization of the ion extraction from the introduction, ICP.

IBSimu turned out to be a suitable and useful instrument for this purpose, thanks to its versatility and essay ged hard easiness of use. Essay. It calculates the comprehensive electrci potential dividing the simula- tion region in thesis in nigeria, small meshes or cells. Once chosen the fastest solver among the many available, the mesh size has been determined in order to essay, have a good compromise between results quality and computing time. At the beginning, the of critical thinking in the accounting profession, code describing the simulation eld was characterized by a 2D mirror geometry; due to some problems, switching to a full geometry came out to be convenient. Then the main section of the work started: the investigation on how the beam prole changes upon varying the in philosophy essay, plasma main parameters, i.e. the plasma potential and the electron temperature. Changing the plasma potential, noticeable dierences were observed in the beam prole only in the range between 2 and 10 V; increasing Up more particles collide on the skimmer wall and then the beam prole decreases in intensity attening. The electron temperature has a less considerable eect and, particularly, its consequence depends on thinking accounting the plasma potential value: if Up is low, increasing. Te the introduction in philosophy, trend attens, while if Up is high nearly nothing changes.

Since the aperture to thesis for a business, the mass spectrometer is 4 mm wide, the couple of introduction in philosophy values. Up = 2V and Te = 8000K has been chosen in essay ged hard, order to have a sharp peak with a high number of counts. This result has been obtained ying only Argon ions, but it has then been ratied simulating a beam with many species. One of the most severe problem in the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry is mass discrimination, that is the introduction in philosophy, preferential lost of the methods of critical thinking in the, beam particles with a low mass in respect to heavier species. This phenomenon has been characterized and then the eect of a plasma potential and introduction in philosophy essay elec- tron temperature variation has been studied in order to see if it determines any advantage. While only small and about negligible dierences occur changing. - caricare i tuoi contenuti.

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Writing a Philosophy Essay | Introduction to Philosophy

4 Expert Tips on Writing a Resume for the Biotech Industry. Introduction In Philosophy? Trisha Heredia, Senior Director of Staffing Solutions at Clinovo, has more than 20 years experience in essay about, business development and recruiting within the Biotechnology, Medical Device and Pharmaceutical industry. Trisha has a genuine passion for developing win-win partnerships and providing the right staffing resources for sponsors. Essay? Tip 1: Make your best first impression. Critical? A resume is typically the first thing employers will see in your job application process. It will form their initial opinion of you and serves as the indicator of introduction in philosophy, whether you will progress to the all-important next stage, the interview. Remember, there is no second chance at thesis statement paper a first impression so it is imperative that you present yourself in a professional manner. A well-written, properly formatted, resume that succinctly and introduction effectively communicates how your professional history is relevant to the role in question is the goal here. Tip 2: Adapt to the position. While the Life Sciences industry continues to boom, with many positions available, competition remains steep.

The number of skilled candidates looking for long-term work remains high and in order to enter, or further your career in this industry, you must be ready to biological data compete. The most effective resumes are the introduction essay ones that are targeted to a specific position. It is imperative that those in the hiring seat see the connection between your skills and data analysis qualifications to the job in question. Many people fall down because they simply send the same resume to every employer and fail to highlight the projects that are more directly applicable to in philosophy the role. Avoid trying to cover too many bases, customize your resume for the position you want, and critical thinking styles emotional you’ll see better results. In Philosophy? In the same vein, limit the length of your resume to 2-3 pages. It can be tempting to list every job or project you have ever done, thinking that the more you convey, the more likely you are to impress. Remember that the aim of your resume to secure an interview, not a job.

Think of your resume as a teaser that generates enough intrigue so employers will want to meet the person behind the resume. Companies are looking for the resume to specifically match the needs of the opening, so the more you can design your resume to the job, the better your chances. This does mean that each job you apply for may require minor edits. You should insert keywords taken from the job description and business re-order your experiences to place the introduction most relevant first on the list. All of these steps mean that the person in the hiring seat doesn#8217;t need to get to essay ged hard page two before they see anything relevant to their role. Tip 3: Hierarchize your achievements by relevance to the position. My advice is to write your resume with a focus on achievements, goals, and in philosophy essay skills supplemented with a separate section listing your technical skills and expertise.

This is especially true if the job posting specifically mentions that candidates with certain skills are preferred. Don’t just list the project titles and goals as this might not be sufficient information for of critical accounting profession an HR manager to know whether you fit the requirements of their job. Introduction Essay? Try to imagine sorting through a pile of for a, Biotech resumes without having a Life Sciences background or understanding a project by title but you do know what keywords you are looking for in terms of techniques and skills. With 20 years in the industry, this is not the case for introduction my team and I, but don’t assume other staffing agencies or HR departments have the knowledge that you think they might have. Tip 4: Write a tailored cover letter. Particularly in the Life Sciences industry, the cover letter is thesis on environmental extremely important aspect of the application. It was a way to tell your employer exactly why the skills and qualifications in your resume are relevant to the job at hand. You would think it would go without saying, but do not write one cover letter and simply send it to every company. This is a sure fire way to tell an employer that you haven’t researched their company, you were too lazy to write them a tailored cover letter, and in philosophy that you likely didn’t care enough to do so. Ipso facto, you’re out of the emotional running.

A cover letter needs to touch on why you are the best candidate or a good fit for the job, what skills you can bring to the organization, and in philosophy essay why you want to work for them. It cannot be a broad overview, or simply describe what a great person you are. What is it about this particular company that makes you want to work for them? Have you always loved their approach to research and development? Do you feel that the company is breaking ground drug discovery? Do you want to work with the leaders in research in Oncology and think that our company will allow you to put your passion into your work? A final point: Keep your resume clear, concise and specific. Avoid a lot of #8220;fluff#8221; or “filler.” I’ve included a resume template to get you started. Highlight your strengths and how they are relevant to the job you are applying for. Use strong action verbs and power words for a more compelling summary -(collaborate, Accelerate, enforce, Access innovate etc.) This section should consist of a minimum of three to methods in the ten bullet points each describing an accomplishment in terms of results. For example, instead of #8220;Successfully carried out over 50 study builds#8221;, try #8220;bullet points#8221; #8220;Implemented a trade match system which reduced processing time by over 50%, and resulted in the elimination of introduction in philosophy, overtime expenses for the entire business unit, saving in excess of 10K per month.#8221; Computer skills: List languages, systems, and programs Language skills: Specify language and your level of proficiency.

Start with most recent Job title Employer name and location (city and thesis statement for a business state) Dates of employment. Years are ok Active description of your responsibilities and accomplishments, therapeutic area, phases, main/key function. In Philosophy Essay? List most recent degree first. Name of thesis in nigeria, institution, city and state. Introduction In Philosophy? Degree, major. Any additional information: conference presentations, lectures, etc. Need help wording this too relevant skills (techniques), invited lectures, and poster presentations. All important because communication skills can be very important. For example having lectures and essay ged hard posters tell us you are willing and able to in philosophy put yourself out there for better communications.

Your blog eClinical Trends is powered by Clinovo. Essay About Television Influence? Nice article! I find it helpful to introduction also create a LinkedIn profile where I can list all of my experience. But it was formalized by a group of surgeons for essay ged hard hair restoration a decade later. Often, multiple fingers are affected; however, the toes. are less likely to introduction in philosophy essay exhibit any symptoms.

If body hair transplant is considered for. a human being having less hair then one needs to methods accounting profession check whether the. transplanted hair from the body are not coarse and in philosophy this can be taken care by hair transplant surgeon. Thanks for these tips. I would also add that a resume should be maybe three pages long, but not longer. In The Accounting? Show only introduction in philosophy, relevant experience and highlight the achievements. It also helps to prepare for the interview by learning everything about the company. Paragraph writing is essay ged hard also a fun, if you be acquainted with then you. can write otherwise it is difficult to introduction in philosophy essay write. Thank you for essay ged hard spreading your knowledge, I really needed it..These resume tips are the tips which everybody should know..Keep updating. Thanks for your article! I find writing resumes extremely hard, that#8217;s why every time for me is like the introduction essay first time and I find myself browsing through countless pages with tips. My friends even recommended me to use , but I#8217;m still considering this option.

Do you have any tips on essay ged hard, how to prevent yourself from being stuck?

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cmc athenaeum essay Our 2015 Rankings of in philosophy essay National Liberal Arts Colleges are based exclusively on factors actual college freshmen said were most important to data, their college decision. According to the most recent nationwide survey published by the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA, these factors include academic reputation, financial aid offerings, overall cost, and introduction essay, success of essay ged hard graduates in essay, the post-college job market. Critical Thinking! Each of these factors were weighted equally in our ranking and in philosophy, data was derived from a variety of thesis on environmental publicly available sources, including U.S. Essay! News World Report, the National Center for Education Statistics, and PayScale.com. Update: We have just released our 2016 ranking of the best National Liberal Arts Colleges. Click here for the latest ranking. St.

Olaf College offers a distinctive education grounded in about influence, academic rigor, residential learning, global engagement, and a vibrant Lutheran faith tradition. In Philosophy! Known as “The Hill,” St. Olaf College’s picturesque 300-acre campus sits adjacent to 325 acres of restored wetlands, woodlands, and native tallgrass prairie owned and maintained by St. Olaf, and a utility-grade wind turbine that supplies one-third of the college’s daily electrical needs. From the curriculum to advanced research, from styles energy conservation and local purchasing of food products, the in philosophy college has been actively engaged in seeking out management solutions and advancing the well-being of the planet. In Philosophy Essay! In tribute to essay ged hard, the Norwegian immigrants who founded the college, St. Olaf still offers a robust program in Scandinavian culture, including Norwegian language classes, Nordic film studies, and Viking history courses. In addition to a liberal arts education students are required to take, at a minimum, the Bible in introduction in philosophy essay, Culture and Community course and a class on Christian theology. Thesis Statement For A Business Paper! Of St.

Olaf’s 3,115 full-time undergraduates 68 percent receive some kind of need-based financial aid. Average financial aid: $21,527. Average net price: $27,323. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Founded in introduction in philosophy, 1775 Hampden-Sydney College is the tenth oldest college in the United States and one of the nations’s only three remaining traditional all-male colleges.

Hampden-Sydney’s honor code demands that H-SC men will not lie, cheat, or steal, nor tolerate those who do. This code permeates the campus atmosphere and enriches the college culture with mutual respect. H-SC has a well-respected rhetoric program and graduates site how being trained to think clearly, communicate concisely, and to write well was one of the most important academic experiences. At Hampden-Sydney College, 60.7 percent of full-time undergraduates receive some kind of need-based financial aid. Though H-SC’s Academic reputation score is the lowest on our list their post graduate starting salary of $49,800 and the average low net price to analysis, attend or $19,974 make it a competitive choice. Average financial aid: $18,570. Average net price: $19,974. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Rhodes College found across from Overton Park and the Memphis Zoo in the artsy neighborhood of Midtown, Memphis is a great location to balance academic life and extracurricular fun. Students can enjoy life on introduction the beautiful campus or venture into downtown Memphis to experience the city’s famed music scene, dining, professional sporting events, and museums. There are more than 50 majors and minors and 100 student organizations at Rhodes.

Around 75 percent of students complete internships at biological top-rated institutions such as St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital and multiple Fortune 500 companies. Approximately 80 percent of introduction essay students participate in community service projects, and about one third of Rhodes students go on to graduate or professional schools. The acceptance rates of Rhodes alumni to critical thinking emotional, law and business schools are around 95 percent, and the acceptance rate to medical schools is introduction in philosophy essay nearly twice the national average. More than 93 percent of Rhodes students receive some form of financial assistance through fellowships, scholarships, grants, loans, or student employment at Rhodes. Average financial aid: $21,516. Average net price: $27,273. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. College of Wooster is one of only two schools that every year since 2002 has made U.S. News World Report’s list of schools with outstanding undergraduate research opportunities and senior capstone programs.

Each Wooster student’s senior year is filled by working one-on-one with a faculty mentor to conceive, plan, and complete a significant piece of original research, scholarship, or creative expression, in a capstone program called I.S. Wooster’s Fighting Scots compete in the NCAA Division III and have 23 intercollegiate teams. Wooster’s homecoming weekend is a bit out of the ordinary, almost 1,000 people attend a annual cricket match. The 2014–2015 comprehensive fee to analysis, attend Wooster is $53,600. Over 75 percent of Wooster students receive financial assistance and over $46 million of this aid takes the form of merit scholarships and need-based grants without repayment obligation. In Philosophy! Six months after graduation, more than 90 percent of Wooster graduates are employed or in graduate school. Average financial aid: $24,911. Average net price: $24,589.

Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Founded in methods of critical thinking in the profession, 1883, Oberlin has longstanding commitments to access, diversity, and inclusion, noted in that it was the first college in America to adopt a policy to admit African American students (1835) and the first to in philosophy essay, grant bachelor’s degrees to influence, women (1841) in in philosophy, a coeducational program. Oberlin’s College of Arts and Science offers 47 majors and 42 minors and thesis management, concentrations. The Oberlin Conservatory of Music is the oldest continuously operating conservatory in the country. In Philosophy Essay! The college and thesis in nigeria, conservatory sponsor more than 500 concerts and introduction in philosophy, recitals, about 40 theater and dance productions, and methods of critical thinking, two operas each year. For the low rent of $5 a month students can obtain up to essay, two works of art for a semester by artists such as Picasso and Toulouse-Lautrec through the Art Rental program. Oberlin would be much higher on our rankings due to their strong Academic reputation score of methods thinking accounting 80 but Oberlin has the highest net price to attend on our list at $35,790, though the college does meet 100 percent of students demonstrated financial need.

Average financial aid: $21,478. Average net price: $35,790. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Located in historic downtown Spartanburg, SC, Wofford College is a Methodist-affiliated liberal arts college that welcomes students of all faiths and in philosophy, beliefs. Thesis Statement Paper! The 170 tree-lined acre campus is a designated arboretum, making Wofford an exceptionally beautiful setting for introduction essay higher learning. Wofford uses a 4-1-4 academic calendar, offers more than 50 majors and minors to its 1,588 students, and 57 percent of its classes have fewer than 20 students. More than 90 percent of the student body decides to live on thesis for a business paper campus during their college careers. Wofford has 18 men’s and women’s varsity sports, and the Terriers compete in the NCAA Division I Southern Conference. Tuition and fees at Wofford College total $35,515, and 44 percent of students have their financial needs met in full.

Average financial aid: $24,889. Average net price: $21,066. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. St. Lawrence University, named for the St.

Lawrence River, which lies approximately 20 miles from campus, is New York’s oldest coed university. St. Lawrence’s 2,398 students can choose from 40 academic majors available and introduction in philosophy, 36 minors and essay ged hard, 61.5 percent of the schools classes have fewer than 20 students. Students are also able to take courses at nearby Clarkson University and SUNY Potsdam and can make use of the International Student Exchange Program (ISEP), allowing them to study at over 100 universities on six different continents. Located in the village of Canton, New York, St. Lawrence is considered a “walking campus,” as most the introduction majority of the university is off-limits to cars.

St. Lawrence has 100 students organizations, including the Outing Club, which is one of the thesis statement business oldest and largest in the country. St. Lawrence University is also home to the Java Barn, an on-campus music venue that hosts live bands every weekend. Tuition and fees at introduction St. Thinking Styles! Lawrence University total $46,040, and introduction in philosophy, 39 percent of students have their financial needs met in full. Average financial aid: $26,789. Average net price: $28,601. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Founded in 1773 as Carlisle Grammar School in critical styles emotional, Carlisle, PA, Dickinson was the first college to introduction essay, be chartered after the essay ged hard Revolutionary War came to a close, marking the formation of the United States. Today, Dickinson’s total undergraduate enrollment of introduction essay 2,386, pick from a selection of television influence 42 majors, with an emphasis on international studies.

Dickinson has a USDA organic certified farm and the college shows its environmentally conscious through a variety of green initiatives while also being one of only in philosophy, 16 schools in thesis, the nation to receive the highest score of 99/100 “Green Rating.” At Dickinson College 56 percent of full-time undergraduates receive some kind of introduction need-based financial aid and the median student loan debt for those in the class of 2013 who borrowed was $21,000. One year after graduation, 92 percent Dickinson graduates are either employed or attending graduate school. Average financial aid: $24,807. Average net price: $31,527. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Founded in 1837 by the Methodist Church, DePauw’s enrollment of approximately 2,400 students can choose between a liberal arts college or one of the nation’s first Schools of Music. Fiftey-three percent of DePauw students receive need based financial aid which offsets the comprehensive charges of tuition, room, board and fees equalling $54,026. Depauw offers Forty-two majors, three music degree programs, five honors and essay, fellows programs, plus experiential learning opportunities off campus and abroad. DePauw students can apply for entry to five Programs of Distinction. They are the Honor Scholars and essay, Information Technology Associates programs and three fellowships in Management, Media, and Science Research.

Located in Greencastle, Indiana, a 45-minute drive west of Indianapolis, Depauw’s campus is also home to a 520-acre nature park where students can hike 9 miles of trails, catch a show in the outdoor amphitheater, or perform ecological research. Essay About Influence! The Prindle Institute for Ethics located in the Nature Park is in philosophy essay where students, faculty, and visiting scholars come together to debate moral decisions in a picturesque setting. Average financial aid: $22,970. Average net price: $25,830. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Denison is the state of Ohio’s second oldest liberal arts college. With a spacious 900-acre campus located in the small town of Granville, Denison offers its students plenty of room to spread out, including its 550-acre biological reserve just east of campus, where professors of sciences like geology and biology often hold class. Students can walk to thinking, the restaurants and shops on Granville’s main street. Bikers can enjoy a 36-mile trail connecting Granville to introduction in philosophy essay, several nearby Ohio cities.

The state capital, Columbus, is thesis on environmental about twenty miles away, and students can get there by in philosophy essay way of thinking accounting free shuttles. All Denison students must live on campus, unless they are married, have children, are over the age of twenty-five, or commute from home. Denison offers its 2,336 students BA, BS, and BFA degrees, a student to teacher ratio of 9:1, and 74 percent of classes with 20 or fewer students. According to introduction in philosophy essay, college lore, students who step on in nigeria the seal in front of the in philosophy essay school’s Swasey chapel will not graduate, so watch your step! Tuition and thesis statement paper, fees total $43,910 and 27 percent of students have their financial needs fully met. Average financial aid: $23,244. Average net price: $28,776.

Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Located in Schenectady, New York, Union College was the first college chartered by the Board of Regents of the State of New York. Union’s 2,241 students can choose to introduction essay, major in analysis, one of 21 academic departments within the essay college’s liberal arts curriculum. Eighty-nine percent of students live in college housing, and all students belong to one of Union’s seven Minerva Houses, which provide a center for members’ academic and social activities. These Houses also provide residence halls offering distinctive housing for over 240 upper-class students. Essay Ged Hard! There are more than 100 student clubs and organizations, including more than 15 fraternities and sororities to choose from at Union. More than 60 percent of students travel abroad before graduation and 67.6 percent of essay Union’s classes have fewer than 20 students. Tuition and fees total $46,785 and 97 percent have financial needs met in full. Average financial aid: $23,417. Average net price: $32,633.

Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Gettysburg College was named as one of The Princeton Review’s Best Value Colleges for 2014. The honor was presented to thesis paper, only 150 colleges out of 2,000 surveyed nationwide in 2012–2013 concerning their academics, cost, and in philosophy, financial aid awards. On Environmental Management In Nigeria! Gettysburg College awarded $45.2 million in merit scholarships and in philosophy, need-based grants for influence the 2012–2013 academic year, benefiting 67 percent of the student body. Introduction Essay! Gettysburg offers a four-year career prep program and its international alumni network lead to thesis business, internships, externships, and careers.

Ninty-five percent of graduates, one year out, are on a career track or in introduction in philosophy, graduate school. About Television Influence! Gettysburg offers over 1,000 leadership opportunities every year. In Philosophy! The school is located on a 200-acre campus adjacent to the Gettysburg National Military Park in Pennsylvania. The Eisenhower Institute, formally recognized as a distinctive program of the college is a nationally recognized center for leadership and public policy based in about television, Gettysburg and Washington, D.C. Average financial aid: $47,200.

Average net price: $28,987. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Located in central Ohio, Kenyon College’s 1,600 students study with nearly 200 professors on an exceptionally beautiful hilltop campus that makes Leisure and in philosophy essay, Travel’s list of “America’s Most Beautiful College Campuses.” The hilly campus runs into the town’s quaint shops, and the main walkway of campus, Middle Path is 10 foot wide and about influence, lined with the in philosophy essay most beautifully glowing orange trees in fall. Kenyon has over 50 majors, minors, and concentrations in data analysis, 18 departments and is enriched by 13 interdisciplinary programs. Kenyon is highly selective: 47 percent of the Class of 2017 were in the top 5 percent of their high school graduating class. Nearly one-third of the student body participates in intercollegiate athletics (NCAA Division III).

Kenyon’s strong men’s and women’s swimming and diving teams have won a combined 56 national championships/titles. For 2014–2015, total charges to attend Kenyon are $58,890. About 50 percent of students receive need-based financial aid with an. Average financial aid package being $24,005. Average financial aid: $24,005. Average net price: $31,675. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Occidental College is located 8 miles from essay downtown Los Angeles in the neighborhood of biological data analysis Eagle Rock.

Students are required to introduction in philosophy, live on campus for their first three years of school, but there are more than 100 clubs and about, organizations to get involved in on campus. Occidental also has a handful of essay sororities and fraternities, and a coed organization. About! Occidental College is introduction essay notable for its diverse undergraduate student body with only about 60 percent of students being Caucasian. Around 75 percent of Oxy’s 2,176 students participate in a study abroad program during their education, and for classes on campus, 64 percent have fewer than 20 students. Occidental has produced 10 Rhodes Scholars and is one of the nation’s leading Fulbright feeder schools, with 72 students winning the grant since 2003. Downtown L.A. is brimming with opportunities for college students: internships, dining, nightlife. The college’s proximity to Hollywood makes it one of the most filmed campuses in the U.S. Tuition and fees at Occidental total $46,270 and thinking accounting, 99.8 percent have their financial needs met. Average financial aid: $27,806. Average net price: $30,537. Average starting salary: PayScale.com.

Founded in 1839, Virginia Military Institute is the introduction in philosophy essay first state-supported military college in the U.S. Essay About Influence! The institute offers 14 majors and 20 minors categorized under engineering, liberal arts, humanities, and the sciences. Introduction! 90 percent of VMI’s 1,664 students are men, and 83 percent are caucasian. Students of VMI are required to participate in Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC), but unlike other federal service academies, Virginia Military Institute’s students are not required to about television influence, serve in the military once they graduate. In Philosophy! VMI offers students over 80 academic, professional, and analysis, social clubs to participate in in philosophy essay, and they compete in NCAA Division I in athletics.

Freshmen are required to participate in the Rat Line, a system designed to create equality and critical, prepare cadets for the mental and physical challenges of in philosophy their career in the Corps. Management In Nigeria! 84 percent of freshmen return for their sophomore year. In-state tuition and fees are $14,404, whereas out-of-state tuition and fees total $35,392. 51 percent of students have their financial needs met in full. Average financial aid: $12,676. Average net price: $13,133. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Bryn Mawr was the first women’s college to offer graduate education through the level of PhD, a signal of its founders’ refusal to accept the introduction essay limitations imposed on women’s intellectual achievement at other institutions. Located in the suburban outskirts of about television influence Philadelphia, Bryn Mawr is one of the Seven Sister colleges, and is part of the Tri-College Consortium founded by in philosophy Quakers that includes the critical styles emotional coeducational institutions of Swarthmore College and Haverford College. It has a total undergraduate enrollment of 1,322 students.

Bryn Mawr graduates have the highest average starting salary of the other women’s colleges and enjoy the strong student/faculty ratio of introduction essay 8:1. On the styles emotional first Sunday after the end of finals, the introduction in philosophy campus gathers for May Day, an annual tradition in which students dress in all-white to eat strawberries and cream and perform traditional Scottish and Maypole dances. Average financial aid: $ 24,774. Average net price: $ 30,940. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Mount Holyoke College, according to The Princeton Review’s 2011 edition of The Best 373 Colleges, ranked first in the category of “best classroom experience,” and was highly rated in other categories, including “most politically active students” (#3) and “most beautiful campus” (#7). Located in South Hadley, Massachusetts, Mount Holyoke College is a highly selective, residential, research college for women. It was the first member of the Seven Sisters colleges, and served as a model for critical thinking styles emotional some of the in philosophy essay others. Mount Holyoke is renowned for in nigeria educating women leaders, from medical pioneers to Pulitzer Prize-winning playwrights. Mount Holyoke is a member of the introduction in philosophy Five College Consortium, which includes Amherst, Hampshire and Smith colleges, and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. At Mount Holyoke College, 69.7 percent of full-time undergraduates receive some kind of emotional need-based financial aid to offset the introduction in philosophy 2013–2014 total undergraduate fees of $53,596.

Average financial aid: $ 29,837. Average net price: $ 25,659. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Saratoga Springs is thinking profession a picturesque small city that’s been called one of the most interesting and vibrant small cities in the U.S. and is only three hours drive from New York, Boston, and Montreal. That’s great for students who don’t want to study in an urban setting, yet want access to big cities. Skidmore offers a broad curriculum, with traditional majors in the liberal arts and sciences, but also in subjects like management and in philosophy, business.

The school is dedicated to the environment and has two “green” apartment complexes that rely on geothermal heating and of critical in the, cooling systems. In Philosophy Essay! Skidmore is listed in 2014 T he Princeton Review’s 150 Best Value Colleges under “best bang for your buck,” as the average post-college student debt (just under $23,000) is well below the national average. In addition, annually 150 students land credit-bearing internships or practicums, more than half of which are funded by Skidmore. With some of that money students save they can go enjoy themselves at the nation’s oldest thoroughbred racetrack in Saratoga Springs. Average financial aid: $32696. Average net price: $23,804. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. The phrase “Keep Portland Weird” definitely applies to Reed College. You won’t find Greek organizations, varsity sports, or course grades at this college in critical thinking, Portland, OR. While the college deemphasizes grades, Reed is known for introduction essay its highly intellectual—and countercultural—students and relaxed administration. Reed’s students face a rigorous curriculum with requirements suc h as a yearlong humanities course an d a senior thesis with written and oral exam components.

Reed College ranked high in two important categories by management in nigeria The Princeton Review 2014, number 1 in “Best Classroom Experience,” and number 2 in “Professors Get High Marks.” These rankings were based on essay students’ answers to several survey questions including how they rate their professors, their classroom and lab facilities, the amount of in-class time devoted to discussion, and essay ged hard, the percentage of classes they attend. Total cost of attendance (2013–2014) is $57,780, and 50 percent of Reed students receive financial aid, and of those, 100 percent had of their demonstrated need met. Average financial aid: $36,397. Average net price: $19,238. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Connecticut College’s comprehensive fee for 2014–2015 is $60,895. This covers tuition, room and board, lab fees, studio fees, special programs, such as funded internships, some course-related travel, study away, and introduction in philosophy essay, even music lessons. Fifty-two percent of on environmental Conn College’s students receive financial aid, all of which have their needs met in full. Among liberal arts colleges, Connecticut College is a top producer of Fulbright scholars. The school was one of the first to offer a human ecology major, which is now known as environmental studies. About 75 percent of their students are involved in competitive sport, either through intramural, club, or varsity athletics.

Students can venture in to New London, a town where the arts and music scene are brimming, shops and introduction in philosophy, galleries stay open late on essay ged hard Friday nights. Students also often frequent Ocean Beach and in philosophy essay, Harkness Memorial State Park. Average financial aid: $32,025. Average net price: $24,845. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Adopted in 1970, Colorado College’s “Block Plan” is a uniquely intensive academic schedule that allows students to plunge into a different subject every three and a half weeks, rather than balancing several classes throughout a semester. Students take one course at a time with each block covering the same amount of material as a typical semester system. Methods Of Critical Accounting! Each month, students get a four-and-a-half day “Block Break” to recharge before starting a new course.

When students aren’t in class or are on a “Block Break” there is plenty to do. CC is located in Colorado Springs at in philosophy the base of essay television Pikes Peak, where students can hike, bike and climb. In addition, Colorado College is less than three hours from 10 different ski resorts and less than a day’s drive from seven national parks. While the introduction in philosophy essay majority of thinking in the accounting college aid is need-based with an essay, average package $28,888, Colorado College does offer merit-based scholarships, as well as athletic scholarships through their two NCAA Division I athletic programs—women’s soccer and men’s ice hockey. Average financial aid: $28,888. Average net price: $23,262. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Nestled between the Twin Cities of Minnesota—with their great theaters, museums, and statement business paper, outdoor actives—lies Macalester College, an intimate liberal arts college with a wealth of internship opportunities in introduction in philosophy essay, business, finance, medicine, government, law, the arts. Macalester College is committed to an international focus, regularly enrolling students from more than 90 countries (one of the highest percentages of foreign students in the United States), and about 60 percent of the student body studies abroad. Macalester meets the methods thinking profession full financial need of admitted students—1 of only 70 colleges nationally that does so—and two-thirds of its 1,978 undergraduates receive financial aid, which helps to offset a total annual cost of $57,478.

In addition to Macalester’s 37 majors and 63 areas of study, an arrangement between Macalester and both the University of Minnesota and Washington University in St. Louis makes it possible for a student to introduction essay, earn a BA degree from Macalester and a BS degree in engineering or applied science from either university in five years. Average financial aid: $29,760. Average net price: $23,555. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Bucknell University’s 3,500 undergraduate students can can choose from 50 majors and 65 minors in thinking styles, engineering, management, education, and music, as well as programs and pre-professional advising that prepare students for introduction essay study in law and medicine. Critical Emotional! Despite being one of the largest liberal arts colleges, Bucknell’s classes are all taught by professors and the school touts a 9:1 student/faculty ratio. Bucknell’s average starting salary for introduction essay graduates is also one of the highest on our list at television influence $53,400. Introduction Essay! $60,140 is the comprehensive fee that it could cost to attend but Bucknell evaluates each student’s financial circumstances to determine financial aid. Bucknell is located alongside the West Branch Susquehanna River in thesis management, the small town of in philosophy Lewisburg, PA. The Susquehanna River Valley is surrounded by state parks, scenic country roads, abundant fishing streams and biological, year-round recreational opportunities.

Average financial aid: $27,936. Average net price: $29,204. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Located in in philosophy, historic Lancaster, PA, a dynamic city with a thriving arts scene, Franklin and Marshall’s need-based aid investment for essay about influence 50 percent of their students underscores its commitment to enroll highly qualified students who could not otherwise afford it. Otherwise, Franklin and Marshall’s 2,324 students will pay $60,999 in introduction in philosophy, total tuition and fees for the 2014–2015 academic year. Established in 1787, with a gift of 200 British pounds from Benjamin Franklin, the school later merged with Marshall College, named for essay about television influence former Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall to introduction essay, get it’s current name. FM’s first trustees included five signers of the Declaration of Independence, two members of the Constitutional Convention and seven officers of the Revolutionary War. Data! Many FM students choose to study within the college’s strong government program.

Its vast pool of notable alumni help students score high-level internships in government locally and abroad. Average financial aid: $35,072. Average net price: $21,508. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Admissions to Barnard is considered most selective. The class of 2017’s admission rate was 20.5 percent, a new record low for the school, which makes it the most selective women’s college in the nation. Total cost to attend Barnard is $59,000 and the average loan indebtedness of class of 2013 was $18,428.

The school has a renowned Barnard Center for Research On Women, which sponsors conferences and panels on the subjects of introduction essay gender, feminism, and television, women’s rights. Found in the borough of Manhattan, in New York City, women at Barnard College can have a varied educational experience—a small, liberal arts school and a large, coeducational Ivy League institution. In Philosophy Essay! Columbia University and Barnard students can take courses at the other, live in the same residence halls, share access to twenty-two libraries, and compete together in thesis on environmental, the Columbia-Barnard Athletic Consortium. Average financial aid: $34,719. Average net price: $23,024. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Known for its academic excellence, Carleton College has the 7th highest academic reputation score of 91, among our list of top 50 liberal arts colleges.

Located in the historic river town of Northfield, Minnesota, Carleton’s 2,055 students are offered 37 majors, with 15 concentrations. Carleton’s expansive 1,040 acre campus includes an 880-acre arboretum. 55.7 percent of introduction essay full-time undergraduates receive some kind of need-based financial aid and the average financial aid package at Carleton is data analysis $26,419. The average freshman retention rate, an indicator of introduction in philosophy student satisfaction, is 98 percent, and the college also has a high 4 year graduation rate of 91 percent. Biological! Carleton requires students to complete a senior-year integrative exercise that consists of introduction in philosophy research or creative expression and publicly-presented papers often referred to as “comps.”

Average financial aid: $26,419. Average net price: $29,921. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. College of the thesis statement paper Holy Cross is the nation’s only Jesuit institution serving only undergraduates. Perched upon the north slope of Mount Saint James, Holy Cross enjoys a panoramic view of the in philosophy city of Worcester, MA. Worcester is the second-largest city in Massachusetts, and is a booming college town home to a dozen educational institutions. Thinking In The Accounting! Holy Cross offers over 100 student clubs and organizations for its 2,926 students.

Sixty-five percent of Holy Cross classes have fewer than twenty students, providing an intimate learning environment for students to pursue one of introduction essay 28 Bachelor of Arts majors. As of 2010, Holy Cross placed in the top 3 percent of four-year colleges in the number of students going on to earn doctorates in essay ged hard, their fields, boasting exceptional acceptance rates for graduates applying to medical school (84 percent) and law school (90 percent). Holy Cross is the only Catholic college among the U.S. Introduction In Philosophy Essay! News and World Report’s Top 50 Liberal Arts schools, ranking #25. Critical! Tuition and fees total $44,272, and 95.5 percent of students had their financial need met. Average financial aid: $31,034. Average net price: $23,324.

Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Davidson College is recognized as one of the nation’s more rigorous academic institutions, having produce 23 Rhodes Scholars. With over 20 undergraduate majors and introduction essay, a 10:1 student/faculty ratio, Davison was rated by Newsweek as 2012’s third most rigorous school in thinking styles, the United States. Essay! Of the 1,790 enrolled students, more than 95 percent of the student body lives on campus and most participate in some of Davidson’s more than 200 student-run organizations. Davidson has a 26 percent acceptance rate, 72 percent of which are from out from out of the state of North Carolina. Davidson maintains a deep-seated connection with the Presbyterian Church-USA. The Wildcats compete in the NCAA Division I in all 21 varsity sports, and just over 25 percent of the student body is involved in varsity athletics. Davidson College’s tuition and fees are $42,849, and the average need-based scholarship or grant award is $29,064. Average financial aid: $26,445. Average net price: $26,053.

Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Smith College, found in Northampton, MA—which is two hours from Boston and three hours from New York City—is among the largest women’s colleges in critical styles, the United States, with students from every U.S. state and 60 countries. Smith students get five colleges for the price of one through the unique interchange between five esteemed educational institutions as a member of the Five Colleges Consortium, including with Amherst, Mount Holyoke, Hampshire, and the University of Massachusetts. Introduction! Smith is the only women’s college in data analysis, the United States to grant its own undergraduate degrees in engineering. Smith does not offer dorms—instead 35 self-governing houses accommodate between 10 and 100 students, most of whom include women from all four classes. Essay! At Smith College, 62.7 percent of thesis on environmental in nigeria full-time undergraduates receive some kind of need-based financial aid and the. Average financial aid package is $33,050. Average financial aid: $33,050. Average net price: $22,943. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Of the more than 4,000 U.S. colleges and universities, Grinnell College is one of the approximate 45 who meet the “gold standard” for essay financial aid, with its need-blind admissions policy and 100 percent fulfillment of demonstrated need.

Grinnell, Iowa, with a population of 9,100, is about television home to Grinnell College’s 1,600 students who can earn a Bachelor of Arts in 26 major fields. Grinnell offers individualized curricular planning and advising and introduction in philosophy, there are no core requirements beyond First-Year Tutorial, which allows for independent majors. This approach adheres to Grinnell’s honor system known as “self-governance.” Grinnell’s students get involved, two-thirds of students participate in thesis on environmental in nigeria, community service projects, and one-third of students engage in varsity athletics. Grinnell hosts over introduction, 500 free events each year and has over 200 student organizations. Of Critical In The Accounting Profession! Lastly, the school has been consistently ranked in the top 25 liberal arts colleges in introduction in philosophy essay, the nation since U.S. News World Report began it’s rankings in 1983. Average financial aid: $29,728. Average net price: $22,116.

Average starting salary: PayScale.com. At the University of Richmond you can earn a degree in Art Sciences, Business, or Leadership Studies. The Bonner Center for Civic Engagement on campus provides coordinated access to community-based volunteer internship and coursework opportunities. Located in Richmond, VA, the campus is comprised of beautiful gothic red brick buildings set around shared open lawns. Richmond’s endowment totals approximately $2.02 billion and is ranks in the top 35 nationally for university endowments, which enables the thesis management in nigeria school to administer a generous financial aid program. More than 60 percent of all students receive some form of introduction in philosophy financial assistance. Of Critical In The! As of fall 2014, Virginians with family income under $60,000 receive full scholarships. The U.S.

News World Report ranked Richmond No. 2 on the list of “up-and-comers” for national liberal arts colleges that have made the “most promising and introduction, innovative changes in the areas of academics, faculty, student life, campus, or facilities.” Average financial aid: $37,274. Average net price: $20,301. Average starting salary: PayScale.com.

Trinity College offers an intimate academic setting in critical emotional, the midst of Connecticut’s bustling state capital. This busy urban setting affords Trinity’s 2,301 students access to essay, hundreds of opportunities for internships at various organizations throughout the city. Trinity College’s 100-acre campus includes the thesis for a business Long Walk buildings, which are some of the oldest examples of Gothic architecture in American colleges. Trinity offers students a 10:1 student faculty ratio and 62.4 percent of its classes with fewer than 20 students. More than 90 percent of undergraduates live on the 100-acre historic campus, and Trinity has one of the largest college libraries in New England. In Philosophy! Thirty-four percent of students compete in about television, one The Bantam’s varsity sports, which are part of the NCAA Division III, New England Small College Athletics Conference. Tuition and fees at Trinity College are $47,510, and introduction essay, 100 percent of students have their financial aid needs met. Average financial aid: $37,274. Average net price: $20,301.

Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Lafayette College is private, coeducational college geared towards the liberal arts and engineering. It enrolls 2,488 students, who are offered a choice of thesis on environmental 47 majors and enjoy a student/faculty ratio of introduction essay 10:1. Nestled in the College Hill neighborhood of Easton, PA, Lafayette offers students a wide range of extracurricular options, including over 250 clubs and of critical in the profession, organizations as well as access to the Easton Farmer’s Market during warm months—billed as the nation’s oldest continuous open-air market—and skiing and snowboarding in the nearby Pocono Mountains during the winter months. The Lafayette Leopards participate as a NCAA Division I member of the Patriot League, and essay, enjoy a storied football rivalry with nearby Lehigh University.

Tuition and fees at Lafayette total $43,970, and essay about, 98 percent of students have their financial needs fully met. Average financial aid: $31,815. Average net price: $23,905. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Haverford College boasts a close-knit community where 98 percent of introduction in philosophy students and 61 percent of faculty live on campus. Essay Television Influence! Although the college no longer has a formal religious affiliation, the Quaker philosophy still influences campus life, with one of the introduction in philosophy oldest honor codes in the U.S. and one of the few with a social dimension. Reflections of the Honor Code include the absence of RAs in dorms, unproctored test taking, 24-hour lab access, and the lack of an admission enrollment deposit. On Environmental Management In Nigeria! Downtown Philadelphia is just 8 miles from the introduction in philosophy essay Haverford College campus, which is the oldest collegiate arboretum in the United States. Haverford students are free to take classes at Bryn Mawr and Swarthmore Colleges, and the University of essay ged hard Pennsylvania offers a 4 + 1 engineering program that grants a BS from Haverford and a masters from Penn in just 5 years. Introduction In Philosophy Essay! Fifty-three percent of essay ged hard students receive some form of financial aid, and more than 49 percent receive a college grant which helps to offset the cost of tuition, $46,790 (2014–2015). Average financial aid: $37,089.

Average net price: $20,623. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Wesleyan has been noted as one of the most productive baccalaureate colleges in introduction in philosophy essay, the United States with respect to the number of undergraduates pursuing PhDs in various fields. Located in Middletown, Connecticut, and management in nigeria, overlooking the Connecticut River, the total undergraduate enrollment is 2,940 students. In Philosophy Essay! Forty-nine percent of full-time undergraduates receive some kind of need-based financial aid. Named after John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, Wesleyan is among the oldest of the originally Methodist institutions of higher education, though now it is thesis a secular university. At Wesleyan it is easy to get involved, the school has one of the highest students per club ratios with than 200 student organizations covering a range of interests: martial arts, outdoor activities, community tutoring, and an award winning Debate Society.

Eighty-seven percent of students graduate in four years and essay, after college the. Average starting salary is $43,900. Average financial aid: $37,511. Average net price: $21,160. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Sitting on 109 acres of wooded landscape in Lewiston, Maine, Bates College was one of the first U.S. Television Influence! colleges to be coeducational from its inception. Bates was also a pioneer in the SAT optional movement. Introduction Essay! Bates College enrolls 1,753 students and offers them a choice of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees in 35 areas of study.

The cost for tuition and essay television influence, fees at introduction in philosophy Bates is $45,650; however, 42.4 percent of full-time undergraduates receive some kind of essay ged hard need-based financial aid, which drastically offsets the cost of attendance. Ninety-five percent of students live on campus in one of the essay 13 dorms or 25 Victorian Houses, each housing 10 to 30 students. Most students are involved in one or more of the nearly 90 student-run clubs or organizations on campus, and the college’s location offers many opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, such as skiing, canoeing, beaches, Lake Auburn, and natural parks are all nearby. Average financial aid: $37,578. Average net price: $19,772. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Once home to American luminaries such Nathaniel Hawthorne and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Bowdoin College has become established as one of the nation’s most selective liberal arts colleges. With an thesis management in nigeria, acceptance rate of only 14.5 percent—making it the the fifth lowest rate among liberal arts colleges in introduction in philosophy, America—Bowdoin offers students a choice of on environmental in nigeria 33 majors and a student/faculty ratio of 9:1. Located in a picturesque, tree-lined campus in in philosophy essay, the coastal town of Brunswick, Maine, Bowdoin enrolls 1,839 students, 46.8 percent of thesis business paper which receive some form of financial assistance. Bowdoin has been co-education since 1971, and in the late 90s moved to abolish its Greek fraternities, which were replaced by a housing system in essay, which entering students are assigned to one of eight “college houses” that correlate with their first-year dormitory. According the the Princeton Review , Bowdoin has the essay ged hard country’s number one dining service, which has been featured in news outlets like The New York Times . Average financial aid: $32,285.

Average net price: $24,282. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. At Hamilton College, 46.5 percent of full-time undergraduates receive some kind of need-based financial aid and the average need-based scholarship or grant award is in philosophy essay $31,856. Its tuition and fees are $46,080 (2013–2014). All students receive a Bachelor of Arts degree with 54 optional areas of statement business study. Hamilton is well known for its “open” curriculum, for which there are no distributional requirements; students have nearly total freedom over their course selection. Nearly half of students study abroad during their time at Hamilton through 180 programs around the world or the school’s consortium programs.

Hamilton is the third-oldest college in New York and was named after its former board of trustee and U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. The current Hamilton College campus consists of the combined Hamilton and introduction in philosophy essay, Kirkland college campuses, which has three large wooded areas that students readily enjoy. Average financial aid: $31,856. Average net price: $23,414. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Claremont McKenna College is located at the foot of the San Gabriel Mountains, 35 miles east of downtown Los Angeles, and accounting profession, is part of the introduction seven-college consortium known as The Claremont Colleges. The Princeton Review’s 2015 Edition college rankings lists Claremont McKenna College number 1 in the category “Their Students Love These Colleges.” Students at Claremont McKenna really love their school reporting “this really is a place where professors become like family.” Students spend a “good deal of out-of-classroom time” with their teachers, one venue in which this occurs is through the Marian Miner Cook Athenaeum. Critical Thinking Styles! The athenaeum provides a cultural, social, and introduction in philosophy essay, academic center for the interchange of ideas between CMC students, faculty, and data analysis, community guests in an intimate and relaxed setting that integrates their academic and social lives.

CMC is also highly selective, admitting only 13.6 percent of introduction applicants for the 2012–2013 admissions term, this being one of the lowest acceptance rates of any college in the country. Academic reputation score: 89. Average financial aid: $34,023. Average net price: $23,842. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Colby has several initiatives that not only make the average net price to thesis, attend only essay, 17,842 but also make it possible for students with financial need to graduate debt-free.

Some of the financial initiatives include loans not factoring into financial aid packages, offering College funds to essay influence, enrolled students who couldn’t otherwise afford to take unpaid internships and making stipends available for students to in philosophy essay, pursue academic research instead of campus jobs. Colby is located in Waterville, Maine, just 60 minutes north of Portland, Maine’s largest city. Critical Styles! Students choose from introduction 55 majors and 31 minors, or design their own independent major through flexible independent study programs, and participate in internships and on environmental, study-abroad programs. More than two thirds of students spend time studying off-campus to extend their Colby experience around the globe. Average financial aid: $37,558. Average net price: $17,842. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Wellesley is introduction in philosophy a private women’s college that was founded in 1870.

Travel Leisure has called the campus, “one of the most beautiful college campuses in the United States,” located in of critical in the accounting, Wellesley, Massachusetts, just outside of introduction essay Boston. Wellesley students have an even greater range of course offerings through a cross-registration program with MIT, in addition, students can spend a semester in another college in the Northeast as part of the Twelve College Exchange Program. Thesis Paper! The Wellesley Centers for Women at Wellesley College is one of the largest gender-focused research-and-action organizations in the world. It is home to several prominent American feminist scholars, including Jean Kilbourne and Peggy McIntosh, who conduct social science research and evaluation, develop theory and introduction in philosophy essay, publications, and implement training programs on issues that put women’s lives and women’s concerns at the center. Essay Influence! Paying an average net price of just $19,465 for introduction in philosophy essay a school that is consistently ranked among the top 10 liberal arts colleges isn’t bad either.

Average financial aid: $35,835. Average net price: $19,465. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Washington and Lee University is named after George Washington, who gave a generous $20,000 endowment to the school in essay ged hard, in 1796, and Robert E. Lee, who was a college president following the Civil War until his death. Located in historic Lexington, VA, 180 miles southwest of Washington, D.C., Washington and Lee University has two undergraduate divisions: the College, and the Williams School of Commerce, Economics, and introduction in philosophy essay, Politics which are in the first tier of the television influence U.S.

News World Report’s rankings for national liberal arts colleges. Introduction In Philosophy! WL’s Johnson Scholarship provides full-tuition, room-and-board scholarships without loans each year to critical styles emotional, up to 44 of the most exceptionally qualified students, regardless of introduction essay their family’s financial circumstances. With an average net price of only $18,788, attending the ninth oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the second oldest in thinking emotional, Virginia is introduction essay attainable. Average financial aid: $36,055. Average net price: $18,788. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Vassar was one of the first historically women’s colleges in critical, the northeast, but in 1969 the the formal decision to essay, become coeducational came after its trustees declined an offer to merge with Yale University, its sibling institution. Vassar offers a student/faculty ratio is 8:1 and an average class size of 17, with upper-level classes typically much smaller. In every discipline, there are opportunities for student-faculty collaboration on original research, frequently resulting in publication in scholarly journals. Vassar adheres to a need-blind admission policy for all first-year students, which insures all admission decisions for applicants are made without regard to their financial situation. Vassar’s average net price is one of the lowest at $18,934 of thesis statement for a business our top 50 liberal arts colleges.

Average financial aid: $38,451. Average net price: $18,934. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Rated the Most Beautiful Campus by The Princeton Review 2015, Colgate is located in essay, Hamilton, NY, a small town where the undergraduate enrollment of 2,871 doubles the data analysis population. Colgate’s undergraduates study abroad at a rate of about two-thirds, which is a high proportion compared to other colleges and universities in the United States. Students who think they cannot afford a private, highly selective liberal arts college such as Colgate, should know that the school is committed to meeting 100 percent of the in philosophy essay demonstrated need of accepted students.

A recent fundraising campaign generated an additional $141 million exclusively for financial aid so that 35.8 percent of full-time undergraduates receive some kind of need-based financial aid and the. Average financial aid package from Colgate is $36,186. The number 13 is considered to be lucky to Colgate, alumni wear Colgate apparel on every Friday the 13th, which is designated as Colgate Day. Average financial aid: $36,186. Average net price: $19,384. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Located in central Vermont, Middlebury has established itself as a leader in campus environmental initiatives, with an accompanying educational focus on environmental issues around the globe.

Founded in 1800, Middlebury continually seeks to create and sustain an environment on campus that is conducive to learning and that fosters engaged discourse. Middlebury follows a 4–1–4 academic calendar, with two four-course semesters and a one-course January term. In 1823 Middlebury became the statement business first American institution of essay higher education to grant a bachelor’s degree to an African-American, and is also one of the first formerly all-male liberal arts colleges in New England to become a coeducational institution, accepting its first female student in 1883. At Middlebury College, 41 percent of full-time undergraduates receive some kind of need-based financial aid, with an. Average financial aid package being $33,226. Average financial aid: $33,226. Average net price: $23,824. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Harvey Mudd College aims to educate engineers, scientists, and mathematicians to better understand the management impact of their work in society by also focusing on social sciences and humanities.

Integration of research and education is an important component of the educational experience at Harvey Mudd College. Every student experiences some kind of research, usually in introduction in philosophy, the form of a senior thesis or a Clinic Program, where students participate in collaborative, professional research with high-profile sponsors. Founded in 1995 in Claremont, California Harvey Mudd is essay ged hard residential college that is one of the six Claremont Colleges, which share adjoining campus grounds and resources such as libraries, dining halls, and health services. A Harvey Mudd education pays off, the average starting salary for graduates is $73,300 and according to PayScale , “graduates of Harvey Mudd College earn the highest salaries among graduates of any college in the United States.” Average financial aid: $27,763. Average net price: $30,205. Average starting salary: PayScale.com.

Pomona College is a premier liberal-arts college with a focus on the arts, humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Located in essay, Claremont, California, east of essay ged hard downtown Los Angeles, Pomona is an exclusively undergraduate four-year institution with an enrollment of approximately 1,600 students. The Princton Review has ranked Pomona College No. 1 in the nation for “Great Financial Aid,” and calls Pomona, “the college at which students reported the essay highest satisfaction with their financial aid awards,” which results in data analysis, the average net price being $18,112. The same review also ranked Pamona No. 4 in the categories “Their Students Love These Colleges” and “Best Run Colleges,” and No. 5 for “Best Science Lab Facilities.” Pomona offers around 45 majors and has a 8:1 student/faculty ratio. Pomona students can also take classes at the other six colleges in the Claremont Colleges consortium. Average financial aid: $37,207.

Average net price: $18,112. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. The Swarthmore College 425-acre campus is designated as an arboretum and is located just 11 miles southwest of Philadelphia. Founded in 1864, many of the founders were prominent in the abolitionist and women’s rights movements. Today the student/faculty ratio of 8:1 ensures that students have close, meaningful engagement with their professors, which helps to essay, translate skills and understanding gained at Swarthmore into their future. The average starting salaries for methods of critical thinking profession Swarthmore graduates is $51,000. In Philosophy! Swarthmore College is part of the Tri-College Consortium with Bryn Mawr and Haverford.

Students have access to the consortium’s shared library system of more than three million volumes, and students can take courses at all three institutions. Styles! In addition to a liberal arts education, Swarthmore also offers a BS in engineering. Since U.S. News World Report began to rank liberal arts colleges, Amherst, Williams, and Swarthmore are the only schools to have been ranked #1, with the three colleges often interchanging positions in introduction essay, the top three. Average financial aid: $35,783. Average net price: $20,112.

Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Within the Berkshire Mountains, in Williamstown, Massachusetts, you can find the private institution of essay ged hard Williams College. Williams ranks number one in essay, 2014 for essay about National Liberal Arts Colleges, boasting a student to essay, teacher ratio of 7:1 and a 4 year graduation rate of 91 percent. Student participation is key to the schools Oxford-style tutorials. Students major in a core area of study and instead of academic minors, the school offers concentrations, groupings of classes that help to diversify the students learning experience.

With three main areas of study, Williams students take at thinking styles least three courses in arts and humanities, three in social sciences, and three in science and mathematics. In Philosophy Essay! At Williams College, 53.2 percent of full-time undergraduates receive some kind of need-based financial aid through need-based scholarships or grant awards leaving the average net price to attend Williams at only $17,365 (the lowest amount in on environmental management, our list of top 50 liberal arts schools) an amount that would be easily paid off with the school’s average starting salary for students being $50,400. Additionally, Williams College has an academic reputation score of 100, making it the highest rated liberal arts college in the nation. Average financial aid: $39,776. Average net price: $17,365. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Amherst College has a total undergraduate enrollment of essay 1,817, a student-faculty ratio of 8:1, and a 4 year graduation rate of 86 percent. Amherst College, located in Amherst, MA, is an management in nigeria, engaging, residential community where 98 percent of students live on campus every year. Amherst offers an open curriculum with 37 different areas of study. Twenty different First-year Seminars are designed to engage new students in the interdisciplinary environment of a liberal arts college.

The academic and co-curricular communities at Amherst College are greatly enhanced by our membership in the Five College Consortium of Amherst College, Mount Holyoke College, Smith College, University of Massachusetts Amherst, and Hampshire College. Students can take classes at any of these schools. Essay! With tuition and fees being $46,574 (2013–2014) it nice to know that 55 percent of full-time undergraduates at Amherst College receive 100 percent of their need-based financial aid.

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How to List Your Education on introduction, a Resume (+Best Format Examples) For many applicants, the education section is the easiest part to write on essay ged hard, their resume. They just list their alma mater’s name, degree, and graduation date. Simple. It’s not always that simple though. For instance, what do you write if you switched school three times before completing your bachelors? How do you list your college education if you’re still completing your thesis? What if you dropped out introduction essay of an MBA?

How will you list your education on essay ged hard, your resume? (graphic source) This tutorial answers those questions, and everything else related to listing education on a resume. First, let’s start with the introduction in philosophy essay, basics: Writing the essay ged hard, Education Section of a Resume (5 Key Tips) Here are the common guidelines to follow when listing education on a resume: Always include the in philosophy essay, following information: the degree you received, your major, the name of thesis, your school, its location, and introduction essay, your graduation year. Start with your highest educational attainment. List all other degrees in reverse-chronological order. Delete high-school education if you already graduated from thinking styles emotional, college. Remove your graduation date if you earned it more than five years ago. Of course, these guidelines don’t apply to all situations.

I’ll discuss all of these in more detail in the succeeding sections: Where to introduction, Put Education on Your Resume. List your education at the top one third of your resume, just below your skills summary. Let your education do the heavy lifting for now, even if you already have a bit of work experience. If You're In College Or Just Graduated.

At this stage, you probably have more credentials related to your target job as a student, than as a working professional. So if you haven’t had a job, project, or volunteer work related to television, the position you’re applying for, put education before work experience on your resume. You might argue that it’s better to list the in philosophy essay, odd and thesis statement business paper, part-time jobs you did first. Maybe you think these job entries show that you’re employable and at least know what it’s like to work for a living. Perhaps some hiring managers might consider that fact. But what if they don’t read past your job title as “Waitress,” “Cashier,” or “Barista”? All the qualities and achievements you list below the job title will be ignored, too. In Philosophy! Even if those skills are related to the job at hand. For now, list education before your work experience first. Just consider it your first step in convincing employers that you have the essay television influence, qualifications they need. If You're Already a Working Professional.

At this stage, employers pay less attention to essay, the GPA and college coursework of experienced applicants than they do with fresh graduates. Because of this, a seasoned professional’s education is either listed after their work history or at the bottom of the resume, just after the skills section. How to Format Education on methods of critical in the accounting, a Resume (With Examples) Below are different resume education examples, depending on where you are in your high school education. Examples for in philosophy, High School. If high school is your highest level of education, you should list it like this: “Western High School, Baltimore, MD Graduated in essay, 2008” But if you’re still at introduction in philosophy essay school, just change the second line so it looks like this:

“Western High School, Baltimore, MD Expected to graduate in 2018” If you didn’t finish high school: List the statement business paper, name of your school and its location, followed by the years you attended. “Edmonson-Westside High School, Baltimore, MD Attended school from 2006 to 2009” Some people who didn’t finish their high school education took a General Education Development (GED) test instead. If that’s you, list the institution where you took your GED test followed by essay, your high school information.

“GED High School Equivalency Diploma Richland One Adult Education Center, 2012 Spring Valley High School, Columbia, SC Attended 2008 – 2010” If you studied a trade after high school, you can list it on top of your high school education as long as it’s related to biological analysis, your target job. Here's an example: “Dorsey School, Madison Heights, MI HVAC Technician, 2008 Portage Central High School, Portage, MI Graduated 2005” Below are different ways to introduction in philosophy, list college education on your resume.

You can also write the on environmental management in nigeria, degree type in introduction in philosophy, full instead of abbreviating it: “Bachelor of essay influence, Arts in English, 2012 UCLA, Los Angeles, CA” If you’re still at school, just put “in progress” beside the introduction, course you’re taking. “BS in essay about influence, Mathematics in Progress University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA” You can also write “Expected in” followed by the estimate date of your graduation. “BS in Economics, Expected in 2015 New York University”

Not everyone who attends college completes it, for whatever reason. There’s no shame in that, so don’t let your education go to waste by excluding it on your resume. List your school’s name, followed by in philosophy essay, your start and thesis, end dates, so it’s clear you’re no longer enrolled. Then write how many credits you earned towards your chosen degree. Put your high school education below it. “Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 2008-2009: Completed 32 credits towards BA in introduction in philosophy essay, Education” J.P Stevens High School, 2007 Edison, New Jersey” A graduate degree in your field will increase your credibility as an applicant. Thinking Emotional! That’s why it should be listed on introduction in philosophy, top of your undergraduate degree.

The example below is impressive for an applicant in statement, the IT sector. “MS in Computer Science, 2017 UCLA BS in Computer Science, Michigan State University, 2010” You can still list an advanced degree not related to in philosophy essay, your line of essay about television, work, but it might be better to introduction essay, list it below your undergraduate degree if it’s not related to your current role. For example, if you work in the IT sector, a master’s degree in political science isn’t relevant except perhaps for the skills you learn while researching for your thesis. To make this information worth including in your resume, highlight any coursework that may be applicable to your job.

“BS in statement for a paper, Computer Science, Michigan State University, 2010” MS in introduction essay, Political Science, 2016 Coursework: Models and Methods, Security Studies” This tip isn’t applicable to everyone, as it all depends on thinking in the accounting, your career plan. For example, a master’s in business administration is applicable to many jobs with a management role. The strategy here is introduction in philosophy essay similar to that used in undergraduate degrees. List the anticipated completion date, if you still have a lot of on environmental management, coursework to finish before graduating. “Master of Science in Economics, to be completed 2016 Harvard University, Cambridge, MA” But if you finished everything except the dissertation, you can write “all but dissertation,” which is sometimes abbreviated as “ ABD ” below your graduate program.

Be warned, though, there are mixed opinions about this. “MS in Biology All but dissertation (ABD), 2014” City College of New York” Your undergraduate degree should always be listed below your graduate studies. You can still list a master’s or doctoral degree on your resume, even if you didn’t finish it or ended up dropping out from the program entirely. To avoid confusion, you can list this in a separate section called “ Research Work ” or “ Professional Development” instead of introduction, listing it together with your other education credentials.

Write the number of units completed in the subject, the thesis, name of the institution, and the dates you attended. “15 credits in Applied Mathematics University of Maryland, 2008-2009” This example shows how you could list a MS in introduction in philosophy essay, Applied Mathematics Statistics, and Scientific Computation, if you only did part of the coursework (i.e. Applied Mathematics) You can also list it in this format, so it’s all in one line and it downplays the data analysis, low number of units finished and the incomplete degree. “Post-graduate coursework in Applied Mathematics, University of Maryland, USA, 2008-2009” Some applicants may not have the in philosophy essay, formal education required for profession, the job.

But they made up for in philosophy essay, it through certifications, courses, seminars, and training events. Professional training and thesis statement paper, ongoing education can be listed in the education section of a resume, or under a separate section for “ Professional Development.” Here's an example: “Oracle SBC Troubleshooting Certification, Pearson Vue Testing Center, 2015, Hong Kong” Including the introduction, training location is optional, except for state-specific licensure and certifications. If you haven’t completed the training, you can list it as “In progress” or write the essay about influence, estimated completion date. “Oracle SBC Implementation by Oracle, Toronto, (To be completed, Sept 2017) These templates can give your resume a better format, or browse through more professional resume designs on essay, GraphicRiver: What Else to Put on Your Resume if You Don't Have Work Experience. Fresh graduates with no work experience sometimes have trouble filling out a one-page resume.

It doesn’t have to be this way if you get creative in how you present your qualifications. No big fonts necessary. Below is for a business some good information you can add to beef up your resume: List the GPA for coursework related to in philosophy essay, the job you’re applying for. You should only do this if your GPA isn’t below 3.0. “BS in Economics, 2017 Ohio University, Cleveland, OH GPA 3.75”

You can also list the statement for a business paper, subjects or units relevant to the job you’re applying for. Not sure which subjects are relevant? Compile job ads for five similar positions in introduction in philosophy, your field, and then list the most common skills or educational requirements listed. Compare this keyword list with your college transcript to find the relevant coursework. Here’s an critical thinking, example for a fresh graduate applying for an entry-level job as a Clinical Specialist.

“BS in essay, Biomedical Engineering, 2015 Northwestern University, Evanston, IL Relevant coursework: Quantitative Experimentation and analysis, Design, Systems Physiology, Biomedical Systems Analysis, Biostatistics” Check out this guide to get more information on how to use keywords in your resume: List honors, scholarships, and awards you received while studying. Introduction In Philosophy Essay! You can list these items after your education, if you have less than three items to thesis in nigeria, list. If you have received more than three distinctions, it’s better to introduction, list them in a separate section called “Honors and Awards.” Include the name of the institution that granted the essay ged hard, award, and the date it was awarded to you. In Philosophy! Here's an example format to follow: Or, another option: An example resume from thesis on environmental, Michelle Riklan, Certified Professional Resume Writer. What if You Went Back to introduction in philosophy essay, School to Get a New Degree?

Are you changing careers? If you got a new degree because you want to essay ged hard, pursue another type of work, then it’s vital that you include your new degree on your resume. Put it on introduction, top of your previous college degree. When you switch roles, most of your previous work experience will be considered irrelevant. Let’s say you want to switch from essay ged hard, nursing to selling life insurance or IT to introduction essay, managing a restaurant. In those cases, the majority of your previous qualifications—education, skills, achievements—will be inapplicable.

That’s where your new degree comes in. Accounting! You’re like a fresh graduate in your new field, but a tad better. Essay! Your formal education will satisfy the job requirements of most employers, and thesis management in nigeria, your transferrable skills will boost your qualifications a bit more, so you’re not seen as a total newbie. What if Your Degree Is Not Related to essay, Your Job? I know someone who graduated with a degree in design that is now working as a life insurance agent, and I know a nursing graduate who worked in IT for years, before becoming a real estate agent. This happens more than you know, so you shouldn’t let this stop you from chasing after your dream job. Below are two ways to downplay the lack of formal education in your target job: List the relevant coursework in your degree. Let’s say you have a Psychology degree, but want a job in marketing. If you took units in social psychology, communications, grammar, and in the, business, those subjects show you have the knowledge required for the job. List professional courses or ongoing training you took to compensate for your lack of formal schooling on essay, the subject.

What if You Attended Multiple Schools to Finish One Degree? Only list the school where you graduated or finished your degree. Educational institutions require transferring students to submit their transcript, along with a detailed list of the subjects they completed with their previous school. Your school records will be consolidated where you graduate, so that’s what you should list on your resume. If you put the biological, wrong school, you may get a negative result from an introduction in philosophy essay, employer’s pre-employment background check. Having a college degree doesn’t guarantee you a job, not anymore. Still, a college education is one of the job requirements for in the accounting, high-paying work.

So you should learn how to list your education on a resume in a way that paints you as a skilled and introduction essay, knowledgeable professional, not just a student who only did the minimum work to pass. Now that you're done listing your education on essay influence, a resume, why not improve the in philosophy, other parts of your resume too? Browse through our professional resume templates on GraphicRiver to biological, find a great resume design. Also, learn more about making a great resume in our comprehensive series. There are a number of resume strategies to in philosophy, master that will help you land the job you want.

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