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Australian Aborigines’ culture essay. It is known that kinship system is considered to online be a fundamental principle of organizing people into different social groups, where they perform different roles. As this form of organization which is based on parentage and marriage can be found in thesis, every human society, kinship system is of great importance. Today, in modern industrial communities family structures are rather weakened because of the online dominance of the market economy and the activity of social services. Term Papers! However, any nuclear family household which can be found in any society is still the basic institution that is responsible for rearing children and organizing consumption. (Nowak Laird, 2010, p.10) In some nonindustrial contexts, kinship system normally has a greater number of functions.
In this case, kinship units usually serve as the main units of production, representation of political authority and even as religious structures for bengali the worship of spiritual beings, who are themselves considered to be the members of the kinship system. Kinship systems in foraging and horticultural based societies provide support for people in all stages of their life. My goal in thesis+search, this paper is to essay identify and describe the kinship system of Australian Aborigines’ culture. AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINAL KINSHIP SYSTEM AND ITS MEANING. According to the anthropological data, Australian aboriginal kinship is thesis statenent, one of the most complex kinship systems in the world.
Some experts consider that it is the basis of all social interaction. It is found that the kinship system of any particular tribe can control and maintain the network of bengali, interpersonal relationships in the tribe and direct its members in their interactions with other members of the tribe. Moreover, Australian Aboriginal kinship is not only the system of law which governs social interactions, such as marriage, in traditional Australian Aboriginal culture, it is also an on helping people, integral part of the culture of every Aboriginal group located on the territory of bengali essay online, Australia. Statenent! THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINAL KINSHIP. Aboriginal kinship system of Australia has the following characteristic features: As kinship is an integral part of the social organization, the tribal members are divided into several categories with special names used in each tribe. The relatives-in-law take place in the same categories as consanguine relatives. The husbands and wives are related to each other as kin. In aboriginal Australia, classificatory kinship is used. Online! For example, if a man or a woman addresses another man or woman with a particular kin term he or she will use the same kin term for his full brother or sister. The status of mother’s brother and father’s sister is thesis+search, a so-called extension of the sibling relationship because it has some special obligations and responsibilities in nearly all Australian Aboriginal societies. Such people often have an important part in the rituals of bengali online, their brother’s son or daughter, or sister’s son or daughter.
Moreover, there is australian digital thesis, always some attachment in the relationship between a man and bengali, his father’s sister. However, there are taboos between the man and the wives or husbands of these kin. The basic kinship in aboriginal Australia is the nuclear family. However, aboriginal kin system allows both men and women “to have extra-marital sexual partners during some transient-mundane or transient-ritual or even romantic basis”. In some areas of students who buy papers, Australia, for example in the Dieri, the provision of secondary wives can be found and in western Arnhem Land, the provision of secondary husbands can be found. (Monroe, 2010, para.4) SOME FACTS ABOUT AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINAL CULTURE. It is known that Australian aboriginal culture is one of the oldest living cultures in the world. Its main peculiarity is that it is closely connected with nature. According to the traditional aboriginal belief system, nature and landscape are of the same importance as the Bible in Christian world. Bengali Online! The Australian aborigines worship prominent rocks and canyons, rivers and waterfalls, sun and moon, and, of course, animals – they are all sacred. Essays! As aboriginal Australia consists of hundreds of tribal divisions and language groups with different cultural practices, it is impossible to describe all of them. However, it is easy to identify the bengali essay online main common features of their cultures.
First of all, different practices and ceremonies play an important role in the life of aborigines. Secondly, the belief systems of Australian aborigines are based on spiritual values, including Rainbow Serpent, the main ancestral being, Baiame and Bunjil, the for teaching school main creator spirits. Besides, music and art are unique in aboriginal Australia.(Monroe, 2010, para.3) The kinship system impacts the way this culture behaves. For example, numerous ceremonies are conducted by certain kin members, one of them is Bora, an initiation ceremony when aboriginal boys become men. Bengali Essay Online! One more example is participation in music festivals when the Arnhem Land people (only men) play Yolngu. Also, the Djabwurrung and thesis, Jardwadjali people of western Victoria participate in the traditional game of Marn Grook, a type of football played only by online men from different groups. In our society, kinship also plays an thesis+search, important role. Kinship can impact individual’s behavior and actions.
The Basseri of Iran. At the same time, it is not only kinship that affects the cultural development of the society. In this regard, it is possible to refer to the Basseri of Iran, the tribe that has undergone considerable changes in the course of its history, especially during the 20th century resulting in considerable social, economic and political changes within the essay online tribe. Thesis Program! The Basseri of Iran are a pastoral, nomadic tribe in Iran. However, today, the Basseri have started to change their traditional lifestyle, social and political system. Consistent changes in contemporary Iran affected substantially the Basseri tribe. In fact, today, the Basseri undergo considerable changes that have already changed their role in the political life of essay, Iran. Thesis! In addition, today, the Basseri undergo consistent social changes that affect the structure of bengali essay online, their tribe and social relations with the tribe as well as the lifestyle of the essays people Basseri. Bengali Online! First of all, it is important to place emphasis on tell-tale thesis, the fact that the traditional social system of the essay Basseri was grounded on tents. A tent is a basic social unit of Basseri. The leader of the tent deals with the digital thesis program formal officers of the tribe, villagers and other strangers.
However, today, the tribes have disintegrated into small segments without powerful tribal chiefs (Amanolahi, 2003, p.268). Therefore, the Basseri tribe has started to fell apart since the first half of the bengali online 20th century, whereas today this process has become even stronger. This trend is the who buy term result of the shift from the nomadic lifestyle to sedentarization. The Basseri is a traditional, nomadic tribe but the Basseri were forcefully sedentarized in their summer and winter territories in bengali online, 1936. One of the major consequences of people, forced sedentarizzation was that, with the tribesmen no longer mobile, it became easy for the state to supervise their activities (Amanolahi, 2003, p.270).
Along with the change of the traditional lifestyle of the bengali Basseri, the tribe has undergone consistent social changes that have been already mentioned above. The tribe could not exist anymore as the nomadic tribe and its traditional social structure has started to change because the Basseri stayed in their settlements that slowed down their communication between different segments of the tribe. Each segment has started to develop as an independent unit of the tribe and the close connections that existed within the application letter job in school tribe have weakened under the bengali impact of the sedentarization of the tribe. At the same time, the students term papers tribe has virtually stopped its nomadic lifestyle. Therefore, the Basseri had to develop absolutely new lifestyle, including new socioeconomic activities. The tribe could not maintain its pastoral, nomadic lifestyle and should focus on new socioeconomic activities, which in their turn affected consistently the social stratification of bengali essay online, segments of the tribe as leaders of tents grew richer compared to other members of the tribe. The traditional exchange of on helping, products between the Basseri and sedentary population of Iran changed too because the Basseri became similar to the rest of the sedentary population of Iran and bengali, lost its nomadic traditions.
Structural changes in social and economic life of the Basseri led to the degradation of the Basseri tribe as independent tribe within Iran. Instead, the tribe has started its close assimilation into the Iranian society because segments of the Basseri tribe, being weakened by the sedentarization could not resist to the impact of the mainstream Iranian culture. Furthermore, the process of urbanization has reduced the traditional political power of the pastoral nomads that they no longer play their traditional political role (Amanolahi, 2003, p.268). The urbanization was the effect of socioeconomic changes in Iran. As Iranian economy progress and became more and more industrialized, the agriculture started to australian thesis program lose its role as the main branch of the national economy.
In addition, such tribes as the Basseri had to change their lifestyle to survive in the competitive economic struggle. Many Basseri had to online settle in cities and towns, where they could find some job and survive, while traditional lifestyle put them on the edge of thesis+search, survival. As the Basseri tribe has become segmented and essay online, weakened by the sedentarization and urbanization, its political power has started to decrease too. The pastoral nomads have lost not only their political power in relation to tell-tale thesis the central government, but their social organization and their way of life have changed radically (Amanolahi, 2003, p.269). Bengali Online! As a result, today, the Basseri comprise an integral part of Iranian society with low impact on the political life of the country. They cannot lead the application letter traditional nomadic lifestyle any more. Therefore, they have lost their political power as a solid and influential tribe. The Basseri tribe is just falling apart that naturally weakens its political and bengali, economic power, while, in a long-run perspective, the tribe is likely to face the problem of the full assimilation into thesis+search, the mainstream Iranian culture to the extent that the Basseri can lose their cultural and national identity. In conclusion, it is necessary to say that today anthropologists are greatly interested in the comparative study of kinship systems in order to discover some universal patterns and the variable forms that they take in specific societies. In this respect, the experience of the study of the Basseri is particularly noteworthy for bengali online the Basseri have undergone considerable changes in the course of the 20th century.
The forced sedentarization and urbanization changed the traditional lifestyle of the Basseri. They are not as nomad as they used to be in the past. Moreover, the tribe segmentation weakens its political role and economic power in Iran.
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A* IGCSE Art Coursework: Trinkets, Treasures and bengali Memories. February 8, 2017 by thesis statenent, Amiria Gale. This A* IGCSE Art Coursework project was completed by Nikau Hindin, while studying at ACG Parnell College, Auckland, New Zealand. Awarded 98%, this Painting and bengali Related Media project (CIE 0400) explores the theme of ‘Trinkets, Treasures and Memories’. This class-wide theme was split into a number of assignments, which students were able to interpret and essays on helping people respond to bengali essay online individually. Australian Digital Thesis Program. The following sketchbook pages (14 x A3 sheets) show Nikau’s entire Coursework project, along with her final painting (in 2007 a sketchbook of bengali essay online, preparatory work was required for IGCSE Art and Design, rather than the maximum 4 x A2 sheets / 8 sides that is required today).
This outstanding International GCSE Art sketchbook page includes a beautiful combination of application letter for teaching job in school, single studies (a pen and essay acrylic drawing of a woven flax / harakeke flower; a shell drawn using chunky oil sticks; a traditional wooden carved Maori comb painted using watercolours) with more complex compositions of personally relevant trinkets and treasures. The two images on the left again show objects inside boxes a great compositional strategy to encourage the depiction of space and depth. The bottom image is a black and white photograph taken by Nikau, which has been partially cut away, with the missing pieces redrawn. It is worth noting that Nikau has been particularly sensitive with her colour choices, using only muted, earthy colours that complement her theme well. This IGCSE Art example combines a range of textured papers and mediums, such as acrylic modelling compound, allowing Nikau to produce an exciting work depicting a collection of #8216;paper based#8217; memories (maps, awards, letters, postcards, tickets to students term papers events etc). Focusing on the representation of creases, shadows and surface textures, this exercise encourages students to practise drawing forms that are overlapping / folding / tucking under#8230; As with all of the International GCSE Art sketchbook pages in essay online, this Coursework project, images are drawn from tell-tale heart thesis, first-hand observation and online from photographs of thesis statenent, still life arrangements composed and taken by the students.
This sketchbook page shows a collection of personally relevant clothing items (symbolising important memories) in a range of different black and white mediums such as graphite, charcoal, ink pen, Indian ink and water colour. Artist Analysis: Nikau excels in essay online, written subjects as well as Art and heart Design and this International GCSE Art sketchbook page contains a superb analysis of the artwork of Jim Dine. Along with photocopies of Jim Dine#8217;s work (printed directly onto the sketchbook page) Nikau completes outstanding imitations of bengali essay, his technique, using Indian ink, charcoal and acrylic paint. Having gained a thorough understanding of the way Jim Dine contrasts tight, controlled drawing methods with gestural, expressive mark-making and smudgy backgrounds, these techniques are now confidently applied by australian thesis, Nikau to a selection of the bengali essay online, subject matter drawn on her previous pages: a beautiful experimental International GCSE sketchbook page. Although Nikau#8217;s IGCSE Art Coursework project is focused upon Painting and Related Media, this page integrates photography and digital manipulation with photographs of statenent, her subject matter merged with abstract grounds and her Jim Dine inspired drawings. This exercise involves a steep learning curve for students as they come to essay grips with digital art making, however, once basis principles are grasped, students are able to quickly produce dramatic compositions, arriving at exciting and original outcomes.
International GCSE Artist Study: Here Nikau analyses the artwork of New Zealand painting Jason Hicks. Alongside written analysis of his compositions, techniques and approach to essays on helping subject matter, Nikau imitates parts of his paintings and draws diagrams of complete works to gain a better understanding of his use of composition. This page in Nikau#8217;s IGCSE Art portfolio begins the development of essay, ideas towards her final piece. Thesis+search. Working over bengali essay online grounds with sketches of possible compositions (inspired by Jason Hicks and Jim Dine) Nikau integrates scanned images of application for teaching job in, her earlier drawings and paintings in concepts for a final work. With constant evaluation of her compositions, Nikau continues develop and resolve her ideas as she moves towards her final piece. As is bengali online, demonstrated in many of the IGCSE Art and Design Coursework examples featured on this website, development of ideas is students term papers, essential within a good student art portfolio. Here Nikau cleverly rearranges her subject matter so that the essay online, folds of cloth take on the appearance of a steep backdrop of hills, with memories symbolising her past etched and statenent buried in the fabric landscape. Another beautiful IGCSE Art and Design sketchbook page: showing the final stage of development, images begin to be painted with a high level of realism, with continued analysis and refinement of bengali essay online, composition. The final piece in Nikau#8217;s IGCSE Art portfolio is a large, stunning mixed media acrylic painting. With a highly original composition, a glowing subtle earthy colour scheme and highly controlled, skilful application of paint, this work is an excellent conclusion to essays her project, showing a highly personal response to the her theme.
Nikau is an exceptionally talented, driven and online motivated young artist, whose work is featured extensively on school this website. If you enjoyed seeing this project, you may wish to essay online view her A* IGCSE Art exam, 100% AS Coursework project, AS Art Exam or her A2 Coursework project! This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. She is people, a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Join over 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter.
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Essay: Listening comprehension in the EFL environment. LISTENING COMPREHENSION – THEORY OVERVIEW. This chapter contains an overview of theory related to online listening comprehension in EFL environment. Thesis! First, the importance of online, listening comprehension is discussed. Australian Digital Thesis! Second, difficulties in listening comprehension for EFL learners are illustrated. Bengali Essay! Third, listening comprehension processing is discussed. Fourth, evidences from previous related research that listening instruction could lead to improvement, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, were discussed. Fifth, nature and heart characteristics of children’s learning are reviewed.
Lastly, research questions of the present study are stated. 1. The Importance of Listening Comprehension. The increased importance of listening comprehension in language learning may be attributed largely to the development of communicative language teaching approach, which attempts to prepare learners to bengali essay transfer their classroom skills to real-life context, over the past three decades (Asher, 1977; Krashen, 1982; Omaggio Hadley, 2001; Vande Berg, 1993). There has been a shift from letter school non-teaching listening comprehension in the audio-lingual period to bengali essay teaching listening comprehension in a strategy-based approach (Mendelsohn, 1998). Before World War II, the teaching of reading was given the most attention while that of thesis statenent, listening comprehension was the most infertile and the least understood language skill (Winitz, 1981). Bengali Essay! Under the predominant audio-lingual approach in papers the 1960’s and the early 1970’s, the teaching of listening comprehension was still minor.
With the bengali essay increasing interest towards communicative language teaching approach, several researches revealed the importance of thesis+search, listening comprehension (Brown #038; Yule, 1983; Faerch #038; Kasper, 1986; Feyten, 1991; Long, 1985). Listening comprehension has ever since received a lot more attention in essay language teaching. On the one hand, technological advances and the growing awareness of the importance of listening in letter for teaching job in secondary the world have made listening even more important in the communication process (Mendelsohn, 1998). In current globalized society, with universal and massive exposure to radio, television, satellite broadcasts, and internet, individuals are expected to be increasingly prepared to receive information through listening and speaking, more than ever before (Dunkel, 1991; Vande Berg, 1993). On the other hand, some scholars (Nord, 1981; Wintiz, 1981) considered proficiency in listening comprehension as a necessary condition for acquiring production language skills, specifically speaking and writing. The comprehension-based teaching approach supports that students at bengali essay online the beginning level should be allowed to keep silent until they feel safe and ready to produce the target language. Thus, it can be reasonably concluded that students are probably engaged in listening before they are able to speak and write in application letter for teaching job in secondary school the target language, which means that second language instruction at bengali a beginning level should focus on application letter for teaching job in secondary school, developing learners’ listening comprehension ability. Still, other scholars (Dunkel, 1991; Long, 1985; Rost, 1990; Vogely, 1999) stressed that listening is important because it provides input as the raw material for essay online learners to process in language learning. Without correctly understanding the input, any learning simply cannot begin (Rost, 1994). Furthermore, the failure of listening comprehension of the target language is an impetus, not merely an application letter for teaching job in secondary school, obstacle, to language learning as well as to communication interaction (Rost, 1994). The recognition of the bengali importance of listening comprehension has resulted in thesis+search an increased number of bengali online, listening activities in students’ textbooks and even in comprehension-based methodology texts designed specifically for teaching listening (Anderson #038; Lynch, 1988; Rost, 1990; Underwood, 1989; Ur, 1984).
Several studies have found that through the use of effective pre-listening activities, instructors can increase students’ understanding of the listening passages, which in turn develops their listening proficiency and contributes to their mastery of the target language (Herron, 1994; Richards, 1983; Rubin, 1994; Teichert, 1996; Vande Berg, 1993). 2. Difficulties in thesis+search Listening Comprehension for EFL Learners. The first difficulty in listening comprehension for EFL learners is that they are less likely to share the same schema with native speakers (Ur, 1984; Harmer, 2001). As Kant (1781/ 1963) claimed, new information, new concepts, and new ideas can have meaning only when they can be related to something the individual already knows. This applies as much to bengali second language comprehension as it does to statenent comprehension in one’s native language. The empirical research in the related field has come to be known as schema theory and has demonstrated the truth of Kant’s original observation and of the opening quote from Anderson et al (1977). Schema theory research has shown the importance of background knowledge in language comprehension (Bartlett, 1932; Rumelhart, 1980; Rumelhart #038; Ortony, 1977). According to online schema theory, a text provides directions for listeners or readers as to thesis program how they should retrieve or construct meaning from their own previously acquired knowledge.
This previously acquired knowledge is called the essay online listeners’ or readers’ background knowledge, and the previously acquired knowledge structures are called schemata (Bartlett, 1932; Adams #038; Collins, 1979; Rumelhart, 1980). Thesis Statenent! The prior knowledge, or schema, that a L2 listener brings to the listening task plays a vital part in interpreting the online material, and should be considered in the evaluation of learners’ listening comprehension (Long, 1990; Raphan, 1996). Based on students term papers, schema theory, the process of interpretation and comprehension is guided by the principle that every input is mapped against some existing schema and that all aspects of that schema must be compatible with the input information (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). Essay! Efficient language comprehension requires the ability to tell-tale heart relate the textual input to bengali essay online one’s own background knowledge, which means that understanding words, sentences, and entire texts relies not merely on thesis+search, one’s linguistic knowledge but also the knowledge of the world (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). According to Richards (1983), much of our knowledge of the world is organized around scripts, which is our memory about bengali particular situations, the goals, participants, and procedures commonly associated with them, and the information needed to understand is therefore not explicitly present in the utterance but is provided by the listeners from their repertoire of scripts.
This means that the connections between events need not be specified when we talk about students term papers them, since they are already known and bengali online can be inferred. Australian Thesis! Without the essay online right kind of pre-existing knowledge, or relevant script, comprehension may become very difficult (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983). Non-native speakers may have a different shared knowledge of thesis, cultural reference and discourse patterning in their own language and culture; their individual scripts may differ in certain degree and content from target language scripts, and essay that poses additional problems for some foreign language learners who have to work twice as hard to understand what they hear. (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983; Underwood, 1989). The second difficulty is that EFL learners are usually much less familiar with different accents and that they sometimes have considerable problems when they encounter a new accent in thesis the listening process (Kennedy, 1978). Accent is essay potentially an important variable in who buy listening comprehension (Buck, 2001).
Many foreign-language learners who are used to essay online the accent of their own teacher are surprised when they find they have difficulty understanding someone else (Ur, 1984). An unfamiliar accent can cause problems in communication and may disrupt the whole comprehension process (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). Native speakers are generally used to listening to a variety of thesis, accents while EFL learners are less exposed to different accents (Buck, 2001). Besides, learners who have more experience in listening to bengali essay and understand a number of different accents are more likely to be able to cope successfully with listening tasks than those who have only heard one or two (Ur, 1984). Therefore, it seems reasonable to thesis conclude that it generally takes a L2 learner much longer to bengali online adjust to the voice if the accent is very different from thesis statenent any with which he is familiar than a native speaker (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991).
The third difficulty is that EFL learners are less capable of perceiving prosodic features in English speech which have a direct impact on how listeners process and interpret discourse segments (Buck, 2001; Lynch, 1998; Rubin, 1994). Bengali Essay Online! The rhythmic pattern of spoken English is one of its distinctive features (Richards, 1983). Unlike many languages in the world that are syllable-timed, which means that the length of time required to who buy papers pronounce an utterance depends upon the number of syllables it contains, English is a stressed-timed language (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). What this means is that the essay online time between stressed syllables is reasonably constant in on helping any utterance, and bengali online the remaining syllables in tell-tale heart the utterance, no matter how many there are, must accommodate to the rhythm established by the stressed syllables (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995). Bengali! As a stressed-timed language, the following English sentences would take about the same amount of time to articulate, even though the thesis+search number of syllables contained in each sentence is very different (Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995):
The CAT is INTerested in essay online proTECTing its KITTens. LARGE CARS WASTE GAS. The result of the stress-timed language is that the words between the stressed syllables are pronounced very quickly, with no stress or mild stress, and if there are more words they are pronounced even quicker to fit in the short time, subjecting to considerable phonological modification (Buck, 2001). Also, Vanderplank (1988) argues that perception of stress is an important factor in rapid and application secondary school efficient listening comprehension. This adds another dimension to the listener’s task, since listeners must learn the essay online complex set of rules that determine the pronunciation of connected speech and be able to identify words according to the rhythmic structure within which they occur (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). Statenent! Any lack of essay online, such phonological knowledge can pose comprehension difficulty (Buck, 2001). In the research of Henricksen (1984), most native speakers had little difficulty understanding words in their modified form in an utterance whereas the presence of phonological modification significantly reduces comprehension for second-language listeners. In addition, Vanderplank (1985) found interesting differences in native speakers’ and students who buy non-native speakers’ ability to perceive stress by addressing that ‘native speakers were in general agreement as to essay sentence stress location, while only a small number of non-native speakers agree with native speaker judgments as to stress location, and the ability to perceive stress location was not significantly linked to level of English ability in learners’ (p.
38). Still, Bond and Garnes (1980) agree that speech perception is also subject to what they call ‘heuristic strategies’ such as paying attention to stress, intonation patterns, and stressed vowels. Therefore, listeners need to thesis statenent know how the sound system works in English speech, in order to be able to essay process natural listening task in real time (Buck, 2001). The fourth difficulty is that hesitation and pausing could cause perceptual problems and thus comprehension errors for thesis non-native speakers (Voss, 1979). In his study, 22 non-native speakers of English were asked to listen to a passage of spontaneous speech, about 210 words long. Results indicated that nearly one-third of all perception errors were related to hesitation phenomena. These errors were due to listeners’ either misinterpreting hesitations as words, or parts of words, or to misinterpreting parts of words as hesitations (Voss, 1979). In contrast, some researches indicated that hesitation and pausing help listening comprehension (Blau, 1990; Blau, 1991; Dunkel, 1988; Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). However, Voss is the only one among these researchers who used real and spontaneous speech.
All of the other studies used a written text read aloud. Voss (1979) suggests that native speakers are usually not bothered by hesitation phenomena since they possess strategies to recognize and bengali online process such phenomena while focusing on meaning, and non-native speakers get stuck in bottom-up processing of statenent, phonetic utterances that do not affect meaning, while native speakers discard these utterances in favour of top-down processing. There are indications that in some cases hesitation and pausing can help listening comprehension, and in others they may cause problems (Buck, 2001). In the researches of essay, Friedman #038; Johnson (1971) and Johnson #038; Friedman (1971), pauses inserted at meaningful syntactic boundaries can benefit comprehension, whereas random pauses do not. When one-second pauses were introduced into a text at the juncture between clauses, comprehension improved, while pauses inserted randomly into the text resulted in lower levels of students term papers, comprehension (Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). Consequently, the ability to understand spoken English must include the bengali essay ability to deal with hesitation and pausing (Buck, 2001). Hesitation and pausing also affects our impression of the pace of program, speech (Richards, 1983). The impression of faster or slower speech generally results from the essay amount of thesis statenent, pausing that speakers use (Richards, 1983). Essay Online! Stanley (1978) suggests that when speech was faster, language learners ‘constantly failed to perceive individual phonemes and application letter job in secondary school hence words with which they were already familiar’ (1978: 289). Comprehension declines as the speakers talk faster, and the weight of the evidence suggests that the decline in comprehension is rather slow until a threshold level is reached, at which time an increased speech rate leads to a much more rapid decline in comprehension (Buck, 2001).
Griffiths (1990) found potential evidence that speech faster than two-hundred words per minute (w.p.m.) is difficult for lower-intermediate learners to understand. He found that this level of students perform best at 127 w.p.m. Moreover, Griffiths (1992) investigated the effects of three different speech rates (127, 188, and 250 w.p.m.) on listening comprehension of second-language learners and concluded that comprehension was significantly better at the slowest speech rate and worse at the higher rates. On the other hand, Blau (1990; 1991) found that speech ranging from 145 to 185 w.p.m. did not significantly affect listening comprehension of intermediate- and advanced-level L2 learners. As for the general concept of online, speech rate, Rivers (1981) cites the following figures: Fast: above 220 w.p.m. Moderately fast: 190-220 w.p.m. Average: 160-220 w.p.m. Moderately slow: 130-160 w.p.m. Slow: below 130 wpm.
Besides, Sticht (1971) quotes a normal speech rate of 165 to 180 words per on helping, minute for essay online native speakers of English. Based on the researches abovementioned, speech rate is one of the variables that affect listening comprehension, which may relate to text variables, such as vocabulary, syntax or topic, type of text used, and amount of background knowledge required (Buck, 2001; Rubin, 1994). The fifth difficulty is that learners tend to think they have to completely understand what they hear, consequently causing anxiety (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). People! Most foreign-language learners run into a psychological problem: they have a kind of obligation to understand everything, even things that are not important, and they feel discouraged and may even completely give up listening if they encounter an incomprehensible word (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Foreign language beginning learners have to understand all when they hear only single words or short sentences. However, when listening comprehension passages get longer, they still assume that total comprehension is bengali essay successful comprehension, and find it very difficult to get used to the idea that they can be competent listeners with less than one hundred percent comprehension (Ur, 1984). From the anecdotal evidence in thesis the research of bengali essay online, O’Malley et al. (1989), it is letter job in secondary found that ”effective listeners seemed to bengali online be aware when they stopped attending and made an effort to redirect their attention to the task’ (p.
428) and ‘ineffective listeners reported that when they encountered an essays on helping people, unknown word or phrase in a listening text, they usually just stopped listening or failed to be aware of their inattention’ (p. 428). Foreign-language learners have this difficulty probably because their receptive system is overloaded (Ur, 1984). They have to work much harder at decoding than native listeners and try to interpret every detail as it comes up instead of relaxing and taking a broader view. Compared with reading and bengali online writing, listening is thesis+search more stressful for learners since it involves serious time constraints on essay online, processing, which cause learners’ anxiety (Ur, 1984). 3. Listening Comprehension Processing. Most models of listening perception in language learning include what is usually referred to as top-down, bottom-up and interactive processing. 3.1.
Top-down processing. In top-down processing, the listeners need to use their pre-existing knowledge to interpret or get a general view of the listening passage and to create appropriate and plausible expectation of what they are about to come across (Harmer, 2001; Goodman 1967; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991; Smith 1971). On Helping! Top-down processing occurs as the bengali perceptual system makes general predictions based on general schemata, or prior knowledge, and then searches the input, either visual or auditory, for statenent information to fit into, or verify these predictions, and thus top-down processing is conceptually-driven or knowledge-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991). In the study of Shohamy and Inbar (1991), it was reasonably hypothesized that listeners who employed a knowledge-based approach first made predictions about the passage they were about to essay listen to, basing their predictions on students term, the questions they previewed prior to listening. Online! In the first listening listeners might have checked their hypotheses and only afterwards, in australian digital thesis program a second listening, may have filled in the information gaps by supplying the local cues. Bacon (1989) and bengali essay Vande Berg (1993) found that appropriate pre-listening activities could benefit learners’ comprehension for various listening exercises. Advance organizers, such as brainstorming (Vande Berg, 1993), illustrations and key words (Teichert, 1996), picture prediction (Harmer, 2001) and making inferences after listening to a series of sentences (Brown, 2001), can be used to facilitate learners’ top-down processing and help them be engaged in listening tasks. 3.2.
Bottom-up processing. In bottom-up processing, the listener focuses on individual words and phrases by decoding the linguistic input rapidly and accurately to refute implausible interpretation, and achieves understanding by combining these detailed elements together to who buy build up a whole view of the bengali online listening passage (Harmer, 2001; Carrell 1983, 1988; Carrell #038; Eisterhold 1983; Rost 1990). Thus, bottom-up processing is data-driven or text-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Rubin, 1994). There are two types of comprehension strategies identified by Van Dijk and Kintsch (1983): one is local strategies which require learners’ attention to relations and links between the facts denoted by local clauses and sentences, and the other is global/ macro-strategies which require a focus on the overall coherence, gist or topic of essays on helping people, a text. Based on the statements above mentioned, it can be concluded that the bengali online local strategies are related to bottom-up processing while the global/ macro-strategies are related to top-down processing. Kelly (1991) proposed that in the early stages of foreign language learning, learners rely very much on bottom-up processing when listening and only when they consider that they are making progress to the proficiency and thesis+search skills in the foreign language, they bring into semantic and other knowledge related to top-down processing. Some bottom-up pre-listening activities were proposed by several researchers to bengali online make listening comprehension easier. Providing listeners with key vocabulary before listening proved valuable in Raphan’s (1996) and Rost’s (2002) studies. Harmer (2001) mentioned a bottom-up processing activity of application letter for teaching job in secondary school, finding differences between a written text and a recorded account of the same events that can be implemented in teaching listening. Another bottom-up activity for beginning listeners is to listen to a series of sentences and then circle one (out of three) verb form contained in the sentences (Brown, 2001).
3.3. Interactive processing. Listening comprehension is considered by some researchers as an interactive process between top-down and bengali essay online bottom-up processing and essays as a continuous modification of essay online, a developing interpretation in response to statenent incoming information and pre-existing knowledge (Brownell, 1996; Buck, 1991; Harmer, 2001). Perception occurs when sufficient information has been provided both from the expectations set up by top-down processing and from linguistic input by bottom-up processing (Kelly, 1991). According to Kelly (1991), if the sound signal is bengali weak, obscured or incomplete, the listener will probably make greater use of top-down processing; similarly, it is when the listener’s expectations are low or not sensible that he will need to rely more on the sensory level and to hear clearly what is being said by bottom-up processing, and heart thesis such view of perception processing would probably fit in with almost all current models of auditory speech perception. Essay Online! Similarly, some studies have indicated that effective listening comprehension takes place when the essays on helping listener can successfully monitor their interpretation by bengali online constantly checking it against tell-tale, the incoming linguistic cues and to bengali essay modify their hypotheses accordingly (Tyler #038; Warren, 1987; Buck, 1990).
In his research, Buck (1990) indicated that a number of listeners monitored the incoming information with what they had already heard before or with their background knowledge to develop their interpretation of the listening text. Further, there were instances in tell-tale heart thesis his study that serious comprehension problems had occurred when listeners failed to notice their developing interpretations were incompatible with the essay incoming information. In addition, O’Malley, Chamot, and Kupper (1989) indicated that bottom-up processing is only fragmentary for efficient EFL listeners; they activate more L1 knowledge in the form of schemata and use both top-down and bottom-up strategies to construct meaning. Students Who Buy! Hildyard and Olson (1982) found that efficient listeners and essay readers use the thesis+search knowledge-based interactive mode of bengali essay online, text processing, while low level students relate mostly to local details. According to thesis Rumelhart (1980), both top-down and bottom-up processing should be occurring at all levels simultaneously: bottom-up processing ensures that the bengali listeners will be sensitive to information that is new or contradictory to their ongoing hypotheses about the thesis text; top-down processing helps the essay online listeners to resolve ambiguities or to select between alternative possible interpretations of the incoming data. 3.4. Effectiveness of who buy papers, top-down and bottom-up processing. There is continuous discussion about the role of top-down and bottom-up processing in listening comprehension, but little could we conclude whether top-down or bottom-up processing is more important to a listener. Bengali Essay! Some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension depends more on top-down processing. In the researches of Carrell #038; Eisterhold (1983), Conrad (1981, 1985), Hildyard #038; Olson (1982), Kelly (1991), Meyer #038; McConkie (1973), Rumelhart (1983), Shohamy #038; Inbar (1991), Van Dijk #038; Kintsh (1983), it is found that skilled listeners, like proficient readers, use a knowledge-based mode of tell-tale heart thesis, text processing, namely top-down processing, whereas less-skilled listeners and readers both attend mostly to local details as in the bottom-up processing. Bengali Essay Online! Similarly, Voss (1984) found that ‘successful speech perception depends on an active reconstruction process applying top-down strategies to the acoustic input, i.e., assigning ultimate values to segments and other lower-order units on the basis of hypotheses about a larger stretch’ (p.
148). In Weissenreider’s (1987) study, schemata which are crucial in thesis top-down processing were found to be beneficial in listening comprehension. Her results show that both textual schemata (knowledge about the bengali newscast processing) and content schemata (topic familiarity with specific news) help the listening comprehension of non-native speakers, particularly when participants are capable of essays on helping people, incorporating cognitive strategies. Bengali! Lund (1991) provides evidence for top-down processing in his study by comparing listening and reading of on helping, first-, second-, and third-semester university students of German. He concluded that participants relied considerably on top-down processing in listening tasks. Essay! Wolff (1987) worked with twelve- to eighteen-year-old German students of English and found that while students appeared to make a simultaneous use of thesis+search, bottom-up and top-down processing with an easy listening text, they used more top-down processing strategies for more difficult texts. In addition, some researches indicated that beginners rely very heavily on background knowledge and hardly use other cues in bengali essay listening comprehension while learners with better linguistic proficiency use their greater linguistic knowledge and essays on helping people experience to help them understand a text (Mueller, 1980; Vandergrift, 1997). Thus, providing background information and previewing are particularly important and effective for the less proficient language student to comprehend a text (Hudson, 1982).
Nevertheless, some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension relies more on bengali, bottom-up processing than on top-down strategies. Who Buy Papers! Schemata in top-down processing can also have dysfunctional effects on listening comprehension (Long, 1990; O’Malley et al., 1989). In Long’s (1990) study, participants completed a survey of bengali online, their background knowledge of two topics used, namely, gold rush and rock groups, and he found that participants overextended their gold rush schemata onto a set of essays on helping, data that were clearly incompatible. Bengali Essay! It is clear, then, that schemata can hurt, as well as help listening comprehension and it can also be inferred that linguistic knowledge plays a prominent role in comprehension when appropriate schemata are not available to the listener (Long, 1990). 4. Evidences from Previous Research Related to Listening Comprehension.
Results from students who buy term previous research that instruction can lead to listening improvement, as measured by online pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent. On the one hand, there was no significant improvement in the studies of Johnson and Long (2007), O’Malley et al. (1985), and application letter for teaching secondary school McGruddy (1995). Johnson and Long (2007) assessed listening competency of college students through the essay online Watson-Barker Listening Test (Watson #038; Barker, 2000). There were no significant differences between the scores of pre- and post-test after listening instruction, indicating that listening instruction did not influence performance-based listening ability. O’Malley et al. (1985) found differences, but not statistically significant, in the scores at heart thesis the post-test of EFL learners who received different types of listening instruction. Bengali! In the essays people research of McGruddy (1995), significant differences in pre-test and post-test were observed merely in a non-standardized listening test rather than in a standardized test. On the other hand, some studies revealed more success in terms of listening instruction. In the study of Nichols, Brown and bengali online Keller (2006), the trained group of 31 freshman students made significant gains in scores during the period of listening instruction.
In Kohler’s (2002) study, 70 learners of Spanish at people a university received listening instruction. Their listening comprehension significantly increased, compared with the non-intervention group. However, there does not appear to have been a pre-test of bengali online, learners’ listening comprehension, without which it is difficult to conclude Kohler’s claim of significant improvement in tell-tale listening comprehension of the experimental group. In addition, in the study of Graham and Macaro (2008), 151 senior high school students of French as a foreign language in England were targeted, and a positive impact of listening strategy instruction was noticed. Students who underwent listening instruction significantly outperformed those who did not receive such instruction, and students reported that they themselves recognized this improvement. 5. Characteristics of Children’s Learning. Based on the theory of Piaget and Inhelder (1969), there are four phases of children’s cognitive development, which are sensory-motor period, preoperational period, concrete operation period and formal operation period. Bengali! The period of concrete operation generally represents the elementary school students, ranging from 7 to 12 years old. Children in the concrete operation period begin to think logically. Operations are associated with personal experience and are in concrete situation, but not in abstract manipulation. Children’s learning in this period relies heavily on operational activities, such as objects, pictures and physical experiments.
Another theory concerning children’s learning is the scaffolding theory (Wood, Bruner, #038; Ross, 1976) which was developed based on tell-tale heart, the concept of bengali online, zone of proximal development proposed by Vygotsky (1978). Zone of proximal development refers to the differences between the level of thesis, actual development and the level of essay, potential development; the application letter for teaching job in level of actual development means children’s actual independent problem-solving competence while the level of potential development means children’s problem-solving competence developed either through the online leading or guidance from essays on helping people adults or instructors or through the collaboration or cooperation with more competent peers (Wertsch, 1984). Bengali! The zone, or the difference, of proximal development does not mean a fixed distance or concrete space of letter for teaching, learning; rather, it refers to the possible, learnable scope created by bengali essay the interaction between people and its changes with the development of thesis, individuals (Cole, 1985; Moll, 1990). Scaffolding, when applied in bengali teaching practices, generally refers to the development of application secondary school, learners’ gradual comprehension of knowledge through the interaction between the instructor and the learners. In such interaction, teachers, as assistants in children’s learning process, provide necessary assistance to essay foster learners’ cognition with the thesis statenent consideration of learners’ development level. Bengali Essay Online! The interaction which is the scaffolding in the teaching process generally follows the pattern of question asking from the teacher, replying from students, specific guidance of asking further questions from the thesis+search teacher, and essay then replying from students. According to Harmer (2001), young children learn differently from adolescents, and adults in many ways. Children tend to people respond to meaning even if they do not understand individual words. They learn from bengali everything around them rather than only focusing on the precise topic they are being taught.
Their understanding comes not just from explanation, but also from what they see and hear and, crucially, from what they have a chance to touch and interact with. In addition, children have a limited attention span, unless activities are extremely engaging or interesting they can easily get bored, losing interest after around ten minutes. In the light of these characteristics, teachers at this level need to students who buy term papers provide a rich diet of learning experiences which encourages students to get information from a variety of sources (Harmer, 2001). Essay Online! In addition, in the process of scaffolding in teaching, it is essential for teachers to be skilful in asking questions to activate students’ thinking and application for teaching secondary school creativity, which are helpful in essay deepening and broadening the language development of the students. Teachers are suggested to avoid closed-ended, unimportant or forcing questions, but to provide open-ended, supportive or guiding ones to encourage the students term interaction between teachers and students. Teachers need to work with their students either individually or in bengali groups to develop good relationships, and students term papers need to plan a range of activities for a given time period, and to bengali essay be flexible enough to move on to the next exercise when they see their students getting bored. 6. Research Questions of the Present Study. Listening comprehension is important for EFL learners. Beginning instruction in a second language should focus on developing learners’ listening comprehension. In Romania, formal EFL beginning instruction falls in elementary education, a phase in which listening comprehension should be paid attention to.
It is likely that listening instruction in elementary school puts more emphasis on bottom-up listening processing than on top-down processing. As Kelly (1991) noted, EFL beginning learners rely very much on bottom-up listening processing, it is possible for elementary students to resort more to essays on helping people bottom-up processing when listening. Although some studies have investigated either the effects of different advance organizers on bengali essay, listening comprehension of undergraduate and junior-high school students (Sherman, 1997; Vande Berg, 1993; Herron, Hanley, #038; Cole, 1995) or how to teach high school students listening skills more effectively, little research has been done regarding the teaching of students who buy term papers, listening in elementary school, which is the beginning level of bengali essay, EFL learners. From the above discussion in the theory review, little research has targeted elementary EFL learners in terms of listening instruction. The effect of listening instruction, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent in previous research which mostly involved undergraduate and high school students. Although it is apparent that listening involves both top-down and bottom-up processing, most elementary English learners tend to focus on bottom-up rather than top-down processing (Kelly, 1991). Therefore, it would be valuable to investigate the effect of listening instruction as well as the listening processing of elementary EFL learners. The present study focused on three research questions: (1) Do interactive processing teaching activities result in better listening performance than bottom-up teaching activities? (2) Why or why not? (3) When do elementary EFL learners rely on australian, top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing? To address the research questions, comparison of essay online, performance between two groups was conducted after the essays two groups of participants had respectively received a series of listening instruction, namely interactive pre-listening activities and essay online bottom-up pre-listening activities so that the effectiveness of different pre-listening activities could be evaluated to investigate whether interactive processing activities lead to better performance than bottom-up processing activities. Furthermore, a questionnaire was administered for the interactive group after the post-test to papers investigate when elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing. Search our thousands of essays:
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