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book report 47 ronin CHÛSHINGURA IN THE 1980S. Henry D. Smith II. Prepared for the Modern Japan Seminar, Columbia University, April 13, 1990. Please do not cite or reproduce without permission. Copyright 1990 Henry D. Smith II. All rights reserved. My curiosity about Chûshingura was first piqued in December 1981, by a remark of Tsurumi Shunsuke at a conference in London to the effect that if you study Chûshingura long enough, you will understand everything about the Japanese. My respect for Tsurumi as a pioneer scholar of modern Japanese popular culture helped convince me that perhaps I should some day learn more about good extended essay research, what I had always felt to master, be a distasteful chapter in Japanese cultural history. Good Essay Questions! For myself, whose acquaintance with Japan began only in 1962 (the year of the st. valentine's day massacre thesis statement, last full-scale feature film production of good extended research Chûshingura and thesis statement, the end of an era in the mass popularity of the legend), Chûshingura was a thing of the past, indelibly linked with feudal values and prewar militarism. Of course, I loved the original joruri version of Kanadehon Chûshingura as I knew it through Donald Keene's translation, which I had used in research questions undergraduate courses, but that seemed something apart from the larger and vaguer Chûshingura that I associated with prewar Japan. The chance to tum informatik essay, rethink the story of the extended essay questions, 47 Ronin came last year, when I had the prospect of teaching a graduate seminar at Columbia that I knew would include students in both history and literature, both modern and premodern: Chûshingura seemed a good way to end body paragraph essay, bring these various interests into common focus.

This report stems from that seminar, and I am indebted in countless ways to the six graduate students who helped me work through some of the issues treated in this paper--as well as many other issues that I will not have space to mention. (1) As part of my preparations for the seminar, I stopped by extended essay Kinokuniya bookstore in Shinjuku during a trip to Japan last summer, looking for recent writings about Chûshingura. I discovered not just one book or two, as I had expected, but a dozen and more volumes on Chûshingura, all of them recent. Most were non-fiction (it was, after all, the history section), but some were novels. And of course Kinokuniya did not have everything: in the 1980s alone, I would now estimate, about forty new books on Chûshingura appeared, both fiction and non-fiction (see Appendix for a list of tum informatik master essay thirty). What was going on? Why this number and variety of essay questions books on what I considered to be safely history? Some of the books of day massacre thesis course purported to be real history, revealing the truth of the original Akô Incident, but a number were historical fiction, while still others analyzed the meaning of Chûshingura in Japanese culture as a whole. Somehow I had not expected much vitality from Chûshingura in the 1980s. As it turns out, the legend seems to remain as durable and versatile as ever, and it remains quite simply the most widely known and frequently re-presented story in Japan. Extended Essay! It seems a good time to try to place the law in pakistan, entire phenomenon of Chûshingura in broader historical perspective. A good place to start is with the question posed by the title of the essay questions, single most provocative book of the 1980's, Maruya Saiichi's What is Chûshingura? (Chûshingura to wa nanika, 1984).

I have more simple-minded intentions than Maruya (to whose ideas I shall return at the end of this report) in posing this preliminary question. It is simply a problem of definition: to what do we refer today when we use the term Chûshingura? Stop and ask yourself the same question, or better yet, ask it of any Japanese who (like most) has never considered the matter. The inevitable hesitation will bring home the dimensions of the problem: what in fact do we mean by Chûshingura? The actual word, of course, comes from the joruri Kanadehon Chûshingura of 1748, and blasphemy law in pakistan, purists continue to use it in this restricted way. (2) In actual usage, however, the good extended research questions, term has been constantly expanding over the years. In the late Edo period, it came to be used in the titles of essay on gay variant kabuki versions of the story, and increasingly so in Meiji.

In late Meiji, as we shall see, there occurred a radical conflation of the previous genealogy of the Akô Incident, by which not only the different lineages of stage and story-telling, but also the historical incident itself , were all gathered within Chûshingura as an umbrella term. Ultimately, the only sensible definition of good extended essay questions Chûshingura is as an all-encompassing term for the entire body of cultural production that ultimately stems from the Akô Incident of university modern languages essay writing 1701-03. All parts of this body have in common an intention either to tell the story, or to extended essay, attempt to explain its telling--which becomes simply one more form of re-telling. In this sense, I am merely adding to the vast thing that is Chûshingura in producing this paper. Dealing with Chûshingura is somewhat like dealing with the Tar Baby: when you try to stand apart and assault it, you willy-nilly become part of on gay movement it. This is precisely why Chûshingura is so tantalizing, and ultimately so frustrating for the historian. Extended Essay Questions! Let me nevertheless make my own effort to stand apart, and to see Chûshingura as something that does in on gay rights movement fact have a history--a history in which the very notion of history performs a central function. In so doing, I have ended up strongly opposed to precisely what lured me to the topic in the first place, Tsurumi's proposal that Chûshingura has come to encompass all of the cultural proclivities of the Japanese people. This type of argument is essentially a type of Japanese exceptionalism, whether claiming that Chûshingura must be understood as part of the basic Japanese preference for failed heroes ( hangan biiki ), or in extended essay questions terms of the Japanese tendency to act in groups, or as a reflection of the blasphemy law in pakistan essay, hierarchal organization of Japanese society--and so on. Of course it is all this, in essay questions varying degrees, but such an approach begs the question of Chûshingura's durability, since various other legends that are in these obvious ways Japanese have come and gone.

I propose, then, that the popularity and blasphemy pakistan, durability of Chûshingura deserve historical rather than cultural explanations, and that all those who interpret it as a peculiarly Japanese phenomenon are misleading us. The power of Chûshingura can ultimately be explained, I would argue, only by the particular nature of the original historical incident of 1701-03, and by the particular historical circumstances through which its retelling has evolved in the almost two centuries since. Rather than universally Japanese, I would argue, Chûshingura is particularly historical. The problem begins with giving a name to the incident that began it all. In Edo times, no one would have called it an incident, but would have referred to the forty-six--or forty-seven--samurai or the Akô gishi (or gijin). In Meiji times, it became more common to call it the Genroku incident. Among historians today, however, consensus seems to good extended questions, favor Akô incident, avoiding the problems of whether Terasaka Kichiemon really should be counted as one of the group, or whether the Akô retainers were in fact righteous, or whether all Genroku need be subsumed by the affair. (3) A quick reminder of the essentials of the modern languages essay, incident, or rather of the series of incidents involved in the Akô affair: it began on good extended questions, the 14th day of the Third Month of Genroku 14 [April 21, 1701], when the lord of Akô, Asano Naganori, drew his sword in a corridor of Edo Castle and slashed at the senior bakufu protocol official, Kira Yoshinaka. (4) It was the last day of the visit to blasphemy law in pakistan, Edo of envoys from the imperial court in Kyoto, whose reception had been placed in the hands of Asano and another daimyo. Good Extended! Asano only wounded Kira slightly before he was restrained, and was immediately taken into custody and ordered to commit seppuku later the thesis statement, same day. Twenty-one months later, forty-seven of the former retainers of essay Asano, having signed an oath vowing to end body paragraph, complete the deed at which their lord had failed, attacked the extended essay, Edo mansion of Kira, took his head, and marched across the city to the temple of Sengakuji, where they offered the trophy before the day massacre thesis, grave of their master. Good Extended Essay Research! After fully seven weeks of debate, the bakufu ordered the seppuku of the forty-six of the ronin who had surrendered themselves at Sengakuji.

The order was carried out the same day, on university languages essay, Genroku 16/2/2 [March 20, 1703], and the ashes of the good essay, ronin were interred at Sengakuji. The power of master survival of the Akô Incident in later imagination lies less in good research the drama implicit in this outline sketch than in the complexity and ambiguity of motivation involved both in the initial palace incident and in the night attack. The historical record, for example, does not explain why Asano attacked Kira in the first place, only that he cried as he struck, This is for on youth violence that grudge I've had against you! (Kono aida no ikon oboetaru ka). This obscurity of motive, and the rather limited and extended, contradictory information that we have about the personalities of the two men involved, have made it possible to engage in a wide range of speculation, particularly among amateur historians. Tum Informatik Master Essay! To be sure, the traditional type of explanation, that Kira had offended Asano by haughty behavior of some sort, remains the most plausible. Still, there is no hard evidence for it, and the fact that the ronin in their voluminous correspondence never touched on the reason for Asano's grudge suggests that even they did not really know. The even greater ambiguity lies in good extended research questions the motivation and action of the ronin.

They justified the attack as a vendetta ( katakiuchi ) on behalf of their lord, but in no way did the case fit either the legal or the customary definition of katakiuchi . Kira, after all, was not their master's murderer: on the contrary, Asano had tried to murder Kira. Nor was there any justification for avenging the death of one's lord, only st. valentine's day massacre thesis statement that of a family member: the ronin even had to call on a Confucian scholar to extended essay research, come up with a textual basis for their action. Legalities aside, what was the end body paragraph, underlying spirit of good extended essay questions their act? Was it indeed personal loyalty to their lord, as the argumentative on youth violence, mainstream of the Chûshingura tradition would have it? Or was it a protest against the bakufu's lenient treatment of Kira for his involvement in the incident? Or was it a simple matter of personal honor to carry out their master's unfinished task? Or, as one school of interpretation would have it, were they impoverished samurai desperate for a new job and trying to prove their credentials? Whatever the good extended research questions, truth of the matter, the ambiguities and complexities of the event itself provided plenty of leeway for a variety of widely differing interpretations. This would prove essential to the modern survival of Chûshingura. The Popular Response: Kanadehon Chûshingura. The nature of the immediate public response to the attack on Kira also presents difficult interpretive problems.

Consider what our own basic texts tell us: that the public was thrilled, (5) and that there was a spontaneous outpouring of st. valentine's day massacre statement admiration for this brave and selfless act. (6) Within Edo, of course, the news must have traveled swiftly, and public interest was surely high, but was there mass public sympathy for the act? One member of the seminar attempted to look at the contemporary documentation of the incident, and found it to be a mass of contradictory and ambiguous evidence. Essay! (7) It is difficult to say whether the public was either thrilled or shocked: given the divisions that would soon emerge among samurai leaders on this issue, it seems at least reasonable to question the assumption that the public response was uniformly positive. Interesting new evidence on this score has recently been offered by Kôsaka Jirô in his best-selling book on the diary of a Nagoya samurai in the Genroku era. The diarist, Asahi Bunzaemon, was alert to of bristol modern languages essay, every bit of gossip that passed his way, and he reported such incidents as love suicides in long and extended essay questions, consuming detail. The vendetta of the blasphemy law in essay, Akô ronin, however, was reported in one utterly non-committal line, and their seppuku was not even mentioned. Kôsaka suggests that if the incident had been such a big stir in Edo, Bunzaemon would clearly have heard much more about it through his many sources and would have reported it in essay research questions greater detail. (8) The conventional evidence of public interest that has been cited in the past is a kabuki performance in Edo just twelve days after the seppuku of the ronin, which was ostensibly about the Soga brothers but clearly modelled on the Akô Incident.

The evidence for this and another account of early theatrical reenactments in Edo, however, is highly problematic and now discredited by many scholars. (9) It was rather in Kyoto and Osaka that one finds the more sustained response. Of course, the stricter censorship in Edo is day massacre statement, doubtless the key factor, but it remains a fact that the Chûshingura legend was created in Kamigata, where it was easier to fantasize about the historical event. Particular revealing is the earliest known piece of fiction based on the incident, an ukiyozôshi of 1705 entitled Keisei budôzakura , by the prolific Osaka writer Nishizawa Ippû. Essay! (10) The entire incident is transposed to the pleasure quarters, with Asano (Asamanosuke) as a chonin playboy skilled in the martial arts and essay on youth, Kira (Kichikô) as the pompous son of a nouveau riche merchant. The two conflict over a rivalry for the affections of the courtesan Kurahashi, and it is actually Kichikô who attacks Asamanosuke, reversing the historical order of aggression. Both are wounded, but Asamanosuke dies. The revenge is plotted by Densuke, a follower of Asamanosuke, in cahoots with Kurahashi and research questions, a band of essay on youth other courtesans whom Asamanosuke had favored when alive. Densuke and fourteen courtesans attack Kichikô when he lets down his guard and visits the pleasure quarters, and then all commit suicide before Asama's grave.

Nowhere to be found in all of this is any trace of interest in samurai valor or loyalty: the good research questions, real point of the story, argued Aoki Sentei, lay in the contrast of the sui style of Asama and the stingy, boorish style of tum informatik essay Kichikô. We are already at a long parodic remove from the event. The subsequent road to Kanadehon Chûshingura of 1748 has been carefully traced by scholars of Edo theater. Good Questions! (11) The pivotal year, it is end body essay, now agreed, was 1710, the year after Tsunayoshi's death, when there appeared a cluster of plays that drew on the Akô Incident in good essay research questions elaborate and only thinly disguised detail. Other plays followed over the succeeding decades. Had it not been for the masterful work of synthesis performed by the team that wrote Kanadehon Chûshingura , however, one wonders whether the Akô vendetta would have survived as any more than one of many lesser themes in the joruri and kabuki traditions. Not only did Kanadehon Chûshingura provide the day massacre statement, word Chûshingura, but its tremendous popularity assured that the theme would be imitated on good essay research, a far more extended and imaginative scale than ever before. Fujino Yoshio has compiled a list of 70 such dramatic variants of the legend from 1748 until mid-Meiji. (12) Certain interesting trends appear from this data. First, the overwhelming number of new productions until the mid-1810s were created in Kamigata: 24 in Osaka and 4 in Kyoto, versus only 6 in thesis statement Edo. In this same period, the good research questions, number of argumentative joruri (15) remained about the same as kabuki (19). After this, however, the pattern is reversed, with 30 new works in good extended essay research Edo-Tokyo in the period 1818-1892, and only 6 in Osaka; of these, only one was joruri. As a growing tradition, in other words, one sees a clear shift from Osaka, where Chûshingura originated, to Edo-Tokyo.

It seems possible that this shift from west to east was paralleled by a change of essay movement emphasis within the tradition as a whole, from the erotic to the political. The theme of loyalty with which Kanadehon Chûshingura opens and closes, one might argue, is merely a veneer to make the authorities happy, and serves to divert attention from the real concerns of the Kamigata audiences, the erotic and good extended essay, romantic themes that run throughout the essay, play. In Edo-Tokyo, by contrast, with its greater traditional emphasis on good extended research questions, formalism and on st. valentine's day massacre thesis, the macho bluster of the aragoto style, the theme of loyalty and political struggle is taken more seriously. It is revealing, for example, that in Kamigata performances, Kô no Moronao is depicted as above all lascivious, while Tokyo actors emphasize rather his haughtiness towards subordinates. Good Extended Essay Questions! (13) Given the richness and complexity of the original joruri text, it is in fact possible to essay movement, get quite different emphases from the play. Essay Research! Even in Edo, however, Chûshingura was not always taken seriously, as demonstrated by the rich parodic tradition that emerged in the later eighteenth century. The earliest of university of bristol modern languages essay these appears to be Hoseidô Kisanji's kibyôshi parody of 1779, Anadehon tsûjingura (roughly, A Treasury of extended essay research Those In the Know, A Guide to the Pitfalls of Life). (14) In the preface, Kisanji writes that the loyalty of Ôboshi and the others was grand, but the real cause of the whole affair was En'ya Hangan's utter lack of sophistication ( tsû ) in failing to law in, realize that his bribe was too small. Thus having subverted the basic moral order of Chûshingura, Kisanji proceeds to his own version, in which everyone is utterly preoccupied with worldliness and with whether others are being too stingy or not. This was followed by numerous other kibyôshi parodies, as well as such similar subversions of the legend as Shikitei Sanba's Chûshingura Henchikiron (1812), a perverse argument that diametrically opposes the extended essay, received wisdom on Chûshingura, and Tsuruya Nanboku's kabuki Tôkaidô Yotsuya kaidan (1825), a tale of one of the disloyal retainers who did not participate in languages writing the vendetta. The Popular Response: The Kôdan Retellings. The late Edo period meanwhile saw the development of a new and rather different lineage of extended essay research questions Chûshingura, in the genre of oral story-telling known as kôshaku (later kôdan ) that flourished on well into the Meiji period. Essay! Although these variants derived in many ways from the stage traditions, they differed in claiming to essay, be real stories of real people, so-called jitsuroku , and hence used the actual names of the historical participants in the Akô Incident, rather than the pseudonyms of Kanadehon Chûshingura . As analyzed by Satô Tadao, the kôdan versions tended to emphasize the impetuous, heroic male aspects of the legend, minimizing the romantic and domestic complications that were an important part of joruri and kabuki.

Thus the kôdan versions almost completely omit the story of the romance of tum informatik master Kanpei and Okaru that came to be so popular in the kabuki tradition. Satô sees in this a contrast in the social class of the audiences, with kabuki appealing to upper-class merchants firmly embedded in the feudal social order, and kôdan to lower-class artisans who live by their individual skills. (15) Another feature of the kôdan version was the good extended questions, elaboration of the heroic exploits of individual members of the band of forty-seven, thus developing the genre of gishi meimeiden , separate biographies of the loyal retainers. This feature reminds us how important it was that such a large number of individuals were involved in the historical Akô Incident--far more than had been involved in almost any of the other great vendettas in Japanese history. Some have interpreted this as a mark of group-oriented behavior, but it is st. valentine's day massacre thesis, revealing that in the kôdan tradition it allowed rather for the proliferation of individualistic heroes, each with his own story. (16) In a sense, this division replicates the basic tension in the history of samurai values, between self-centered honor and self-negating loyalty. In the Meiji period, the kôdan versions--known by such titles as The 47 Samurai of Akô (Akô shijûshichi-shi) or Biographies of the Loyal Retainers (Gishiden)--were carried over into the genre of rôkyoku ( naniwa-bushi ), which began in Osaka in the late Edo period and in which oral narration was provided with samisen accompaniment.

The great popularity of the rôkyoku version of the Akô gishi in the late Meiji period, emerging directly from the kôdan tradition, provided the good questions, matrix for the modern emergence of Chûshingura as a cornerstone of emperor-system patriotism. The Revival of History and university modern essay writing, the Meiji Synthesis. For the first half of the Meiji period, Chûshingura survived with no major change in the two great Edo-period lineages of kabuki stage productions and kôdan story-telling. To be sure, the new regime seems to have appreciated the political uses of the 47 Ronin as early as 1868, when the Meiji emperor, not long after arriving in his new capital of Tokyo, sent an emissary to Sengakuji to place offerings before the graves of the Akô ronin, together with a proclamation addressed to Ôishi and praising him for upholding the principle of the master-follower bond. Yet this did not lead to any particular official manipulation of the essay research, legend to foster imperial loyalty: Chûshingura remained in blasphemy law in the possession of the people. The modern transformation of Chûshingura into what amounted to a piece of propaganda on essay research questions, behalf of tum informatik essay martial values and selfless sacrifice to the state came, revealingly, only after the way had been paved by the first modern historical studies of the Akô incident. (17) This process began in 1889 with the appearance of extended essay questions The True Story of the Akô Gishi (Akô gishi jitsuwa), an essay account by Shigeno Yasutsugu (1827-1910), a pioneer of the good essay, modern critical method in history.

Shigeno insisted on essay on youth, the need to good extended research questions, separate out the many counterfeits among the surviving documents of the incident, in an effort to tell the true story. The form of the book (which was related orally to a newspaper reporter) was an act-by-act analysis of Kanadehon Chûshingura , indicating what was true and what not. Essay! This marks the beginning of a new element in the Chûshingura phenomenon, the perception that the historical event constituted a different kind of story to be told, with different tools and methods. Good Extended Essay Research! The way to a greater historicity may have been paved by the kôdan tradition and its stronger sense of the actual event--particularly in the use of the university writing, historical names of the participants--but the extended essay, line between history and fiction remained one that was never openly contested. The pivotal work in the modernization of Chûshingura was Fukumoto Nichinan's Genroku kaikyo roku (Record of the Valiant Vendetta of Genroku), published in late 1909. The use of the word Genroku signals Nichinan's consciousness of the historical event, and his work continued the spirit established by Shigeno of trying to recover the of bristol modern, original story. Still, Nichinan was a journalist not a historian, and still retained many elements of traditional kôdan-style embellishment.

Less than a year after the publication of Genroku kaikyo roku , however, the historiography of the extended essay, Akô Incident entered a new era with the publication of the documentary collection Akô gijin sansho (3 vols.), which had first been assembled by Nabeta Shôsan, a samurai antiquarian from Iwaki in the late Edo period. Impressed by the need to establish his story on blasphemy essay, a firmer documentary basis, Nichinan rewrote his earlier version and good extended, published it in 1914 as Record of the Truth of the Valiant Vendetta of Genroku (Genroku kaikyo shinsô roku). Although a less readable work, the university of bristol modern languages, effort to reach the truth of the event marks an entirely new attitude towards the extended essay research, Chûshingura legacy. Blasphemy Law In Essay! Nichinan's two works, especially the first, were wildly popular in good essay the patriotic climate of Japan following the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05, and pakistan, lay the foundations for the understanding of the story as one of martial valor and devotion to superiors. Although more conscious of the truth of the historical incident, Nichinan in no way compromised the essential emphasis on loyalty and valor. In this way, a more modern consciousness of the history of the Akô Incident was fused with the latent historicity of the kôdan tradition to yield a new rendering of the Chûshingura tradition, one particularly well suited to the times. The importance of historicity is revealed in comparing the fate of Chûshingura with that of the legend of the vendetta of the Soga brothers, which was a far longer and deeper tradition in many ways than Chûshingura, but which did not survive as a major theme in popular culture after the good extended research, end of Meiji. St. Valentine's Day Massacre Thesis Statement! The great liability of the Soga brothers is that they were almost impossible to recover for good extended research questions history, dating from a much earlier period and with virtually no documentary support. The late Meiji period also marks the essay on gay rights movement, beginning of the entirely new Chûshingura genre of film, which by the time it had run its course in the mid-1960s would have brought the story of the 47 Ronin to far more Japanese than ever in the past, and with a new level of extended essay questions power and thesis statement, immediacy.

The film historian Misono Kyôhei has counted a total of sixty Chûshingura films in good extended research late Meiji and Taisho (1907-26), an average of of bristol modern languages three per good extended research year. (18) . Pakistan Essay! The number would rapidly multiply in the years that followed. Extended Research Questions! In general, the film tradition followed in argumentative on youth the pattern set by the kôdan-rôkyoku tradition, of treating the Akô incident as a historical event rather than using the Taiheiki sekai of the stage tradition. The mounting nationalism of the 1930s tended to good questions, leave the st. valentine's day massacre, mainstream of Chûshingura locked into the mode that took shape in extended questions the 1910s, although some literary efforts subversive of that mainstream were already beginning to emerge among a small minority of intellectual writers, as we shall shortly see. The mainstream itself took a turn in a more intellectual direction with the epic new kabuki version of Mayama Seika, Genroku Chûshingura , begun in 1934 as a piece for Sadanji II, and continuing through nine more installments until 1941 (by which time Sadanji had died). Mayama's pretensions as a historian are evident in the long and pedantic explanations he provides in the printed text, alleging his concern for period correctness.

Yet his work is every bit as much a product of the tum informatik master, ideology of its own time, notably in his depiction of the anxiety of Ôishi over whether Asano's act might be interpreted as insulting to the emperor; this introduction of imperial loyalism into the minds of the 47 Ronin seems to be Mayama's innovation, with no historical justification. (19) The war interrupted the modern film mainstream of Chûshingura, but did not radically alter its course. Both stage and film versions of the story were prohibited under the good questions, early years of the on youth, Occupation for intimate associations with feudal values and wartime patriotism. Essay Questions! From 1949, however, the ban on essay on youth, Chûshingura was lifted, and productions of good essay research both kabuki and film proceeded apace. This is by no means to say that the ideological emphasis remained unchanged. Gregory Barrett has suggested that the university essay, major shift was to good extended essay research, play down the emphasis on day massacre, abject loyalty to one's superior, and rather to extended questions, stress Ôishi Kuranosuke's personal affection for his lord. (20) In a sense, the abstraction of loyalty that had allowed its modern transference from daimyo to emperor now reverted to a more direct and personal sort of loyalty. But the theme of loyalty itself remained central. The postwar survival of Chûshingura, however, was not simply a product of this kind of re-direction. On Gay Rights Movement! As Satô Tadao notes, Chûshingura was the only one of the Three Great Vendettas of the Edo period that did in fact survive the war: nothing more was to be seen of the Soga Brothers or Araki Bunzaemon, names that are today virtually unknown to the majority of Japanese. (21) The advantage of Chûshingura lay once again in the ambiguities and complexities offered by the historical incident itself. From even before the war, Chûshingura had already entered a second phase of modernization, one which endowed it with distinctively anti-authoritarian overtones.

The Democratization of Chûshingura. In its very essence, the Akô Incident was politically multivalent. Although carried out in the name of loyalty to their feudal lord, the vendetta of the 47 Ronin was explicitly in defiance of the bakufu, as recognized by their death sentence. Given the essentially contradictory demands of loyalty under the bakuhan system, their action could be interpreted in two wholly different ways, either as confirming loyalty in extended research the abstract or as negating loyalty not directed to the shogunate. Where the notion of public hung in the balance between bakufu and rights movement, han, things could go either way. And so in the twentieth century, when public was again defined in ambiguous ways, either as personal loyalty to the emperor or as abstract loyalty to the state, the Akô Incident was perfectly placed to satisfy both. And even after the democratizing reforms of the good extended, Occupation period, the Akô story could still be reoriented to adapt to new times, by conceiving of the actions of the ronin as directed against the autocratic actions of the essay, bakufu. This new democratic phase in the history of essay questions Chûshingura actually had its beginnings before the war, among the essay, liberal and modernist intellectuals of the Taisho and early Showa era. Good Research Questions! The earliest sign was perhaps Akutagawa Ryûnosuke's short story One Day in the Life of Ôishi Kuranosuke (Aru hi no Ôishi Kuranosuke, Chûô kôron , Oct. Law In! 1917), a sketch of the leader of the 47 Ronin as he awaited the judgment of the bakufu following the vendetta. (22) It was modern in two senses. First, Akutagawa turned to the primary sources of the historical incident, in particular the account of Horikawa Den'emon, who was in charge of guarding the group at the Hosokawa mansion in which Ôishi had been placed.

Secondly, Akutagawa was interested in the human psychology of Ôishi as an individual with both strengths and weaknesses, rather than the stereotypical hero that had appeared in good essay all earlier renditions. This interest in probing the more complex and human side of the violence, participants in the Akô affair set into motion a strand of research questions Chûshingura rendition that remains strong to blasphemy, this day. The modern turn also took a radical twist in the early Showa period with the first appearance of good questions interpretations that openly challenged the black-and-white idealism of the older Chûshingura tradition. First seems to have been a March 1928 essay by Hani Gorô seeking to reevaluate Ôishi, but I have not yet located a copy. (23) Another materialist interpretation of the motives of the 47 Ronin was put forth first in May 1931, in a Chûô kôron article by the liberal Hasegawa Nyozekan entitled The Akô Gishi in Light of Historical Materialism, in of bristol modern languages essay writing which the motives of the ronin in seeking revenge were attributed not to their loyalty but to their poverty and need for essay research questions a new job. A similar line of thought was pursued by the Marxist historian Tamura Eitarô in essay a series of books and articles on the Akô event extending from Chûshingura monogatari in 1934 on to Akô rôshi in 1964.

Doggedly pressing his argument that the good essay research questions, ronin were simply in search of a new master and never expected to sacrifice their lives, Tamura set a tone of day massacre statement iconoclasm that opened a new chapter of revisionist thinking in the history of the Akô Incident. To be sure, there had been distinguished earlier critics of the ronin's actions, such as Satô Naokata two years after the event and Fukuzawa Yukichi in the Meiji period, but these had been in largely legal grounds. Tamura was the first to impute economic motives. The most important work for the postwar revival of Chûshingura, however, was the first long modern historical novel on the theme of the Akô Incident, Osaragi Jirô's Akô rôshi of 1928 (serialized the previous year in the Mainichi newspapers). The use of good rôshi rather than gishi hints at the diversion of emphasis away from the theme of end body paragraph loyalty, and in the direction of a conception of the attack on Kira as a protest against the corrupt and venal government of the bakufu under Tsunayoshi. This element was in fact already part of prewar orthodoxy. The biography of Ôishi that appeared in the old elementary school textbooks, for example, opened on precisely this theme, stressing the looseness of good essay questions Genroku politics and the decadence of Tsunayoshi and end body essay, his animal-protection laws. (24) The rônin could thus easily be resurrected after the war as paragons not of essay questions loyalty, but of justice and honesty in politics. Osaragi's text played a key role in the 1960s transition from film to television as the basic medium for the mass propagation of Chûshingura.

The year 1962 saw the last great feature-film production, Inagaki Hiroshi's Chûshingura , bringing to a close a half-century era. The new era began in 1964, when NHK chose the Chûshingura theme for the second of its year-long saga-dramas ( taiga dorama ), of which a one-hour installment was shown every Sunday evening. Entitled Akô rôshi , it was based in paragraph Osaragi's 1927 novel. The power of television, authorized by good research questions the government network, brought the images of the 47 Ronin directly into the homes of on gay movement millions of Japanese over a sustained period of time, reviving the legend just at the point that it was faltering. The production was accompanied by a new outpouring of good essay research books about the Akô Incident. It is surely not without significance that 1964 was also the year of the paragraph, Tokyo Olympics: the triumphal return to good extended, the international scene of a democratized Japan was accompanied by a revival of the nation's greatest legend, now itself democratized. In the years following, NHK has continued to play the central role in the survival of Chûshingura in mass culture by day massacre selecting it twice more for the taiga dorama series, in good research questions 1975 and 1982. In both cases, it was occasion for the publication of new books about Chûshingura, the reissue of old ones, and blasphemy law in pakistan, renewed speculation by intellectuals about the good extended essay, perpetual appeal of the theme to the Japanese people.

That things were changing, however, was revealed in the approaches of the two series, neither of which approached the Akô Incident head-on. The 1975 drama was Genroku Taiheiki , a title that revealingly suggests a return to the indirection of Kanadehon Chûshingura , which used the university modern, world of the Taiheiki as a setting. The series offered a panorama of Genroku society and politics that included the Akô Incident, but focused as much on Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu, chamberlain under Tsunayoshi, and on the politics of shogunal succession. The 1982 NHK series was given the abstruse title Tôge no gunzô , translatable as something like group portrait at the divide, implying that the Genroku period was a kind of historical watershed. The Akô Incident here appeared less as the main theme than as the backdrop to the depiction of the lives of a group of ordinary citizens of Edo. According to the analysis of Gregory Barrett, sentimentality was used to fashion a contemporary message of patriotism through the treatment everyone receives, as reflected in the lenient treatment of Kira, of the Akô retainers who were not loyal, and even of the notorious shogun Tsunayoshi himself. Extended Research Questions! Thus, Barrett argues, NHK's Chûshingura bears a remarkable resemblance to essay on youth, the Japanese family drama in extended essay research questions which no one is to blame for arguments resulting from misunderstandings that are ironed out in the final reconciliation scene. (25) By this process of watering down and modern languages, deflection of emphasis away from the theme of either loyalty or protest, the Chûshingura legend has been further adapted to good, postwar needs. The kind of lenient treatment of end body essay old villains that Barrett detects in the 1982 NHK series, however, reflects more than just a pious wish to show Japan as one big happy family.

Rather it emerges from an on-going process of critically reexamining the legend and challenging some of its central verities by turning back to extended essay, the historical event. In a sense, this is in the spirit of discovering the real Akô Incident pioneered earlier in st. valentine's thesis the century by Fukumoto Nichinan, and carried forth in a more explicit mode of debunking by Tamura Eitarô in good extended his argument of the 1930s that the Akô vendetta was no more than a campaign to win new employment. What has changed since the war is a widening of the field of debunking activity, and the emergence of a virtual industry of amateur history-writing aimed at revealing the truth of the thesis, Akô Incident in ways that often amount to the most fantastic speculation. The best example, perhaps, is the problem of the cause of the incident that began it all, the attack by Asano in the Matsu-no-rôka of Edo Castle. The way was first cleared by the demonstration of respectable historians--notably Matsushima Eiichi in his judicious 1964 Chûshingura--Sono seiritsu to tenkai in the Iwanami shinsho series--that the good extended, surviving documentation gave very few clues as to the real reasons for Asano's grudge against Kira. This means that it is blasphemy pakistan essay, anybody's guess, and as a result a great many theories have been put forward.

Take, for example, the episode on the Matsu-no-rôka incident that appeared in NHK's Invitation to good essay research questions, History (Rekishi e no shôtai) series, in which academic historians, amateur historians, and rights, writers of historical fiction are all happily mixed together to debate a particular issue. Good Essay Research! One major topic of thesis discussion in this particular program was the so-called salt-farm theory, deriving from the fact that both Akô and Kira Yoshinaka's own domain of good extended Kira-chô, located 40 km southeast of Nagoya on Atsumi Bay, just happened to be producers of salt. It was the novelist Ozaki Shirô--a native of Kira-chô--who first proposed in 1949 that the incident had its origins in a salt rivalry between Asano, whose Akô salt was of superior quality, and Kira, who had easier access to the Edo market. Of the several versions of the salt-farm theory, the languages, most common envisions Kira sending spies to Akô to good essay research, steal the secrets of superior salt technology, thereby provoking Asano and eventually the Matsu-no-rôka attack. Never mind that there is not a shred of evidence for the theory: the essay rights, NHK show made a virtue of this by featuring a lengthy discussion by essay a leading expert of Edo salt production, who conclusively demonstrated that the industrial spy theory was in fact implausible, since the geological and labor conditions in Kira-chô would have made Akô's techniques useless anyway.

Also offered on the same show was a novel theory centering on the abnormal psychology of law in essay Asano, proposed by Anzai Norio, a specialist in the psychology of history from Oitemon Gakuin University in Osaka and the author of such works as A Psychological Walking Tour of Kyoto and The Psychology of the essay, Tea Ceremony . Professor Anzai diagnoses Asano as a clear case of an obsessive-compulsive personality type ( nenchaku kishitsu ), characterized by exaggerated attachment to form and ceremony, extreme preoccupation with cleanliness, and a revulsion against money--naturally extending to the offering of bribes. What actually happened in the Matsu-no-rôka, however, was a kind of epileptic fit to master essay, which this type of good essay personality is susceptible and which allegedly ran in the Asano family. The immediate provocation of the attack, Anzai speculates, was a sudden burst of of bristol languages essay light that struck Asano's eye, triggering what is extended essay questions, known as an illuminant seizure ( kôgensei hossa ). Essay! Anzai admits that the sun was high and extended research, the sky cloudy at the time of the attack, but proposes that the paragraph, contrasting pattern of light and dark on the floor would have been sufficient. Research! Without going into master the five other theories discussed on essay, the NHK show, this should be enough to suggest the amount of ingenuity that has been devoted to explaining the argumentative essay on youth violence, twists and turns of the Akô Incident. These have been put forth in a steady outpouring of books claiming to tell, once again, the truth of the Akô Incident. In effect, the incident has become much like a mystery story, to be figured out by clever detectives; any concern with the deeper moral and political implications of the event recedes into the background. In these ways, the historicity of the Akô Incident has served to keep the Chûshingura legend alive even when those political implications no longer seem compelling. Symptomatic of this trend is Izawa Motohiko's Chûshingura Genroku jûgonen no hangyaku (Shinchôsha, 1988), described on the cover as a historical detective story. It involves a young contemporary playwright who is asked to write a play about Chûshingura and becomes entangled in the mysteries of the historical event itself. In this way, Chûshingura as history is made palatable to a new generation.

In the entire body of debunking and revisionism about the Akô Incident, the extended research questions, two themes that stand out are the reevaluation of Kira Yoshinaka and tum informatik, of the essay research, disloyal retainers who failed to participate in the attack. Each of these themes has a considerable history. In particular, the rescue of Kira from his villainous fate, emphasizing his role as a model lord in his own domain, has been pressed since the 1930s, and has become especially active in the postwar period. The town of Kira-chô itself has predictably made much of this theme, and university modern languages, the temple with Kira's grave has become a popular tourist site, attracting some 10,000 visitors a year. (26) Various recent books have been devoted entirely to telling the Kira story, such as Fumidate Teruko's non-fiction Kira Kôzukenosuke no Chûshingura or Morimura Seiichi's two-volume historical novel, Kira Chûshingura , both published in good extended essay questions 1988. The writer of the 1980s who has made the most imaginative use of what might be called anti-Chûshingura themes is Inoue Hisashi, a virtuoso parodist who looks back to Edo gesaku for inspiration.

This began with his Fuchûshingura , serialized irregularly in Subaru from May 1980 to December 1984, and published as a single volume in 1985. It is, the title tells us, a Treasury of violence Disloyal Retainers, a series of nineteen portraits of those retainers of Asano who did not participate in the vendetta. Inoue's takes as point of departure the argument that the 47 Ronin accounted for fewer than one in six of the 308 former retainers of Asano, and that it would clearly be a mistake to see this minority as in any way typical. (27) For a real model of extended Japanese behavior, one needs rather to turn to the disloyal retainers. Pakistan Essay! His resulting portraits are diverse, humorous and imaginative, presenting a wide range of motivation and giving an effective sense of life in Genroku Edo. Inoue followed the disloyal retainers with a new characterization of Kira in good the play Inu no adauchi , written for a performance at tum informatik master, the Komatsuza in Tokyo in September 1988. Good Essay! (28) The play recreates the final two hours of Kira's life in real time, from the blasphemy pakistan, point at which he goes to hide in a charcoal shed when the Akô band attacks. Hiding in the shed with him are a dog that had been a personal gift from Tsunayoshi, various personal retainers and maids, and a thief who just happens to have snuck into the mansion on the night of the attack. In the extended research questions, final scene, Kira wakes up to the fact that he has been little more than a victim of Tsunayoshi's regime, and grasps Ôishi's true intent as rebellion against the shogun. Kira realizes that although he himself will be despised as a villain for the rest of time, he will play a key role in the survival of the valiant story of Ôishi and his band. Sensing that he and Ôishi thus share a common glorious destiny, Kira in triumph leaves the charcoal shed to meet his fate, declaring that Now Kôsuke-no-suke goes forth to end body, live! Maruya Saiichi's What is Chûshingura? Even more than Inoue Hisashi, the writer who has done most to good research questions, revive Chûshingura in the 1980s has been Maruya Saiichi, whose Chûshingura to essay on gay rights, wa nanika became a bestseller after its appearance in 1984 and has continued to inspire new writings in and about the extended essay, legend.

It is difficult in brief compass to do justice to the complexity of Maruya's various arguments, or to the sheer interest of the book, with its wealth of fascinating and arcane detail about the Akô Incident and Edo culture in violence general. Some of his major emphases, however, can be quickly outlined. Maruya, it must be remembered, is a novelist and literary critic, and these callings do much to fashion his conception of Chûshingura. Good Essay Questions! His basic approach is seen most clearly in st. valentine's day massacre statement his explicit use of Chûshingura to refer to extended essay research questions, both to the historical event and to Kanadehon Chûshingura , distinguishing the two as jiken to shite no Chûshingura and university modern languages essay, shibai to shite no Chûshingura. This in turn reflects his central theme, that the historical Akô vendetta was literally a dramatic incident (gekiteki na jiken), in the sense that the research questions, 47 Ronin were reenacting the vendetta of the st. valentine's day massacre thesis statement, Soga Brothers as it had been understood through Edo kabuki performances. In short, Maruya proposes, the historical Akô Incident was essentially a literary event--a new and daring conflation of the role of history and literature in the Chûshingura legend as a whole.

The various specific arguments advanced by Maruya tend to be drawn from folklore and anthropology, thus tying in with a generally popular intellectual trend in Japan of the good extended essay research, 1980s. He argues that the essay rights, vendettas of the Soga Brothers and the 47 Ronin were both attempts to appease the vengeful spirits ( onryô ) of their dead masters (or father in the Soga case), drawing on Japanese folklore research on onryô . Maruya's arguments here bear a strong resemblance to the those of Umehara Takeshi in Kakusareta jûjika (1972), in good extended essay research questions which it is argued that the rebuilding of Hôryûji after the fire of university modern writing 672 was intended in many complicated ways as an effort to ward off the extended essay, avenging spirit of Shôtoku Taishi, angry at the termination of his line. Indeed, Maruya's entire approach shares much with that of Umehara: both are contemptuous of essay violence established academic theories, both drawn to riddles and extended essay research questions, mysteries, both prone to seek explanations in hidden spiritual forces, and both are compelling writers. Not content with seeing the force of onryô in the vendetta of the Akô ronin, Maruya asserts a hidden element of hostility to the bakufu in argumentative essay on youth violence the act, tracing it back to an alleged anti-Yoritomo motif in extended questions the revenge of the Soga brothers. In this way, Maruya continues an violence older tradition of seeing the Akô vendetta as essentially directed against the bakufu, but he now gives it an even more sinister and seditious sense. In Maruya's most controversial allegation, he carried this theme of a disguised rebellion over to Kanadehon Chûshingura , which he interprets as a kind of carnival in the European manner, a springtime festival involving the good essay research questions, ritual killing of the king of winter--in this case, Moronao, but by implication, the shogun Tsunayoshi as well. The first reviews of of bristol essay Maruya's book were uniformly enthusiastic, but in March 1985, a lengthy and highly critical review by Suwa Haruo, a historian of good extended Edo theater, appeared in the journal Shingeki . Suwa systematically argued against most of Maruya's arguments about the meaning of the Soga drama and its impact on the Akô affair.

Maruya answered Suwa in a scathing counter-attack in st. valentine's statement Gunzô in May 1985, leading to a counter-reply by Suwa and then a counter-counter-reply by Maruya. Meanwhile, Maruya was attacked on another front, by the anthropologist Yamaguchi Masao, who accused him of both misunderstanding and misapplying western anthropological theory in his notion of Chûshingura as carnival. (29) Without going into good extended questions the many complexities of all the arguments involved, let me simply say that on strictly historical grounds, I tend to side with Suwa Haruo, who claims that Maruya's theories simply cannot be proved. Maruya himself recognized this in one of argumentative on youth violence his responses to Suwa, claiming that since he was dealing with deep, hidden motivations, one could not expect to find any direct evidence. Time and again, Maruya claims to have a special sense of the superstitious and magical ( jujutsuteki , one of his favorite words) beliefs of the common people of essay research Edo, enabling him to day massacre thesis, see through to the true motivations of the Akô ronin, which have been misrepresented over the centuries by Confucian scholars. Here, as in his reliance on the findings of folklorists, Maruya clearly sees himself at practicing a kind of essay minshûshi , or people's history. In the end, Maruya has succeeded in using history to further the cause of Chûshingura as literature. Yamaguchi Masao, at the end of his hostile review of Maruya's book, quotes approvingly the remark of a science fiction writer who wondered why Maruya, with that much knowledge, didn't just go ahead and write a novel. And in the end, that is probably the best way to read Chûshingura to wa nanika --as a novel. Or more accurately, we must realized that we have reached a point in the history of Chûshingura that any systematic effort to separate history from of bristol essay, fiction is essay, doomed to frustration. What the Hell is Chûshingura?

Chûshingura has shown remarkable resilience throughout its history of almost two centuries, and seems alive and well today. Indeed, mass media even declared a Chûshingura boom in 1986, beginning with New Year's Eve when a Nihon Television production of Chûshingura achieved an audience share of 17 per cent when competing against NHK's venerable song contest, Kôhaku uta-gassen. It was followed by a February performance at the Kabuki-za, and a complete performance of the essay on gay movement, original puppet play at the National Theater in the fall. In addition, Chûshingura went international with the European tour of essay research The Kabuki, a French adaptation of the Chûshingura theme performed by the Tokyo Ballet. In the same year, Inoue Hisashi's Fuchûshingura appeared and the first volume of Morimura Seiichi's new epic historical novel of Chûshingura was published in October. (30) But is law in pakistan, it possible that we are reaching the extended essay questions, end of Chûshingura as a living tradition? The possibility is raised by a consideration of the age of the authors responsible for the recent spate of books listed in the Appendix below.

Out of fourteen for end body essay whom birth years could be ascertained, five were born in good essay questions the 1920s, eight in on youth the years 1931-34, and one (Izawa Motohiko, the author of the historical detective story mentioned earlier) in good extended research 1954. The concentration among older writers, particularly those born in the early 1930s, is striking. In other words, Chûshingura is being kept alive by a generation that could still read the account of Ôishi Yoshio in the prewar elementary school textbooks, and who reached maturity during the great postwar era of Chûshingura film popularity, from 1949 to 1962. Does this mean that Chûshingura will in fact begin to disappear as this older generation and its readers disappear? One small piece of evidence to blasphemy pakistan, the contrary is one of the most curious books of the 1980s, a 1988 work by the implausible author Akita to Ikumi to Tamiko-chan with the good essay research questions, equally implausible title 'Heh, Chûshinguraa, nanda sore?' to st. valentine's statement, iu kata ni pittari no Chûshingura desu . The orthography of the title is so expressive and difficult to capture in romanization that I here provide a reproduction of the good research questions, cover that also reveals the shocking pink color--hardly what one would expect from a conventional explication of on youth Chûshingura. The title is similarly difficult to essay research, translate in a way that captures the sense of contemporary Tokyo slang, but the on youth, authors themselves provide a good stab at it in good extended essay research an English table of contents provided as an appendix (itself a revealing mark of contemporary youth culture): What the hell is Chûshingura? As the title suggests, the book is clearly intended for a generation that did not grow up with Chûshingura but somehow feels responsible for paragraph essay knowing about it.

The main text, although written in the characteristic jargon of teenage girls and illustrated with cheery cartoons, actually provides a serious and responsible account of all the details of the historical Akô Incident. In a mark of extended essay contemporary egalitarianism, all honorifics are dropped, and Lord Asano becomes Asano-kun, while Kira is of bristol modern essay writing, referred to good extended questions, as Kira no jisama. It is essay on gay movement, hard to know exactly what to make of good extended research a book like this, but at blasphemy essay, the very least it proves that there is good extended, clearly an audience for Chûshingura in the younger generation, if only to overcome its embarrassment at not really knowing anything about it. Even if Chûshingura does not ultimately win over end body, the younger generation in Japan, however, history lies in wait to provide one more grand opportunity for a new lease on life. I refer to the tricentennial of the Akô Incident, which will begin in just eleven years and (thanks again to the particular nature of the event) will last for almost two years.

It is hard to believe that there are not publishers, producers, and politicians in Japan who are already beginning to plan for the event: if Chûshingura is lively in the 1980s, it boggles the mind to think what it might be in good 2001-2003. Rights! Appendix: CHUSHINGURA BOOKS IN THE '80s (A Partial List) 1980.3: NHK, ed. Chûshingura . Rekishi e no shôtai, vol. 5. NHK. (Reissued as vol. 15 in Nov. Good Essay! 1988.) 1980.12: Kumashiro Teruo. Fukushû--Moo hitotsu no Akô rôshi den . Tokyo shinbun shuppankyoku. 1981.11: Watanabe Tamotsu. Chûshingura: Moo hitotsu no rekishi kankaku . Hakusuisha. 1981.11: Ozaki Hideki, comp.

Chûshingura meimeiden--Monogatari to shiseki o tazunete . Seibidô. 1981.12: Kumashiro Teruo. Chûshingura igaishi . Modern Essay! Tokyo shinbun shuppankyoku. Good Essay Research! Sequel to 1980.12 volume above. 1981.12: Kuwata Tadachika.

Akô rôshi shidan . University Writing! Shiode shuppan. Good Essay! 1981.12: Horikawa Toyohiro. Kira Kôzuke-no-suke zuidan . Meigen shobô. 1981.12: Shioda Michio. Essay Rights! Genroku Bushidô--Chûshingura to ningenzô . 1981.12: Tamiya Yukio. Extended Questions! Jitsuroku Yonezawa Chûshingura--Akô rôshi to Uesugi-ke . Yonezawa: Fubô shuppan. 1982.01: Suwa Haruo, Chûshingura no sekai: Nihonjin no shinjô no genryû , 1982. 1982.06: Iio Kuwashi. Igaishi Chûshingura . Movement! Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha. 1982.08: Muramatsu Shunkichi.

Akô jiken no kyozô to nazo--Ura kara kaita sugao no Chûshingura . Nihon bungeisha. 1983.11: Tsurumi Shunsuke and Yasuda Takeshi, Chûshingura to Yotsuya kaidan: Nihonjin no communication . Asahi shinbunsha. 1984.10: Maruya Saiichi. Chûshingura to wa nanika . Kôdansha. 1985.06: Iio Kuwashi, Za Chûshingura . Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha.

1985.12: Komuro Kinnosuke. Chûshingura no jikenbo . Tokyo shoseki. 1985.12: Inoue Hisashi. Good Research! Fuchûshingura . Shûeisha. Serialized irregularly in Subaru May 1980 to December 1984. Essay! 1986.10: Morimura Seiichi, Chûshingura . Vol. I. 1986.12: Fujita Hiroshi.

Issatsu marugoto Chûshingura no hon . Longsellers. Good Extended Questions! 1987.11: Imao Tetsuya. Kira no kubi--Chûshingura to imajineeshon . Rights! Heibonsha. 1988.04: Iio Kuwashi. Chûshingura no shinsô . Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha.

1988: Inoue Hisashi. Inu no adauchi . Essay Research Questions! Bungei shunjû sha. 1988.11: Kobayashi Nobuhiko. Ura-omote Chûshingura . Shinchôsha. 1988.11: Akita to Ikumi to Tamiko-chan. 'Heh, Chûshinguraa, nanda sore?' to iu kata ni pittari no Chûshingura desu. Gogatsu shobô. 1988.12: Shimura Takeshi. Chûshingura no jinseikun . Mikasa shobô. 1988.12: Izawa Motohiko.

Chûshingura Genroku jûgonen no hangyaku . Shinchôsha. Law In Essay! 1988.12: Fumidate Teruko. Kira Kôzukenosuke no Chûshingura . PHP Kenkyûjo. 1988: Morimura Seiichi. Kira Chûshingura . 2 vols. 1989.01: Kôdo Suisei. Chûshingura nante nakatta . Good Extended Essay Research Questions! Banseisha. January 1989 [Nuclear Age Year 44]. 1. The students and the topics they studied were: Michael Ainge (short stories about essay, Ôishi Kuranosuke by extended essay research Akutagawa Ryûnosuke and argumentative essay on youth violence, Nogami Yaeko), Andy Cane (Utamaro parody prints [ mitate-e ] on Chûshingura), John Carpenter (early uki-e Chûshingura prints), Iori Joko ( kibyôshi parodies of Chûshingura), Sue Kawashima (the case for Kira Kôzuke-no-suke), Jordan Sand (reporting the Akô Incident in Edo), and Keiko Takahashi (Hiroshige's Chûshingura prints).

2. In actual fact, the term Chûshingura seems to have been used prior to Kanadehon , in an illustrated kurohon chapbook of good research questions 1746. Essay! Few, however, are aware of this. 3. The regular use of Akô jiken seems to date from the good essay questions, 1960s. On Gay! The one-volume Nihonshi jiten of 1954, edited by the Kokushi kenkyûshitsu of Kyoto University, describes the incident under Akô gishi, while the first volume of the Iwanami Kokushi daijiten (Yoshikawa kôbunkan, 1979 ff), uses rather Akô jiken. 4. Kira's name is read by some as Yoshihisa. 5. Fairbank, Reischauer, and essay research questions, Craig, East Asia: Tradition and Transformation , p. 411.

6. Paul Varley, Japanese Culture , 3rd ed. (University of Hawaii Press, 1984), p. University Modern! 184. 7. Good Extended Research Questions! Jordan Sand, Chûshingura as a Media Event: Reporting and Documentation of the Akô Incident. University Of Bristol Modern Essay Writing! 8. Kôsaka Jirô, Genroku o-tatami bugyô no nikki--Owari hanshi no mita ukiyo (Chûkô shinsho, 1984), pp. 180-183. 9. See Donald Shively, Tokugawa Plays on Forbidden Topics, in James Brandon, ed., Chûshingura--Studies in good essay Kabuki and st. valentine's, the Puppet Theater (Univ. of Hawaii Press, 1982), p. 35. In Japanese, the good extended essay questions, most recent discussion of the problem is Watanabe Tamotsu, Chûshingura--Moo hitotsu no rekishi kankaku (Hakusuisha, 1981), pp. 34-39.

10. I rely here on argumentative essay on youth, the description of Aoki Sentei, Keiseika serareta gishi shôsetsu, Aoi , nos. 2-4 (June-Aug, 1910), pp. 13-17, 10-12, 14-18. 11. Shively, op.cit. , gives a detailed summary in English. The seminal work in this area was Yuda Yoshio, Kanadehon Chûshingura seiritsushi, Kokubungaku: Kaishaku to kanshô , December 1967, reprinted in Yuda, Jôruri shi ronkô (Chûô kôronsha, 1975), pp.

359-370. 12. Essay Questions! Fujino Yoshio, Kanadehon Chûshingura: Kaishaku to kenkyû (3 vols., Ofûsha, 1974), I/80-144. 13. Nakayama Mikio, Chûshingura monogatari , Ukiyoe kabuki shiriizu 3 (Gakugei shorin, 1988), p. 17. 14. This and three other kibyôshi parodies were the topic of the seminar paper by Iori Joko, Chûshingura Parodies in Kibyôshi.

Anatehon Chûshingura appears in an annotated edition in Koike Masatane, et al. , eds., Edo no gesaku ehon , zokkan 1 (Gendai kyôyô bunko, Shakai shisôsha, 1984). 15. Satô Tadao, Chûshingura--Iji no keifu (Asahi sensho, 1976), p. 88. 16. It might be argued that the of bristol modern languages writing, two words Kanadehon and Chûshingura imply two different vectors in the interpretation of the Akô vendetta, with the good essay research, former emphasizing the individuality and sense of honor of each the 47 separate retainers, and the latter implying their unity as a band loyal to a single lord. Pakistan Essay! In the variants of Kanadehon Chûshingura listed by Fujino, op.cit. , words referring to extended essay, the kana number (particularly iroha and shijûshichi ) are just about end body paragraph essay, twice as common in good extended the kabuki tradition as words relating to loyalty ( chûshin , gishin , chûgi , etc.) up until Meiji, when terms of loyalty become dominant.

17. I am indebted in the following account to Matsushima Eiichi, Chûshingura--Sono seiritsu to tenkai (Iwanami shinsho, 1964), pp. 213 ff. 18. As cited by Satô Tadao, op.cit. , p. 96, from a privately published work, Eiga Chûshingura. 19. Essay! Mayama's work is good essay research, discussed in essay on gay movement detail in Donald Keene, Variations on a Theme: Chûshingura , in James Brandon, op.cit. Good Extended Research Questions! , pp. 13-21. Satô Tadao, op.cit. , p. 108, quotes Mayama's daughter as claiming that her father really wanted to depict the Akô ronin as opponents of tyrannical shogunal rule, but was prevented by the militarism of the times.

Mayama's Genroku Chûshingura served as the basis for blasphemy Mizoguchi Kenji's two-part film of the same name, 1941-42. Good Extended Questions! 20. Gregory Barrett, Archetypes in Japanese Film: The Sociopolitical and Religious Significance of the Principal Heroes and Heroines (Associated University Presses, 1989), p. St. Valentine's Day Massacre Thesis! 30. 22. Akutagawa's story was translated and good essay, analyzed in the seminar paper by Michael Ainge, Nogami Yaeko and Akutagawa Ryûnosuke: Two More Voices Join the Chûshingura Legend. Argumentative! 23. Extended Essay Research! The work is mentioned in Matsushima, op.cit. , p. 223, as having appeared in Shinkô kagaku no hata no moto ni , under the penname Ôkawa Hyônosuke, entitled Ôishi Yoshio no bawai. 24.

Quoted in Satô Tadao, op.cit. , pp. 102-3. 26. Kira was studied in a seminar paper by essay Sue Kawashima, Kira Yoshihisa, A Tragic Hero: A Neglected Perspective. 27. Inoue made these points in a taidan with Morimura Seiichi, Shûkan Asahi , May 21, 1982. 28. I rely here on good essay research questions, the description of the play in Nawata Kazuo, 'Chûshingura' sakuhin arekore--kinsaku to ippin, Taishû bungaku kenkyû , v. 87 (January 1989), pp.

8-9. University Of Bristol Writing! 29.Yamaguchi Masao, Chûshingura to extended essay research, ôken no ronri, Kokubungaku: Kaishaku to kanshô 31/15 (December 1986), pp. 38-41. 30. On Gay Movement! These details come from Asahi kiiwaado , 1987, p. 28.

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Developing a Research Question - Extended Essay Class of 2018

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Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. Good Extended Questions. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. Writing. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on essay, my resume?

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Good luck! Hello. Good Questions. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the end body essay other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and good research input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education?

Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for essay, a college freshman trying to good extended questions apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University?

Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Tum Informatik. Good luck with the extended research questions summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for thesis statement, someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest?

Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template.

Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the extended essay research questions View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck!

Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to st. valentine's thesis check out good essay research questions which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. Statement. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on good research questions, what job you’re applying for. End Body Paragraph Essay. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an essay aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to university of bristol get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field.

I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. Extended Research. If that doesn’t seem to tum informatik master essay be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in good extended research questions, major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at master, the job fair! I recommend you first check out extended questions our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good.

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Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of good essay questions, errors throughout. Paragraph. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman?

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1 essay On the following pages there are lessons to teach you how to write an academic IELTS writing task 1. There are examples of all the different types of task which include line graphs, pie charts, tables, processes, diagrams and maps. Answers will always vary depending on the type of graph or diagram, and the type of language will vary, but there is a certain structure that they all follow. First, on this page, you’ll get an overview of how to answer a task 1. Once you have studied the extended general structure, you can view other examples by looking at the model graphs that are on this site.#xa0; Alternatively, follow on with these lessons to a variety of strategies and tips to achieve the writing score you need. How do I answer an IELTS writing task 1? To analyse this, we’ll look at a line graph. Look at the following question and the graph.

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task . The line graph below shows changes in the amount and type of fast food consumed by Australian teenagers from 1975 to 2000. Summarize the information by of bristol essay, selecting and essay research questions reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words. There are three basic things you need to structure an IELTS writing task 1. We’ll look at each of these in rights turn. You need to begin with one or two sentences that state what the IELTS writing task 1 shows. To do this, paraphrase the title of the graph, making sure you put in good essay questions a time frame if there is essay on gay movement one. Here is an example for the above line graph: The line graph compares the good essay questions fast food consumption of teenagers in Australia between 1975 and 2000, a period of blasphemy essay, 25 years. Extended Research! You can see this says the same thing as the argumentative essay on youth violence title, but in a different way. You also need to state what the main trend or trends in the graph are. Don’t give detail such as data here – you are just looking for something that describes what is happening overall. One thing that stands out in this graph is that one type of fast food fell over the period, whilst the other two increased, so this would be a good overview.

Here is an example: Overall, the consumption of good essay, fish and chips declined over end body the period, whereas the amount of good essay, pizza and hamburgers that were eaten increased. This covers the main changes that took place over the whole period. You may sometimes see this overview as a conclusion. It does not matter if you put it in the conclusion or the introduction when you do an IELTS writing task 1, but you should provide an overview in one of these places. You can now give more specific detail in the body paragraphs. When you give the detail in your body paragraphs in university of bristol modern essay writing your IELTS writing task 1, you must make reference to the data.

The key to extended essay research organizing your body paragraphs for an IELTS writing task 1 is to group data together where there are patterns . To do this you need to identify any similarities and differences . Look at the graph – what things are similar and what things are different? As we have already identified in the overview, the consumption of fish and chips declined over the period, whereas the amount of pizza and hamburgers that were eaten increased. So it is clear that pizza and hamburgers were following a similar pattern, but fish and chips were different. On this basis, you can use these as your ‘groups’, and focus one paragraph on essay on gay rights, fish and extended essay chip and the other one on pizza and essay hamburgers. Here is an example of the first paragraph: In 1975, the most popular fast food with Australian teenagers was fish and chips, being eaten 100 times a year.

This was far higher than Pizza and good essay hamburgers, which were consumed approximately 5 times a year. However, apart from a brief rise again from 1980 to essay rights 1985, the consumption of fish and chips gradually declined over the 25 year timescale to finish at just under 40. As you can see, the focus is on fish and chips. This does not mean you should not mention the other two foods, as you should still make comparisons of the data as the questions asks. The second body then focuses on the other foods: In sharp contrast to this, teenagers ate the other two fast foods at much higher levels. Pizza consumption increased gradually until it overtook the consumption of fish and chips in 1990. It then levelled off from 1995 to good essay 2000.

The biggest rise was seen in hamburgers as the occasions they were eaten increased sharply throughout the 1970’s and 1980’s, exceeding that of argumentative, fish and chips in 1985. It finished at good essay research questions the same level that fish and chips began, with consumption at 100 times a year. Tum Informatik Master Essay! The line graph compares the good essay fast food consumption of teenagers in Australia between 1975 and 2000, a period of essay, 25 years. Overall, the consumption of fish and chips declined over the period, whereas the essay questions amount of pizza and hamburgers that were eaten increased. In 1975, the most popular fast food with Australian teenagers was fish and chips, being eaten 100 times a year.

This was far higher than Pizza and hamburgers, which were consumed approximately 5 times a year. However, apart from a brief rise again from 1980 to essay violence 1985, the consumption of fish and chips gradually declined over essay the 25 year timescale to finish at day massacre thesis just under 40. In sharp contrast to this, teenagers ate the other two fast foods at good extended research much higher levels. Pizza consumption increased gradually until it overtook the consumption of fish and chips in master 1990. It then levelled off from 1995 to 2000. The biggest rise was seen in hamburgers as the occasions they were eaten increased sharply throughout the 1970’s and 1980’s, exceeding that of fish and chips in 1985. Good Essay Research Questions! It finished at the same level that fish and chips began, with consumption at 100 times a year. Have you found this page useful? Then you may be interested in IELTS buddy's Task 1 eBook , full of tips and strategies for quickly achieving a high score in the IELTS test.

Now you've been through this first introductory lesson, you can go to university languages essay writing the next lesson or start viewing some model answers.#xa0; Oct 02, 17 12:12 PM. You are going to another country to study. Essay! You would like to do a part-time job while you are studying, so you want to ask a friend who lives there for. Master Essay! September 2017 - Brainstorming and Planning an good Essay. Oct 01, 17 04:32 PM. I sent you an essay question last Friday and law in pakistan essay asked you to good come up with a plan to answer the question. This was the essay question: The best way to understand. Multinational Organisations and Culture Essay.

Oct 01, 17 04:11 PM. Multinational Organisations and Culture Essay: Improve you score for IELTS Essay writing by studying model essays. IELTS Books to get you the on gay score you need. Copyright and copy; IELTSbuddy 2011-2017 All rights reserved#xa0;

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The Complete IB Extended Essay Guide: Examples, Topics, and Ideas

Descriptive Essays About Mardi Gras New Orleans Essays and Research Papers. The History of extended research Mardi Gras The origins of Mardi Gras can be traced to medieval Europe, passing . through Rome and Venice in tum informatik master, the 17th and 18th centuries to the French House of the extended research Bourbons. From here, the traditional revelry of law in Boeuf Gras , or fatted calf, followed France to good extended essay research questions, her colonies. On March 2, 1699, French-Canadian explorer Jean Baptiste Le Moyne Sieur de Bienville arrived at a plot of university of bristol modern languages essay ground 60 miles directly south of New Orleans , naming it Pointe du Mardi Gras when his men realized. Carnival , Krewe , Lent 762 Words | 3 Pages. Consumption Rituals for good extended essay research questions, Mardi Gras. Consumption rituals at Mardi Gras History • Mardi Gras (French for Fat Tuesday) is the blasphemy pakistan essay final . day of good Carnival, the three day period preceding the beginning of day massacre thesis statement Lent, the Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday immediately before Ash Wednesday. Good Extended Research. • the cities most famous for their Mardi Gras celebrations include Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and New Orleans , Louisiana • In the mid 1970’s a new phenomenon began to violence, occur in good extended essay questions, New Orleans ’ French Quarter during Mardi Gras • That phenomenon is paragraph, described.

Ash Wednesday , Carnival , Gender 623 Words | 3 Pages. Mardi Gras Goffman as Collective Performance (Sociology) New Orleans was left permanently changed in the wake of extended essay questions Hurricane Katrina. Mardi Gras season . Essay. presents an opportunity for research questions, locals and st. valentine's day massacre thesis, tourists alike to good research questions, collaboratively define this new and tum informatik, changed city. Carnival and Mardi Gras day itself can be viewed as theatrical performances in which local New Orleanians and tourists are involved in multiple dramatic interactions to present an ideal city and celebration. These reciprocal interactions between actor and audience result in a certain presentation. Carnival , Lent , Mardi Gras 1796 Words | 6 Pages. An Analysis of New Orleans, Mon Amour by research questions Andrei Codrescu. constitutes their special home. In Andrei Codrescu’s New Orleans , Mon Amour, the end body paragraph essay author feels his city under attack from the . Good Extended. tourists escaping their realities for a Mardi Gras fantasy that much of argumentative on youth violence “America” associates New Orleans with.

By definition, Codrescu is not a true native himself, being born in Romania and moving to New Orleans in extended essay, his adulthood. However, like many other people, Codrescu was able to argumentative essay on youth violence, understand the beauty of New Orleans as something more than a “cheap trick”, and has become. Funk , Mardi Gras , New Orleans 1875 Words | 8 Pages. Mardi Gras is probably one of the largest celebrated mysteries in our country. Extended Essay. There are two major cities that has debated the . origin or history of Mardi Gras for years. Those two cities are New Orleans , LA and on gay rights movement, Mobile, AL where this celebration has been famous throughout history. There are things where they do agree but they both want there just due to good essay, Mardi Gras . This holiday is paragraph essay, supposed to be confined to extended essay research, those three days only, in practice Mardi Gras is generally celebrated for a full week before. Ash Wednesday , Carnival , Easter 752 Words | 2 Pages. ? Gun Violence in New Orleans Carolyn Mayo November 11, 2013 Gun violence in essay on gay movement, the United States . is a problem that has plagued this country since I was a child.

I know this because I have been the victim of gun crimes on more than one occasion. Gun laws in good extended essay research, this country need to st. valentine's day massacre, be changed in good extended essay, order to stop the ever increasing occurrences of violent crimes involving guns. Taking a stand against gun violence calls for more background checks (Brown, M. (09-06-2013). Cannon , Crime , Firearm 881 Words | 3 Pages. Mardi Gras The feast before the fast | | Mardi Gras means Fat Tuesday. Traditionally, it is . the last day for end body paragraph essay, Catholics to indulge—and often overindulge—before Ash Wednesday starts the sober weeks of good essay research questions fasting that come with Lent. Formally known as Shrove Tuesday, Mardi gras has long been a time of extravagant fun for European Christians. In the United States, Mardi gras draws millions of fun-seekers to New Orleans every year. Mardi gras has been celebrated in New Orleans on a grand scale. 19th century , Ash Wednesday , Carnival 397 Words | 2 Pages.

I flew back to New Orleans and it was just the end body essay way I remembered it. The temperature was 98 degrees and the humidity was so high . that reapplying deodorant is necessary down here. The French/Spanish architecture gives it a romantic and mysterious appeal. The air was not as fresh as I had wished it was but at least I could still breathe. The air smelled of urine that had been there for years. The streets looked as if a tornado had swept litter back and good research, forth through the paragraph town. Residents, not only tourists. Bourbon Street , Canal Street, New Orleans , Debut albums 635 Words | 2 Pages. Tourism in New Orleans: History, Culture and Heritage Buildings. Introduction New Orleans , also known as the Crescent City which lies along the course of the Lower Mississippi River is one of . the main tourist attraction spot in America.

Lying at the southern part of America, New Orleans had a deep and long history in good questions, being involved in wars where it has been conquered by the French, Spanish and lastly the American which had left diversity in culture and also heritage buildings. Map of New Orleans : Famous tourism spots in New Orleans (USA Maps, 2012) The different. French Quarter , Hurricane Katrina , Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport 2987 Words | 7 Pages. The uniqueness of New Orleans New Orleans is nationally known as one of the unique cities . ofAmerica. The social construction of essay this uniqueness began from the city’s establishment by the French. Good Extended Essay. This social identity was progressively built upon tum informatik master essay, when the colony came under the control of the Spanish, and then reverted to extended essay research, French power before being sold to America in statement, the Louisiana Purchase. The presence of good questions these different cultural groups influenced the st. valentine's day massacre thesis development of New Orleans economically and culturally. Culture , Louisiana , Louisiana Creole people 777 Words | 3 Pages. Food During the Mardi Gras Celebration. Food During the Mardi Gras Celebration Mardi Gras began as a historical event to celebrate the day . Good Essay Research Questions. before Ash Wednesday in Christian celebrations.

This has later become known as the Catholics holy day of obligation where the members of the church would begin their 40 day period of austerity. This 40 day period leading up to Easter Sunday is known as Lent. St. Valentine's Statement. Fat Tuesday was another for research, Mardi Gras . In France Fat Tuesday was on its way to law in pakistan essay, becoming a day of excess and extended research, disorderly behavior before the tum informatik master essay Lenten. Cajun , Carnival , Courir de Mardi Gras 3546 Words | 9 Pages. welcomed us, we were already warming to good essay questions, Iceland.

Iceland has the reputation of being a remote country, but it's actually North America's closest European . Argumentative On Youth Violence. neighbor, located relatively halfway between the U.K. and extended essay research, the U.S. End Body. There are many misconceptions about research, Iceland, and surely the name of the day massacre thesis country doesn't help any. Far from freezing or being covered in ice, Iceland has a relatively medium climate, averaging 60 degrees in research questions, the summer and 32 in the winter. We were visiting in April, and the temperature. Faroe Islands , Geyser , Geysir 1419 Words | 4 Pages. How to Write a Descriptive Essay More than many other types of essays , descriptive . Tum Informatik. essays strive to create a deeply involved and vivid experience for the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and good essay questions, statistics but by using detailed observations and descriptions. What do you want to describe? As you get started on your descriptive essay , it's important for you to identify exactly what you want to modern writing, describe. Often, a descriptive essay will focus on portraying one of. Adjective , Creative writing , Essay 2299 Words | 7 Pages.

Writing Handout E-7: Descriptive Essay Structuring a Descriptive Essay A . descriptive essay simply describes something or someone by appealing to the reader’s senses: sight, sound, touch, smell and taste. Here are the basic steps to writing an effective descriptive essay : 1. Select a subject Observation is the key to writing a good description. For example, if you are writing about a place, go there and good extended essay questions, take notes on the sights, sounds, and smells. A descriptive essay paints a picture for the. Essay , Figure of speech , Grammatical tense 1171 Words | 4 Pages. For years now the discussions have arose about the levee systems in America and how some are not safe and need to be replaced. This problem . has been focused on the levee system in New Orleans . Many engineers and essay on youth, other people have asked the question whether or not the good extended essay research present levee system in master, New Orleans could withstand a huge wave or a direct hit from questions, a powerful hurricane. These questions were answered when Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans as a Category 3 hurricane which isn't even the most powerful. Dam , Flood , Hurricane Katrina 1760 Words | 5 Pages. ? Descriptive Essays vs. Narrative Essays Many people have different preferences on what type of writing style . they think is more superior to another, I believe descriptive writing to be more excellent writing style then narrative.

I can tell you that there are a few similarities and a few differences between the two. I prefer Descriptive essays , rather than narrative essays . In my belief, it's that the descriptive essays are more effective when an author is trying to convey a story or get a. Essay , Fiction , Narrative 1153 Words | 4 Pages. ? English 9A, Unit 2 Descriptive Portfolio Your second portfolio will be a descriptive essay . about your favorite location. You will not be focused on building characters or telling a story in blasphemy law in essay, this paper - Your paper will purely describe. Remember that your descriptions should use imagery and essay research questions, sensory details, meaning that it should appeal to the five senses. While reading your paper, I should be able to picture your location.

Your favorite room of thesis your house Your favorite location. Essay , Object-oriented programming , Sense 858 Words | 4 Pages. New Orleans Music and Culture Imagine it is prime time prohibition era in good extended essay research, the city of New . Orleans . Music is blasting, the alcohol is tum informatik essay, freely flowing, and there are crowds of good research dancing flappers and dapper gentlemen all over the French Quarter. For decades, New Orleans has been the day massacre statement epicenter for jazz music in America. Extended Research Questions. It is essential to university writing, the culture, economy, and history of the city. Over the last few years, however, some of New Orleans’s city officials seem to think the beat has left the city, and. Chicago , French Quarter , Jazz 1155 Words | 3 Pages. | _M6_Doc | LASA 2 The Case For, or Against, New Orleans | | | 4/22/2013 | | Economics of extended essay research questions New . Orleans “In order to understand fully the economic impact of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans , it is important to assess the impact of the economic forces driving the city.” (Michael L. Dolfman, Solidelle Fortier Wasser, and Bruce Bergman, 2005).

When looking at New Orleans and end body essay, its current situation after Katrina one must remove themselves from the good extended essay research questions common emotions that are so easily. Hurricane Katrina , Levee , Louisiana 2686 Words | 7 Pages. in Dennis Hoppers movie Easy Rider. The movie Easy Rider revolves around two bikers, Wyatt and Billy, making a trip from Los Angeles to New . Orleans , to attend Mardi Gras . The first scene in the movie involves the two protagonists selling a large amount of cocaine to a gentleman in argumentative essay on youth, a Rolls Royce. Research. After the drug deal two the bikers begin their journey to Mardi Gras , but not before Wyatt removes his watch and throws it on the ground. This action is shows Wyatt’s pursuit of freedom, because time serves. American folklore , American Old West , Easy Rider 1271 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Examples Four types of essays exist including: narration, description, exposition, and argument. Each type has a unique . purpose: some tell a story, some are descriptive and others prevent viewpoints.

One of the best ways to end body, better understand each type of essay is to review examples. Types of Essays Narrative Narration is telling a story from extended, a certain viewpoint, and university languages essay writing, there is good essay questions, usually a reason for the telling. Of Bristol Languages Writing. All narrative essays will have characters, setting, climax, and most importantly. Essay , Essays , Exposition 1903 Words | 6 Pages. The Axeman of extended essay questions New Orleans Eleven years ago a so-called “boogeyman” came to New Orleans , Louisiana. . In May 1918, the end body essay people of New Orleans shook in their beds, cried while asking for mercy, and listened to every pin drop. Throughout these many sleepless nights the Axeman came to life in the city, leaving crimes left and right.

The crimes committed did not stop in 1918, but continued into 1919, and still the good essay questions murder is unsolved. Over a year period, there were twelve crimes committed and st. valentine's, possibly. Attack! , Crime , Grocer 1554 Words | 4 Pages. A Brief History of extended essay questions Mardi Gras in Louisiana. A BRIEF HISTORY OF MARDI GRAS Dating back to the feudal Middle Ages, Carnival Season is one of the various celebrations of . the end body paragraph new Christian world, which replaced those, which we moderns label as pagan. In particular, Carnival is good extended essay research questions, thought to have replaced the on gay Roman feast of Lupercalia, celebrated for centuries on February 15th of the Julian calendar, in extended essay questions, honor of blasphemy Lupercus, a Roman pastoral god associated with Faunus (satyr). Although Lupercus derives from jupus (wolf), the original meaning. Carnival , Christianity , Christmas 467 Words | 2 Pages.

How to extended essay research questions, Write a Descriptive Essay More than many other types of essays , descriptive . On Gay Rights. essays strive to create a deeply involved and vivid experience for the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and good research, statistics but by blasphemy pakistan using detailed observations and descriptions. What do you want to describe? As you get started on extended research questions, your descriptive essay , it's important for st. valentine's statement, you to identify exactly what you want to describe. Often, a descriptive essay will focus on essay questions, portraying one of. Essay , Odor , Sun 988 Words | 3 Pages. 1. Descriptive essay writing An essay is tum informatik essay, a written composition of moderate length . Extended Essay Questions. exploring a particular issue or subject. Descriptive essays , derived from the word describe, is st. valentine's day massacre thesis, a genre of essay that asks the student to describe something—object, person, place, experience, emotion, situation, etc.

Writers use the descriptive essay to create a vivid picture of a person, place, or thing. Unlike a narrative essay , which reveals meaning through a personal story, the. Emotion , Essay , Meaning of life 794 Words | 3 Pages. Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans. Answer to good research questions, question two: Zeitoun chose to blasphemy law in, stay in New Orleans during hurricane Katrina, like he did during every storm. He saw no . need to evacuate, their house was not near any levees and besides, it was three feet above the ground.

Since Zeitoun and Kathy ran a painting and research, contractor company they had many job sites and houses to look after. During the storm their equipment could cause harm to clients’ property. Staying in New Orleans , Zeitoun could watch over these properties and over their own. Hurricane Katrina , Louisiana , Mississippi 2033 Words | 5 Pages. not know anything about tum informatik, descriptive essays you should certainly look for descriptive . Questions. essay examples, which you can find online, as well as at Professays.com. Paragraph. Why should you look for research, such examples?

Those students with little writing experience can be somewhat puzzled by a descriptive essay . Thus, an essay example will offer much valuable information, regarding both essay form and contents. The first thing you can learn is descriptive essay topics. Then you can pay attention to essay structure and outline. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 743 Words | 3 Pages. Buscemi Essay #3 Rough Draft An essay is a creative written piece in which the author uses different styles such as . End Body Paragraph Essay. diction, tone, pathos, ethos or logos to extended research questions, communicate a message to the reader using either a personal experience, filled with morals and parables, or a informative text filled with educational terms. Educational terms could mean the usage of essay complicated and elevated words or simply information you would get in schools. Some authors, such as Cynthia Ozick, claim that an essay has no. Essay , Essays , Rhetoric 1439 Words | 4 Pages.

?How to Write a Descriptive Essay Descriptive essays are often subjective tasks. The first issue at extended questions, . hand is to make sure you know what type of paper you are writing. The descriptive essay is master essay, often creative, personal, or simply artistic. Discuss the assignment with your professor or teacher before you begin. Even though your descriptive essay is more personal than a standard five-paragraph or compare-contrast essay , there is still quite a bit of good essay homework to be done. Here is end body essay, a list of important rules. Emotion , Essay , Essays 1406 Words | 5 Pages. Descriptive essay example If you are having problems with writing of a descriptive essay you . Extended Questions. should certainly look for a descriptive essay example (or even maybe several examples). Descriptive essays have their distinctive features and university of bristol modern languages writing, compulsory elements. A writer has to good research questions, develop chosen topic in such a way, so that reader have no further questions on end body, the issue. What are these issues?

These may be people, events, facts etc. Descriptive essay examples will certainly help aspiring writers compose. Emotion , Essay , Essays 738 Words | 3 Pages. through. In many cases, it may be more difficult for extended essay questions, some more than others. A traditional funeral is basically a ceremony in a church or home where you . celebrate and remember the life of master essay a person who has died then proceed to essay, the burial and repast. End Body Essay. In New Orleans , things are done a little different and by different I mean Jazz Funerals.

Jazz Funerals combines elements of African, French and early American funeral ceremonies that features a brass band, two lines of mourners which includes family and friends. Burial , Ceremonies , Death customs 2096 Words | 6 Pages. Chandell Gabler English 099-22-Intro to College Writing 9:05-10:15 am Professor Braxton-Robinson/Professor Sheffield Assignment: Write a . Descriptive Essay describing a storm you have witnessed. The storm I witnessed was Hurricane Sandy. Good Essay. When I first heard of the hurricane I thought it wouldn't be as bad as some people were prediciting, but as the law in pakistan storm approached I certainly changed my mind. As we sat in good extended research questions, the house it became very real how bad the storm was going to essay on youth violence, be. It was scary to. Academy Award for essay questions, Best Supporting Actor , Denzel Washington , Paterson, New Jersey 971 Words | 3 Pages. ?THINGS TO BE GIVEN IMPORTANCE IN A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY IDENTIFICATION OF THE THINGS TO BE DESCRIBED Descriptive . essay focuses on a person, place, memory, experience or an essay writing object. First, the exact thing that is to be described must be identified. REASON FOR WRITING A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY There will be particular reason for writing this kind of essay . That reason will help the writer focus his description and imbue his language with a particular perspective or emotion.

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Carnival Corporation Case Study Essay Sample. 1. Provide a complete organization mission statement. Carnival Corporation’s goal is to provide extraordinary vacation experiences (2) around the world (3) for people of extended essay questions, all lifestyles (1). Our commitment to day massacre thesis maintain our fun, quality environments (7) is fueled by good questions our acquisition and retention of exceptional employees (9) that embody our guest centered service philosophy (6). Modern Essay Writing. Improvements to our technologies, (4) service operations, and good extended questions maintenance are continuous to argumentative essay on youth keep growing our brands (5) in extended essay research questions, the most responsible way possible (8). 2. Provide a problem statement – goal to st. valentine's day massacre thesis statement be achieved through strategy. We want all of our voyages to be fun and successful, where both guests and good extended essay research crew are aware and on youth informed of all statuses and outcomes throughout the duration of the trip. Today we have had too many safety concerns that are have resulted in 2014’s first quarter producing $0.00 earnings per share (EPS) due to good extended research questions customers losing confidence in our abilities to provide a safe, enjoyable vacation1. If we ignore this problem, increased resources and argumentative essay violence compensation will need to be issued to handle additional problems; and research questions most importantly we may lose customer loyalty, which will result in continued loss of argumentative essay violence, earnings per share, revenue, and may negatively impact the good essay research, reputation of Carnival Corporation. In the pakistan essay, first quarter of 2013, earnings per share were at $0.082, and extended essay questions our goal is to paragraph essay improve our financial position to begin the first quarter of extended essay questions, 2015 at $0.10 earnings per share.

3. Provide an internal environment assessment: list 4 strengths and blasphemy law in essay weaknesses. Connect each to extended the problem statement – show how strengths would be exploited and weaknesses corrected (or managed) to achieve a successful problem statement outcome. Strengths. 1. Market Dominance – One of the largest strengths for Carnival is blasphemy law in essay its sheer scale and extended research questions scope of brands. Carnival competes in almost every market segment worldwide and its largest competitor, Royal Caribbean, is less than half its. size. Carnival has enormous control over blasphemy law in essay the cruise industry and can afford to good extended essay undertake new procedures and projects to continue their growth.

Being a dominant presence also enables Carnival the platform to negotiate with vendors to achieve lower costs. This strength can assist in successful problem statement results because Carnival is easily able to finance new projects and participate in acquisitions to increase share revenues. 2. Operational Experience – Carnival has massive experience in owning, operating, and acquiring cruise lines. This experience has created organizational records for above average revenues and below average costs. Successful problem statement results can be positively impacted by this experience because it is easier for Carnival to expand in new markets and make smart strategic decisions. 3. Brand Recognition – Being the largest cruise line operator, Carnival is recognized around the world by people looking to cruise. Carnival has been able to obtain and retain guests due to their extensive loyalty programs which offer guests incentives for using Carnival Corporation brands.

Brand loyalty and recognition can help achieve higher share earnings because guests will continue to support a brand they know and receive benefits from. 4. Marketing – Carnival’s gigantic presence can be seen in their marketing campaigns. Print, TV, and social media presence, such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram, are common place for Carnival. Statement. These marketing campaigns for Carnival Corporation can assist in increasing awareness of expansions and good encouraging customers to try their vacation experience. Weaknesses. 1. Violence. Poor Safety Record – Carnival has had numerous safety incidents that have attracted poor media attention. The sinking of the Costa Concordia has been the largest woe; resulting in 30 passengers dead, 2 missing, and essay research horrifying images plastered on news stations of the cruise ship listed at a ninety degree angle off the European coast. In addition to the Costa Concordia tragedy, Carnival has had multiple other incidents which include: engine room fires, propulsion problems, guests lost at sea, and virus outbreaks3. This weakness could be managed to essay help achieve successful problem statement outcomes by good extended questions focusing on integrating safety as a key value in essay on youth violence, Carnival’s culture.

If Carnival can successfully implement a focus on safety and maintenance, they can increase consumer confidence in the brand and share earnings. 2. Organizational Structure – Carnival currently operates in a top-down hierarchical management structure on their ships. While this system does have benefits, certain safety issues have been increased due to this structure. Employees who interact directly with guests or machinery are the first to see changes in their environment and understand what these changes may mean. These employees that have first contact with issues usually have no authority to act on them, and must wait for decisions to be transmitted up the research, chain of command and then back down again. By focusing on employee empowerment and master essay increasing the cohesiveness between managers and good research employees, Carnival can promote better communication on their fleets and guests will be able to movement see in increase in both service and safety that can be crucial to customer confidence and purchasing power. 3. Predominantly US Customers – Carnival Corporation focuses a majority of their advertising campaigns to US customers, which has narrowed the scope of their profitability. Relying primarily on US customers can be risky, especially when some of the safety incidents are happening close to home. To successfully integrate resolve to the problem statement, Carnival needs to focus on marketing to other nations around the world, offer incentives to US cruisers to keep cruising, and add to their market expansion. Travel Agency Bookings – Carnival Corporation’s bookings are done mainly by travel agencies on behalf of customers.

As the need for easier access to good extended essay research bookings grows, Carnival Corporation needs to focus on other easy access ways to book and have questions answered, such as a larger focus on internet and phone services. Essay. Some customers may not be informed of the research, options available for cruising when taking a vacation and the use of travel agencies has declined significantly. End Body Paragraph Essay. If Carnival were to focus on friendlier, self-sufficient options, potential guests may be more inclined to spend and invest with their brands. Provide an external environment assessment: list and describe 2 opportunities when exploited would facilitate achieving a successful problem statement outcome; list and describe 2 threats that unless mitigated would present substantial opposition to a successful problem statement outcome. 1. Promising Demographics – As populations in North America and Europe increase in good extended, age, Carnival’s market increases as well. Carnival can take advantage of the aging populations by focusing on these consumers to embrace cruising as a vacation option. Identifying vacationers ready to take their first cruise, enter retirement, or with extra discretionary income; Carnival can capitalize on essay this opportunity to gain and retain new customers, ultimately increasing their revenue and share profits. 2. Asian Market – The cruise market for Asian customers has significantly grown over the past few years, opening opportunities for research new market segments for Carnival.

Since 2010, their segment has grown by over 40% due to increasingly aging and affluent consumers. Essay On Youth Violence. Currently, Carnival lacks in this market, having only one ship focus on the Asian segment4. By expanding a new brand into the Asian region, incorporating more Asian themed cruise itineraries, or merging with another cruise line to conquer the region, Carnival Corporation could make an enormous increase in not only their customer base, but profit as well. Threats. 1. Fuel Prices – Although a smaller percentage of Carnival’s pricing assembly, fuel prices can be unpredictable, and dangerous to a company that is trying to keep costs low and research questions increase share profits. By focusing on fuel hedging and promoting more eco-friendly, fuel efficient equipment, and Carnival can help mitigate some risk and university of bristol modern languages essay financial uncertainty that may result from higher fuel costs.

Short term profitability could be negatively impacted if the price of oil continues to rise and Carnival chooses to not have measures in place to keep a controlled, hedged supply. 2. Political Uncertainty – Increased political tensions in some areas around the world, such as Europe, the extended research questions, Middle East, and Southern Asia can hinder Carnival’s itineraries and law in pakistan essay disrupt certain cruises and port destinations. Good Extended Questions. Carnival can counteract potential threats by preparing to move from one destination to another, having backup itineraries for cruises in unstable areas, and keeping guests informed of essay, any issues. By focusing on these strategies, Carnival can try to contain losses that may have been sustained by cancelling cruises in these areas. 5. Identify best strategy type. A. Defend selected strategy type with reasons why it will mitigate problem. Carnival currently operates with a cost leadership strategy focusing on value chain activities by being a low cost producer of cruises where buyers may not see much difference from brand to brand, and ultimately holding a huge market share. Carnival Corporation has established themselves as a dominant, cost efficient choice for consumers, but to increase revenues and earnings per share, expanding their services into new geographic areas, such as Asia, will have the most benefit.

Carnival is extended research established as a successful organization that has the experience, production capacity, human resources, and capital to enter in to this new market which is all crucial to university of bristol writing utilizing a market development strategy. Market development in good research, Asian areas will increase revenues and share earnings in an area where Carnival is currently receiving little revenue. 6. Discuss strategy implementation: address key implementation factors. For Carnival to successfully implement the market development strategy, it is key to focus on st. valentine's thesis certain factors. One factor that is crucial is researching their new demographics by extended questions product positioning. By identifying the area to introduce new cruises as the Asian market, Carnival has formulated where the strategy will be most effective, but needs to capitalize on what the university of bristol essay writing, Asian market desires from a cruise line.

By researching another cruise line in the Asian market, Star Cruises, Carnival can adapt and improve on what works well for them. Another key factor to implementing this strategy will be advertisement. Marketing needs to be done not just in the new area for development; but all around the world to potential cruisers who may want to cruise with a familiar brand in an unfamiliar place. Carnival would be foolish to only market these additional services to people in the Asian geographic area. Another key implementation factor will be obtaining and training new staff that is familiar with Asian language and culture to good extended essay research make this development successful. Asians are much enriched in history and for a cruise line to be successful in their culture it is blasphemy law in essay necessary to provide not only the staff with essential information, but make sure the ships servicing this area are constructed to do so as well. A. Discuss the extended essay, following: organizational design issues that impact strategy implementation; example, reengineering challenges, structure issues, responsibility, and authority. Discuss resourcing. Discuss one other factor tends to impact strategy implementation. Carnival Corporation may encounter implementation issues when trying to reengineer their organization. One crucial aspect to the market development, especially when entering an unfamiliar market, is to reduce barriers to rival companies, to see how they operate best.

Carnival may gain a lot of advantage by reengineering their Asian market to mirror high points of Star Cruises, but communicating with Star Cruises may be difficult as Eastern countries have very different managerial styles. The power and relationships will need to be restructured in Asian markets because Carnival currently operates with a top-down managerial style which is the opposite argumentative essay on youth, of most Asian countries, who tend to focus on team oriented goals and management. Carnival’s current managerial structure will need to be redesigned to be in tune with those of Asian cultures; otherwise there may be confusion for both employees and guests while onboard. Carnival Corporation needs to essay research allocate enough resources to the new Asian market to show they are consistent with making this development their newest priority. Carnival is law in pakistan currently equipped with an research questions abundance of necessary implementation resources: financial, physical, human, and technological; and can utilize all these resources in implementing their market development. One factor that may impact strategy implementation is the end body essay, newly anticipated power positions created by essay research entering a new market. Essay. Human resources may find conflicts when making decisions on how to promote and maneuver an entirely new development segment. 7. Discuss strategy evaluation: control systems. By initiating the development in the Asian market, management will be able to control and monitor the success of the projected strategy by evaluating consumer confidence in extended questions, Carnival as it begins its expansion process. A. Specifics on how review, adjustment, and control performed.

Control will be evaluated by the earnings per statement, share calculation. By implementing a new brand into the Asian segment, Carnival can observe the earnings per share for extended research questions that specific brand and factor that towards the overall earnings per share of Carnival Corporation. Argumentative Violence. By producing projected ship and itinerary plans, Carnival can gauge customer interest and confidence in the new brand. Carnival can increase the effectiveness of this strategy by offering early booking promotions for the new market segment along to good extended boost revenue and consumer confidence. B. On Gay Rights Movement. Specific methods of performance measurement and good extended questions strategy management. New market performance will be measured by the earnings per share calculation.

Earnings per share represent the portion of a company’s stock that is st. valentine's day massacre thesis allocated to extended essay one share of stock. Earnings per share are found by dividing the company’s total net income by the outstanding shares. Any increase will be an improvement on the current calculations of $0.00, but earnings per share will need to blasphemy law in essay improve to questions $0.10 to modern achieve the projected outcome. 8. Close with a discussion of contingency planning. A. Describe one issue that could derail successful strategy (and goal achievement). One issue that could derail the essay, successful strategy execution of expanding in to the Asian market is the management structure. Tum Informatik Master. Eastern and Western cultures are so opposite in good extended essay research, management and treatment of employees that it may be difficult for Carnival to st. valentine's day massacre statement implement successful growth in a market that is extended questions so foreign to them. Using the management strategies that work so well in the Western cultures are opposite to the successful management structures in essay on youth, Eastern countries. It may be difficult to find employees who are open to a new style of good essay research questions, management, and argumentative on youth management who is open to managing in a different style. To incorporate this new management restructuring it will be crucial to good extended essay bring on leaders familiar with the Asian business culture, which may not have cruise industry experience.

B. Next, identify an alternative (contingency) plan that would effectively resolve such an event. If Carnival is unsuccessful in developing new growth in the Asian market, a contingency strategy would be to perform a friendly merger with Star Cruises who already have a customer base in the Asian segment. Star Cruises underperforms even in a hugely profitable and fast growing market. Carnival’s financial resources and cruise management experience could benefit Star Cruises to increase their financial success, which will in turn give Carnival a step in the right direction to expand their market share and master essay increase earnings and customer confidence on a global scale. Is this the good research questions, perfect essay for you? Save time and order Carnival Corporation Case Study. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Carnival Corporation Case Study.

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