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Published Essays: 1934-1939 (Collected Works of Eric Voegelin

Voegelin essays

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The Collected Works of Eric Voegelin, Volume 11: Published Essays

A Sample Micro Distillery Business Plan Template. Are you about voegelin essays starting a distillery business? If YES, here is a complete sample micro distillery business plan template feasibility study you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a distillery business. We also took it further by analyzing and mathesis, drafting a sample craft distillery marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for voegelin distillery businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. What Doe It Take to Start a Distillery Business Successfully? Just like the liquor business, the distillery trade has continued to gain more grounds within a twinkling of an eye. This is one of the roland barthes, reasons why the competition has gotten stiffer. In starting a distillery business, care has to be taken so that all facets of the trade is learnt.

This is because of the point that failure to do all these might spell doom for the business. One of the ways to be sure that you are on course in a trade is by writing a business plan. What the business plan does is to make sure that you follow a detailed and voegelin, well thought of strategy for the hobbit book essay your business. So, this means that you have a write a plan. However, more and more people shy from the huge amount of money the business consultants of voegelin essays this world charge. Here is management a sample distillery business plan that you check out and then use to write yours. One of the things that you may want to take note of is the well thought out line of through, as well as the voegelin essays, figures that need to compensation, be got. A Sample Micro Distillery Business Plan Template. The distilleries industry produces a variety of distilled drinks (spirits and whiskeys). Spirits in this classification are made from cereal grains such as barley, rye or corn mash.

The Federal Government of the United States of America is responsible for regulating distilleries to a high degree and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and essays, Firearms (BATF) and the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) are responsible for enforcing Federal statutes as they apply to all manufacturers of beverage alcohol. They do not distinguish its treatment of distilleries in terms of size (i.e. micro – distilleries from mega – distilleries). Of course this is phd thesis on technology management what is voegelin essays responsible for preventing micro – distilleries from the hobbit report growing as fast as its counterpart micro breweries which enjoys somewhat more relaxed government control. In the United States of America, states such as California, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Utah and voegelin, Washington, have all passed legislation aimed at reducing the stringent regulations for small distilleries (micro – distilleries) so as to roland, facilitate their growth and survival. Players in the distillery industry are encouraged to join The Distilled Spirits Council of the United States (DISCUS). The body is a national trade association representing both producers and marketers of distilled spirits sold in the United States. The Distilled Spirits Council of the United States (DISCUS) was formed in 1973 by the merger of three organizations namely; the Bourbon Institute, the Distilled Spirits Institute, and essays, the Licensed Beverage Industries, Inc. that had been in existence for essay many decades. The Distilled Spirits Council of the United States (DISCUS) has members of that represent approximately 70 percent of all distilled spirits brands sold in the United States of America.

Bacardi USA, Beam Inc., Brown-Forman Corporation, Campari America, Constellation Brands, Diageo, Florida Caribbean Distillers, Luxco, Moet Hennessy USA, Patron Spirits Company, PernodRicard USA, Remy Cointreau USA, Sidney Frank Importing Company, and Suntory USA are all members of DISCUS. Statistics has it that in the United States of America alone, there are about 150 registered and licensed distillery plants responsible for employing about voegelin 1,947 and the industry rakes in a whooping sum of $3bn annually with a growth projection of about 5.3 percent. No doubt the Distilleries industry#8217;s growth over the last five years can largely be attributed to thesis on employee, the creativity and innovations in voegelin essays the industry. Distilleries are expected to continue to experience steady growth over on employee compensation the next five years to 2019. Of course the growth will be supported to a large extent by voegelin essays continued preferences among consumers for premium spirits and whiskey-based cocktails et al. The increase in papers on sales will translate into voegelin essays, much higher profit margins for the distillery industry. Over and above, the distillery industry is a profitable industry and it is open for any aspiring entrepreneur to come in and establish his or her business; you can chose to strengths as a writer essay, start on a small scale (micro – distillery) or you can chose to start on voegelin a large scale (mega – distillery). Distillery Business Plan Executive Summary. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is a standard distillery plant that will be located in an industrial area in Bay – Orleans, Massachusetts. We have been able to secure a long term lease for a facility in a strategic location with an option of a long term renewal on an agreed terms and conditions that is barthes favorable to us. The facility has government approval for the kind of business we want to voegelin essays, run and it is books to do on easily accessible and we are deliberate about that to facilitate easy movement of raw materials and finished products.

We are in the distillery business to voegelin, produce top taste and finely distilled alcoholic drinks such as Whisky, Spirit coolers, Single Malt, Vodka, Gin, Rum, Fruit Liqueurs, Eaux de Vie, Cocktail Bitters, Wild Blueberry and basic ethyl alcohol that can compete with any other distillery depot in easy to do papers the United States of America and in voegelin any part of the world. We are also in business to make profits at the same to give our customers value for their money; we want to give people and businesses who patronize our distilled alcoholic drinks the opportunity to be part of the success story of Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC. We are aware that there are several standard and micro – distilleries scattered all around the United States and Canada whose products can be found in every nooks and on technology management, crannies of The United States and essays, Canada, which is why we spent time and resources to conduct our feasibility studies and market survey so as to book report, enable us locate the business in voegelin essays an area that will support the growth of the writer essay, business and voegelin, also for and weaknesses as a essay us to be able offer much more than our competitors will be offering. We ensured that our facility is easy to locate and we have mapped out plans to develop a wide distribution network for wholesalers all around the United States of America and Canada. Much more than producing top taste and finely distilled alcoholic drinks, our customer care is going to be second to none. We know that our customers are the reason why we are in business which is why we will go the extra mile to get them satisfied when they visit purchase any of our distilled alcoholic drinks and also to become our loyal customers and ambassadors. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC will ensure that all our customers are given first class treatment whenever they visit our Depot / Plant. We have a CRM software that will enable us manage a one on one relationship with our customers no matter how large the numbers of our customer base may grow to. We will ensure that we get our customers involved when making some business decisions that will directly or indirectly affect them. Essays? Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is family business that will be owned by mathesis Mark Harrison Clay and voegelin essays, Family. Mark Harrison who is the Chief Executive Officer of the Company is Graduate of Micro Biology (B.Sc.) and thesis compensation, he holds a Master’s Degree in Business Management (MBA).

He has well over 15 years of experience working in related industry as a senior manager prior to starting Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC. He will be working with a team of professionals to build the business and grow it to enviably height. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is going to operate a standard and licensed distillery whose products will not only be sold in the United States and voegelin essays, Canada but also in other parts of the world. We are in the distillery business to make profits and also to give our customers value for their money. These are some of the products that we will retail in our liquor store; Whisky Spirit coolers Single Malt Vodka Absinthe Gin Rum Fruit Liqueurs Eaux de Vie Apple Brandy Cocktail Bitters Wild Blueberry Basic ethyl alcohol Cranberry Liqueur. Our vision is to establish standard distillery plant whose products will be not only be sold in the United States of America and Canada, but also in thesis on employee compensation other parts of the world. Our mission is to establish a standard distillery plant that will produce a wide range of spirits and whiskey for both low income earners and for luxury consumption. Voegelin Essays? We want to build a distillery business that will be listed amongst the top 10 distilleries in the United States of the hobbit book essay America and Canada. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is essays a business that is established with the aim of competing favorably with other leading distilleries and brands in the industry. This is why we will ensure that we put the right structure in place that will support the kind of growth that we have in human rights case studies in australia mind while setting up the business. We will ensure that we only hire people that are qualified, honest, hardworking, customer centric and voegelin, are ready to the hobbit, work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stake holders (the owners, workforce, and customers).

As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of five years or more depending how fast we meet our set target. Voegelin? In view of that, we have decided to hire qualified and competent hands to occupy the following positions; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Plant Manager Human Resources and Admin Manager Warehouse Manager Merchandize Manager Sales and Marketing Manager Information Technologist Accountants / Cashiers Cleaners. Roles and Responsibilities. Chief Executive Officer – CEO (Owner): Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and human studies, disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. Creating, communicating, and essays, implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for providing direction for the business Creating, communicating, and phd thesis management, implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. Essays? leading the the hobbit report, development and implementation of the essays, overall organization#8217;s strategy. Phd Thesis On Technology Management? Responsible for voegelin signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization. Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of the distillery plant Part of the team that determines the thesis, quantity of drinks that are to be produced Map out strategy that will lead to efficiency amongst workers in the plant Responsible for voegelin training, evaluation and assessment of plant workers Ensures that the steady flow of both raw materials to the plant and easy flow of finished products through wholesale distributors to the market Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs.

Ensures that the on employee compensation, plant meets the expected safety and health standard at all times. Voegelin Essays? Human Resources and Admin Manager. Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and on employee, administrative tasks for the organization Updates job knowledge by participating in educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations. Enhances department and organization reputation by accepting ownership for accomplishing new and different requests; exploring opportunities to add value to job accomplishments. Defining job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carrying out staff induction for new team members Responsible for voegelin training, evaluation and assessment of employees Oversee the smooth running of the daily office and factory activities. On Technology Management? Responsible for voegelin managing the daily activities in the warehouse Ensure that the warehouse facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Interfaces with third – party providers (vendors) Control the supply floor inventory Ensure that goods and products are properly arranged Supervise the entire warehouse Any other duty as assigned by the CEO. Manage vendor relations, market visits, and the ongoing education and development of the organizations’ buying teams Help to ensure consistent quality of phd thesis on technology management distilled drinks Responsible for the purchase of raw materials and voegelin essays, packaging materials (bottles and cans et al) Responsible for strengths and weaknesses essay planning sales, monitoring inventory, selecting the merchandise, and writing and pricing orders to vendors Ensures that the organization operates within stipulated budget. Voegelin? Sales and Marketing Manager.

Manage external research and coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the organizations’ best customers and attract new ones Model demographic information and analyze the volumes of on employee transactional data generated by customer purchases Identify, prioritize, and reach out to new partners, and business opportunities et al Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develop, execute and evaluate new plans for expanding increase sales Document all customer contact and information Represent the company in essays strategic meetings Help increase sales and growth for management the company. Manage the organization website Handles ecommerce aspect of the business Responsible for installing and maintenance of computer software and hardware for voegelin essays the organization Manage logistics and supply chain software, Web servers, e-commerce software and POS (point of sale) systems Manage the organization’s CCTV Handles any other technological and IT related duties. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for easy financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the organization Serves as internal auditor for the organization.

Client Service Executive. Ensures that all contacts with customer (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the voegelin essays, client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with customers on the phone, uses every opportunity to easy to do papers on, build client’s interest in the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by the store manager in an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on Pappy J Sons Liquor Store products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is voegelin supplied to students when they make enquiries. Rights? Responsible for voegelin essays cleaning the on technology management, store facility at all times Ensure that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of stock Cleans both the interior and exterior of the store facility Any other duty as assigned by the restaurant manager. Voegelin Essays? Distillery Business Plan SWOT Analysis. We are quite aware that there are several distilleries both standard and micro – distilleries in the United States of America and phd thesis, Canada which is voegelin essays why we are following the due process of establishing a business so as to books research, compete favorable with them. We know that if a proper SWOT analysis is conducted for our business, we will be able to position our business to maximize our strength, leverage on the opportunities that will be available to us, mitigate our risks and be welled equipped to confront our threats. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC employed the services of an expert HR and Business Analyst with bias in start – up business to help us conduct a thorough SWOT analysis and to help us create a business model that will help us achieve our business goals and objectives. This is the summary of the voegelin, SWOT analysis that was conducted for roland barthes Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC; Part of what is going to count as positives for Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is the vast experience of our management team, we have people on board who are highly experienced and understands how to grow business from the scratch to becoming a national phenomenon.

So also the wide varieties of spirits and whiskeys et al that we produce, our large national distribution network and of course our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for the business. A major weakness that may count against us is the fact that we are a new distillery plant and we don’t have the financial capacity to engage in the kind of publicity that we intend giving the business especially when big names like Bacardi USA, Beam Inc., Brown-Forman Corporation, Campari America, Constellation Brands, Diageo, Florida Caribbean Distillers, Luxco, Moet Hennessy USA, Patron Spirits Company are already determining the direction of the market. The opportunities for voegelin essays mega distilleries with a wide range of distilled products are enormous. This due to the fact that the average Americans and Canadians consume distilled products. As a result of that, we were able to conduct a thorough market survey and feasibility studies so as to position our business to take advantage of the and weaknesses as a, existing market for essays distilled products and also to create our own new market. Strengths As A Writer Essay? We know that it is voegelin essays going to requires hard work, and we are determined to achieve it.

We are quite aware that just like any other business, one of the major threats that we are likely going to book, face is economic downturn and unfavorable government policies. Voegelin? It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing power. Another threat that may likely confront us is the on employee compensation, arrival of a new distillery plant in same location where ours is located. Distillery Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. Closely observing the distillery industry shows that one of the voegelin essays, most recent trend is that mega distillers now prefer to create their own micro-distillery within their current operation so as to boost sales and rights case in australia, take their business closer to voegelin essays, locals in the their target communities. To Do Research Papers? So also in the bid to outsmart other distilleries, most distilleries ensure that they keep trying out different flavors and distillery techniques. Some of voegelin essays them make use of a rotavap i.e. Human Rights Case? glassware as against essays copper pot on a small scale to produce distilled spirits which they retail to their walk in customers. Some distilleries use vacuum equipment to conduct distillation at books research, much reduced temperatures, resulting in voegelin essays less cooked aromatics.

In recent time, flavored distilled alcoholic drinks (Spirit and easy books research on, Whiskey et al) have become increasingly popular, especially among upwardly mobile and trendy young people. Voegelin? This is the major reason why many distillers have each launched their own innovative twists on their classic brands. For instance, Campari recently introduced an American Honey offshoot of its Wild Turkey brand. On Technology? So also Jack Daniel#8217;s produced a new seasonal blend of apple cider liqueur, spices and Jack Daniel#8217;s Old No. 7 Tennessee Whiskey. Another trend in the distillery industry is that most distillers now produce expensive distilled drinks for voegelin essays the high end clients and also normal distilled drinks for everyday people. Statistics has it that consumers have experienced appreciable increasing disposable income since 2009, and strengths essay, as a result, many have sought out voegelin essays, expensive distilled alcoholic brands that are perceived to be classy and of higher quality.

When it comes to selling distilled alcoholic drinks, there is indeed a wide range of available customers. In essence, our target market can’t be restricted to just a group of people, but all those who drink alcohol and those who would want to try out spirits and whiskey et al. Thesis? One thing is essays certain; our distilled alcoholic drinks will not be sold to people who are under aged. In view of that, we have conducted our market research and we have ideas of what our target market would be expecting from us. We are in rights case in australia business to voegelin, engage in wholesale distribution and to retail a wide range of the hobbit distilled alcoholic drinks to the following groups of voegelin essays people; Corporate Executives Government Officials Business People Celebrities Military Men and Women Sports Men and Women (with the exemption of under – age) Students (with the exemption of under – age) Tourists Every adult in the neighborhood where our distilled alcoholic drinks will be sold. Our Competitive Advantage. On Employee? Although we are set out to establish a standard distillery plan in essays Bay – Orleans, Massachusetts whose products will be sold throughout the United States of America and Canada, but that those not stop us from setting up smaller (micro – distilleries) across major cities so as to human case in australia, bring our brands closer to locals.

This is part of the competitive advantage that we are bringing into the market. Another competitive advantage that we have is the vast experience of our management team, we have people on board who are highly experienced and understands how to grow business from the scratch to becoming a national phenomenon. So also the wide varieties of spirits and whiskeys et al that we produce, our large national distribution network and of course our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for the business. One thing is certain; we will ensure that we produce a wide range of distilled drinks with different flavors so as to give our customers various options. Distillery Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the distillery industry in both the United States of essays America and Canada and we are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to sell a wide range of distilled alcoholic products to a wide range of customers. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC will generate income by selling the following distilled alcoholic products; Whisky Spirit coolers Single Malt Vodka Absinthe Gin Rum Fruit Liqueurs Eaux de Vie Apple Brandy Cocktail Bitters Wild Blueberry Basic ethyl alcohol Cranberry Liqueur. It is important to state that our sales forecast is based on the data gathered during our feasibility studies, market survey and also some of the assumptions readily available on the field.

Below are the sales projections that we were able to come up with for the first three years of operations; N.B : This projection is done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and the arrival of a competitor in same location as ours within the period stated above. Strengths And Weaknesses As A Writer Essay? Please note that the voegelin, above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. Distillery Business Plan Marketing Strategy and roland mathesis, Sales Strategy. Voegelin? Before choosing a location for phd thesis Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC and also the voegelin, kind of distilled drinks to case studies in australia, produce, we conduct a thorough market survey and feasibility studies in order for us to be able to be able to penetrate the available market of those who consume distilled drinks. Voegelin? We have detailed information and data that we were able to barthes, utilize to structure our business to voegelin essays, attract the numbers of customers we want to attract per time and strengths and weaknesses, also for our products to voegelin essays, favorable compete with other leading brands in the United States of America and Canada. We hired experts who have good understanding of the distillery industry to help us develop marketing strategies that will help us achieve our business goal of easy to do research papers on winning a larger percentage of the available market in the United States of America and Canada. In other to essays, continue to phd thesis, be in business and grow, we must continue to sell our products to the available market which is why we will go all out to empower or sales and marketing team to deliver our corporate sales goals. In summary, Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC will adopt the following sales and marketing approach to sell our distilled alcoholic drinks; Introduce our distilled alcoholic drinks brand by sending introductory letters to residence, alcohol merchants and other stakeholders both in the United States of America and voegelin essays, Canada Open our distillery plant with a party so as to capture the studies, attention of residence who are our first targets Engage in road show in targeted communities from time to time to sell our products Advertise our products in community based newspapers, local TV and radio stations List our business and products on yellow pages ads (local directories) Leverage on the internet to promote our distilled alcoholic brands Engage in direct marketing and voegelin, sales Encourage the use of Word of mouth marketing (referrals)

Distillery Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Despite the fact that our distillery plant is a standard one with a wide range of products that can favorably compete with other leading brands, we will still go ahead to intensify publicity for all our products and barthes, brand. We are going to explore all available means to voegelin essays, promote Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC. Thesis? Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC has a long term plan of opening micro distilleries in various locations all around the United States of America and Canada which is why we will deliberately build our brand to be well accepted in Bay – Orleans, Massachusetts before venturing out. As a matter of essays fact, our publicity and advertising strategy is not solely for selling our products but to also effectively communicate our brand. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and roland barthes mathesis, advertise Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC; Place adverts on both print (community based newspapers and magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on essays strategic locations all around major cities in the United States of America and Canada Engage in road show from time to phd thesis on technology management, time in voegelin targeted communities Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Position our Flexi Banners at strategic positions in the location where we intend getting customers to strengths, start patronizing our products. Ensure that all our staff members wear our customized clothes, and voegelin essays, all our official cars and the hobbit report essay, distribution vans are customized and well branded. Our Pricing Strategy.

When it comes to pricing for products such as whiskies and voegelin essays, spirits, there are two sides to case studies in australia, the coin. We are aware of the pricing trend in the distillery industry which is why we have decided to produce products for both high – end customers and regular consumers of distilled spirits / whiskies et al. In view of that, our prices will conform to what is obtainable in the industry but will ensure that within the essays, first 6 to 12 months our products are sold a little bit below the average prices of various distilled alcoholic brands in the United States of America. Human Rights In Australia? We have put in place business strategies that will help us run on low profits for a period of 6 months; it is essays a way of encouraging people to buy into our brands. At Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC, our payment policy is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that will be available in every of our outlets; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any itches.

Distillery Business Plan Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) Starting a standard distillery is indeed a capital intensive business. This is so because the amount required to set – up a distillery is not a piecemeal. Human? The bulk of the start – up capital will be sent on leasing or acquiring a facility and also in voegelin purchasing the distillery equipment. Aside from writer essay that, you are not expected to spend much except for paying of your employees and utility bills. This is the key areas where we will spend our start – up capital; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in essays Massachusetts $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and easy books research on, permits as well as the accounting services (software, P.O.S machines and voegelin, other software) $1,300. Marketing promotion expenses for strengths and weaknesses writer the grand opening of Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC in the amount of $3,500 and as well as flyer printing (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580. Cost for voegelin hiring Business Consultant – $2,500. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $2,400.

Cost for payment of rights case studies rent for 12 month at $1.76 per square feet in the total amount of $105,600. Cost for construction of essays a standard distillery $100,000. Strengths As A Writer? Other start-up expenses including stationery ($500) and phone and utility deposits ($2,500). Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of voegelin essays employees, payments of bills et al) $100,000 The cost for Start-up inventory (raw materials and packaging materials et al) $80,000 Storage hardware (bins, rack, shelves, food case) $3,720 The cost for counter area equipment (counter top, sink, ice machine, etc.) $9,500 Cost for distillery equipment $100,000 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Cost of purchase of distribution vans $100,000 The cost for phd thesis on technology the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al) $4,000. The cost of voegelin essays Launching a Website $600 The cost for our opening party $10,000 Miscellaneous $10,000. We would need an estimate of $1.2M to successfully set up our distillery plant in to do Bay – Orleans, Massachusetts. Please note that this amount includes the salaries of all the voegelin, staff for the first 3 month of operation. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC. Book Report? Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is a family business that is voegelin essays owned and financed by Mark Harrison Clay and Family. They do not intend to welcome any external business partner which is why he has decided to restrict the sourcing of the easy books to do research on, start – up capital to 3 major sources. These are the voegelin, areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings and sell of stocks Source for soft loans from phd thesis on technology family members and friends Apply for voegelin essays loan from my Bank.

N.B: We have been able to generate about management $500,000 (Personal savings $400,000 and soft loan from family members $100,000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of voegelin $700,000 from our bank. All the papers and document have been signed and submitted, the easy books research, loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited with the essays, amount. Distillery Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of management a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If any of these factors is voegelin essays missing from easy to do research on a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC will ensure that all the factors listed above are reinforced on a regular basis, we will continue to voegelin, improvise with our products and also we will engage in continuous capacity building of our workforce. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to the hobbit book essay, all our management staff and it will be based on voegelin essays their performance for a period of five years or more. Thesis Compensation? We will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in voegelin place to ensure that staff welfare is well taken of.

Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at the top burner. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for thesis business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Leasing of facility and construction of distillery plant: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and essays, Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, racks, shelves, computers, electronic appliances, office appliances and CCTV: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business both online and around the community: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – wholesale suppliers / merchants: In Progress.

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Published Essays, 1922-1928 - Eric Voegelin - Google Books

Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the voegelin essays French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the Conditions of Production [1] I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint.

Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them). Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an book essay, empiricist type) of the point of view of production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of view of reproduction. Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically.

To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of voegelin essays, production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the human in australia conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce. Voegelin Essays! It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the on employee existing relations of essays, production. Reproduction of the Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in book report, Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the reproduction of the means of production. The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is voegelin needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the average economist = the as a writer average capitalist, for they both express the essays point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on compensation the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice.

But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of voegelin essays, Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at roland mathesis the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of voegelin essays, reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in mathesis, his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. Voegelin Essays! And Mr Y and Mr Z, in management, order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of voegelin essays, production, also have to reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to study in particular the relations of the circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of means of thesis on employee compensation, consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in voegelin, Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is easy to do research papers enough to have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the essays material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing.

We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production – but not the the hobbit report essay reproduction of the productive forces. We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of essays, production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for case studies in australia good reason: the reproduction of voegelin, labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in the accounting of strengths and weaknesses writer, each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to enable the voegelin wage earner to present himself again at the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the children in writer essay, whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power.

Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by voegelin essays, the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum. I should also like to point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by rights studies in australia, the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to be set to essays, work in the complex system of the process of production. The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the easy research papers on result that the labour power has to essays, be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to phd thesis, the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’. How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to voegelin essays, be provided for ‘on the barthes spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and voegelin, more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. What do children learn at compensation school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to voegelin essays, add – i.e. a number of human, techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.).

Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and voegelin essays, knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is rights case studies ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for voegelin the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination. They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. Rights! actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. Voegelin! (ideally) to roland mathesis, ‘speak to them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only voegelin a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for compensation the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’. All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in voegelin essays, order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the the hobbit report exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the voegelin essays reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for roland it is clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the essays skills of labour power.

But this is to phd thesis management, recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other. But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the relations of production. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it.

But in order to obtain the means to voegelin essays, discuss it, I shall have to easy books, make another long detour. The second comment is essays that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society? Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the phd thesis on technology Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.).

Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in voegelin essays, the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base.

Thus the object of the essay metaphor of the essays edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base. The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an human rights studies, index of effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by what happens in the economic base. Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of voegelin essays, effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only roland barthes insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to voegelin, the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of roland barthes mathesis, index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and essays, that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the human rights case theoretical problem of the voegelin types of to do, ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to essays, think what the on technology Marxist tradition calls conjointly the voegelin essays relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base. The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the fact that it is report essay metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently.

NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in order to voegelin, reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in roland, the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on essays the basis of reproduction. Once one takes the point of view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction.

I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and phd thesis, the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus. The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of voegelin, big landowners) to the hobbit book report, ensure their domination over voegelin the working class, thus enabling the former to the hobbit report, subject the essays latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to book report essay, the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and voegelin, its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and above this ensemble, the head of State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on rights case the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of voegelin, rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. On Technology! The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the voegelin essays ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is thesis quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such.

Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is voegelin essays necessary in order to remove any ambiguity. Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of book report, their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to voegelin essays, think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the books to do research phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of every theory, at least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations). As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of ‘contradiction’. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it.

This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the voegelin essays theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to us is still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the barthes shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of voegelin, every later development of the human in australia theory. Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in the domain with which it is voegelin concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object. Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in strengths and weaknesses as a essay, the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in voegelin essays, the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the human rights case in australia masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the voegelin essays bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of this phase. For it is clear that if the and weaknesses writer definition in question really does give us the voegelin essays means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of thesis, obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the voegelin essays accumulation of facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the State, i.e. the scientific theory of the phd thesis management State.

Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of essays, ‘blocking’ the thesis on employee compensation development of the theory, and yet that development is essential. That is voegelin why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in order to understand further the books research on mechanisms of the State in voegelin essays, its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to books papers, add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in voegelin essays, its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State. Phd Thesis On Technology Management! By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of essays, State power by book report essay, a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to essays, distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by strengths and weaknesses writer essay, bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the voegelin essays Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in human case studies in australia, France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the essays use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of classes or of fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the strengths and weaknesses writer proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the voegelin destruction of the state (the end of state power, the end of every state apparatus).

In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in so many words. But it seems to management, me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development. The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. [7] I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of essays, this corresponding theory.

To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the State it is rights indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. Essays! I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the book essay Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus. Voegelin Essays! Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of the hobbit book report essay, distinct and specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the family ISA, [8] the voegelin legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the roland mathesis trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.).

I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the essays difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is management a plurality of voegelin essays, Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is mathesis clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private. We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions.

As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the public and essays, the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the thesis on employee State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the law’: the essays State, which is the State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses. It is unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is how they function.

Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction. I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the compensation (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the voegelin Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is human studies in australia essential to voegelin essays, say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the and weaknesses essay cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the voegelin essays Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses?

Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by in australia, ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in essays, fact unified, despite its diversity and phd thesis management, its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in voegelin, principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and compensation, therefore has at essays its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is on employee compensation ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in essays, the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions. Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the the hobbit report intermediary of the voegelin essays ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity.

To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only easy need one example and proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for voegelin the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in book essay, a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of essays, class struggle. The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the roland barthes thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point.

I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on the one hand, and voegelin, the State Apparatus on the other. But I add that the rights case State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the following question is voegelin essays bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on? In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by ideology, correspond?

On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is books research papers secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essays essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by book, the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the voegelin essays (Repressive) State Apparatus, on thesis on employee compensation the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and voegelin essays, it can be assembled in the form of the book report essay following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by voegelin essays, the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an rights studies in australia, objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Essays! Whereas the unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the rights studies in australia politics of the class struggle of the essays classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is thesis compensation secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class. Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the voegelin relations of production [13] in the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation.

Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the human rights studies in australia reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. Essays! It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the phd thesis ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the essays intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the rights in australia repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the voegelin essays different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of strengths and weaknesses essay, ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the voegelin reproduction of the relations of production. Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of production characterized by strengths writer essay, ‘serfdom’ (usually called the voegelin essays feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different.

For example, we observe that during the strengths and weaknesses writer essay Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the essays ancestors of the modern political parties, and barthes, the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and voegelin, the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of as a writer, communications and ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to essays, the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and phd thesis, achievement of the voegelin French Revolution was not just to thesis on employee compensation, transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to voegelin, break part of the and weaknesses as a writer former repressive State apparatus and voegelin, replace it with a new one (e.g., the and weaknesses national popular Army) but also to attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church. Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the voegelin essays confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.

Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of human case in australia, bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. Voegelin! It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for decades after the fall of the book Second Empire, in order to voegelin essays, conduct its struggle against books papers on, the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in essays, mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in studies in australia, capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the essays political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the the hobbit essay First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only voegelin essays France. In England this is even clearer. The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by rights, peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for essays a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the in australia imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the voegelin imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. Strengths And Weaknesses As A Writer! as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in voegelin essays, its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the book essay Church.

One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function? For the moment it must suffice to say: 1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the voegelin relations of production, i.e. of capitalist relations of the hobbit essay, exploitation. 2. Voegelin Essays! Each of thesis compensation, them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to voegelin essays, it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the easy to do research on ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and voegelin essays, television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of essay, sport in chauvinism is of the first importance), etc. The religious apparatus by recalling in essays, sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is human rights studies dominated by essays, a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the report remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into its music the essays great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of phd thesis on technology, Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism.

4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the voegelin School. It takes children from every class at thesis compensation infant-school age, and then for years, the years in which the child is essays most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the thesis on employee sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Essays! Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the human case summit, either to fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the voegelin essays collective labourer’, the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the research papers on role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and voegelin, speak to roland, them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and voegelin, enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the human case studies demagogy of voegelin essays, a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the and weaknesses as a writer professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. Voegelin! with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of thesis compensation, Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.). Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in essays, films and even in the football stadium. But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in strengths as a, a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to essays, exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced.

The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is rights in australia one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is . Voegelin! lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to book essay, the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by their own example, by voegelin, knowledge, literature and strengths and weaknesses as a writer, their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in voegelin, dreadful conditions, attempt to roland barthes, turn the few weapons they can find in voegelin, the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in which they are trapped. On Technology Management! They are a kind of hero. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into voegelin essays, performing it with the writer most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School. It is coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. We can now claim that the essays unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on on technology management a political meaning, given that the voegelin essays School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the human in australia relations of production of a mode of voegelin essays, production threatened in mathesis, its existence by essays, the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and roland, their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works.

Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. Essays! The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further. However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of phd thesis, ideology. Voegelin Essays! In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the thesis on employee compensation 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment).

As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of such a theory. The theses I am about to essays, put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of thesis on employee compensation, all to essays, expound the reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at least to phd thesis on technology management, justify, the project of a theory of essays, ideology in as a, general , and not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is voegelin essays necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested.

It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in rights, general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is voegelin essays clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the and weaknesses as a writer project of a theory of essays, ideology in general , and if this theory really is and weaknesses as a writer essay one of the elements on voegelin essays which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in thesis, the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the essays other forms of ideology).

In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is as a writer essay external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. Essays! null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’. For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and ideology (since in book essay, this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.

Ideology, then, is for voegelin Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the easy on concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the voegelin history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by barthes, the alienation of the division of essays, labour, but that, too, is easy books to do research a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the contrary, for it is merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is possible to voegelin, hold that ideolog ies have a history of compensation, their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on voegelin the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the report peculiarity of ideology is that it is essays endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in human rights case studies in australia, the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies. To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an voegelin, organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the unconscious is and weaknesses writer essay eternal , i.e. that it has no history.

If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of essays, history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and write ideology is eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is the hobbit report why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of voegelin, ideology in roland, general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the voegelin phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in essay, its immutable form throughout history (= the history of voegelin essays, social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history. Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the thesis Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to voegelin essays, approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive.

The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’. Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the roland barthes mathesis truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to voegelin, discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and compensation, the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the voegelin theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the books research papers imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.

They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the voegelin essays Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the thesis real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of essays, Feuerbach, taken over word for word by Marx in his Early Works) is books to do papers on more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and voegelin essays, finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of men’s conditions of existence. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims. This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of strengths and weaknesses as a, existence of men themselves. This is how, in voegelin, The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an the hobbit book essay, alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of voegelin, existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by on technology, the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’). All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. Voegelin Essays! that what is reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of existence of men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in easy to do research, ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of existence which is represented to them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the real world. Voegelin! It is this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to explain the easy books to do research imaginary distortion of the voegelin essays ideological representation of the real world.

Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to advance the thesis that it is the thesis compensation imaginary nature of voegelin essays, this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology. To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the representation of the rights studies in australia real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in voegelin, its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from thesis them), but above all the essays (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of as a writer essay, production and the relations that derive from them. What is represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live. If this is the case, the question of the voegelin ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and the hobbit report essay, must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of voegelin essays, this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’ [14] , by a group of thesis on employee, individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world.

We shall see why later in essays, my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of roland, ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the practicians of the essays sciences represent to themselves in thesis on employee, their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Voegelin Essays! Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven. I simply ask that the strengths and weaknesses reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is voegelin essays indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the nature of ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to roland mathesis, every observer, however critical.

While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and essays, their practices, I said that each of them was the human case in australia realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. Voegelin! – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices. This existence is material. Of course, the material existence of the book essay ideology in an apparatus and voegelin essays, its practices does not have the same modality as the on employee material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for voegelin essays Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in and weaknesses essay, the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in voegelin, a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in the last instance, to the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence.

Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc. This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the strengths as a essay ideas of the voegelin essays individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the phd thesis on technology (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to Church to essays, attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in rights studies, the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to voegelin essays, the correct principles’. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in barthes mathesis, the actions of his material practice.

If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the essays same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in easy books research papers on, his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is voegelin either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to exist in essay, his actions, and if that is not the voegelin case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform. This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into on employee compensation, practices. And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself.

A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for voegelin we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an individual) is book concerned, the existence of the ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by essays, material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject. Naturally, the four inscriptions of the roland barthes adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the voegelin materialities of a displacement for going to mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of roland mathesis, a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and voegelin essays, the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at as a all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and essays, simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on books to do research papers the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas. Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.

Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by essays, an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the barthes following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions. From this series I shall immediately extract the voegelin essays decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by phd thesis management, and in an ideology; 2. there is essays no ideology except by as a, the subject and for voegelin subjects. I can now come to my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects.

This thesis is simply a matter of the hobbit book, making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by essays, the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of roland barthes mathesis, bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology, [15] the category of the essays subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at the same time and immediately I add that the category of the subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects. Case Studies! In the interaction of essays, this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is and weaknesses as a writer essential to realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in voegelin essays, which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’.

That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in thesis on employee compensation, the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for you and for me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’ At work in voegelin essays, this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is mathesis one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of essays, misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is strengths writer essay him’, or ‘her’. Voegelin Essays! We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’.

To take another example, when we recognize somebody of strengths and weaknesses writer essay, our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in voegelin, the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in roland barthes, France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and voegelin essays, the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the easy books research ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you. But to recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by your name, the fact of essays, knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the and weaknesses as a writer ‘consciousness’ of voegelin, our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Book Report Essay! Now it is this knowledge that we have to voegelin, reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and phd thesis on technology management, from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on voegelin ideology. Thus in order to represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to thesis on employee compensation, be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by voegelin essays, the functioning of the category of the subject. This is compensation a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on voegelin essays the other, although at this level concrete subjects only roland mathesis exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the voegelin individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and barthes, which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject.

Why? Because he has recognized that the voegelin essays hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else). Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is barthes mathesis such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. And yet it is voegelin essays a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for the convenience and clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of strengths and weaknesses as a essay, a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for voegelin essays him, i.e. Easy Research On! recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing. But in reality these things happen without any succession. Essays! The existence of ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in ideology.

What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by on technology management, definition outside ideology: one of the effects of voegelin, ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by the hobbit report, ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the essays accusation of being in barthes mathesis, ideology only voegelin applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is easy books to do really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail. But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and self-criticism, the golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the essays class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and strengths as a essay, say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to essays, making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Compensation! Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are.

This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at all. Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in voegelin, which the unborn child is on technology expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and voegelin essays, be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is strengths as a writer essay ‘expected’ once it has been conceived.

I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the voegelin former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and all the rituals of rearing and then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by its effects as being the unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to on employee compensation, is the way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and voegelin, their respective roles, are reflected in on technology, the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.

Let us therefore consider the voegelin Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and book essay, ‘make it speak’, i.e. Voegelin! collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and rights, its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in voegelin, order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on human rights case ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter!

This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in essays, the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is your place in the world! This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ! Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and papers, banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in essays, order to and weaknesses, ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by voegelin essays, their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in to do research, such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is essays me! ’ if it obtains from on employee compensation them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. Voegelin! . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is case dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on voegelin the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e.

God. It is convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and the hobbit book report, central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects. All this is clearly [20] written in what is rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud. And the essays Lord cried to to do research, Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and voegelin essays, I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the roland mathesis Subject par excellence , he who is voegelin through himself and for easy books to do himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to voegelin, God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments. God is thus the Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of God?

As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to on technology management, do what prepares the voegelin way for book report the final Redemption, the Resurrection of voegelin, Christ. Thesis On Employee Compensation! God thus needs to ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St. Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is essays solely in order that finally, on human rights in australia Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. [21] Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and voegelin, of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in books, a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in voegelin essays, essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in thesis on employee compensation, it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and voegelin, have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved.

Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of essay, ideology ensures simultaneously: 1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the voegelin mutual recognition of subjects and Subject, the thesis on employee compensation subjects’ recognition of each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of himself; [22]

4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and voegelin, behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to phd thesis management, the Subject, of voegelin essays, universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by easy, themselves’ in the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on voegelin occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus. But the vast majority of phd thesis on technology, (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is so and not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is voegelin essays simply the barthes mathesis inscription in life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’. Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the essays quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject.

In the ordinary use of the thesis compensation term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and essays, responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is books to do research on merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and actions of his subjection ‘all by himself’. There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to voegelin, be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to be assured, even in human rights case in australia, the processes of production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the voegelin essays posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is rights case studies really in question in this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and voegelin essays, of the guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’? The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the relations deriving from them.

P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the strengths and weaknesses writer functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of essays, production. As an the hobbit book essay, element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction. But the essays point of view of their contribution alone is still an abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is the hobbit realized. It is essays realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in which the training of the workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc.

It is in barthes mathesis, the internal mechanisms of these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. For in a class society the relations of essays, production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes. The reproduction of the on employee compensation relations of production, the voegelin essays ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for book report the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in voegelin, the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of thesis on employee compensation, labour is the essays form and mask of a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the easy to do research on relations of production can therefore only be a class undertaking. Voegelin! It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle. To adopt the point of view of reproduction is books to do research therefore in the last instance, to adopt the point of view of the voegelin class struggle. 2. The Hobbit! The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation.

The ‘mechanism’ of essays, ideology in general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in rights, general ). If there is any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in voegelin essays, institutions, in their rituals and easy to do on, their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the relations of production. But the point of view itself however real, is voegelin essays still an abstract one. In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of rights case studies, exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes. Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of ideology in voegelin essays, general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the phd thesis on technology ruling ideology by the grace of essays, God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of State power alone. It is by the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology.

But this installation is report essay not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against voegelin, the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. In fact, the on technology class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the voegelin essays class struggle, sometimes an easy papers, important and essays, symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the on employee compensation class struggles in voegelin, the ISAs is writer only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the essays ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in books, those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from essays elsewhere. It is only from the point of on employee compensation, view of the classes, i.e. of the voegelin essays class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in on technology management, a social formation. Not only is it from this starting-point that it is possible to explain the realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the forms of class struggle for which the ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is also and above all from this starting-point that it is possible to understand the voegelin essays provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and human rights case studies, confront one another there. For if it is true that the ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the voegelin essays ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of two extracts from an ongoing study.

The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the rights case studies in australia author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209. 3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively). 5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the economic is at voegelin the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology. 7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc.

Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf. Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation. 8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an easy books to do research papers, ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. Voegelin Essays! In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs.

10. In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to the hobbit book, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of voegelin essays, production, which can be determined with the human rights studies in australia precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is voegelin thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in as a, the ideological forms of the ISAs. But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is essays because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the book report essay exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in voegelin essays, power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is on rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and voegelin essays, constitute the base for class relations.

12. For the most part. For the barthes mathesis relations of production are first reproduced by essays, the materiality of the processes of production and barthes, circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13. Essays! For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately. For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of strengths writer essay, a ‘clique’. 15.

Which borrowed the legal category of voegelin, ‘subject in law’ to make an ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Roland Barthes! Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against voegelin, difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the thesis ideological effects in voegelin, all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is writer one more proof of the fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time. 18. Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’.

19. Although we know that the voegelin individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21.

The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Compensation! Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in voegelin, the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.

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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Europe. Voegelin! Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for European clients in human rights studies Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from voegelin essays Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in rights government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is essays, a member of the New York Bar and on employee is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to assist my candidates with the essays substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word.

Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only barthes mathesis what he can in the time it takes to walk back to his office. You need to make the essays most important stuff jump off the books research papers on page. Use bold. Use bullet points. Essays! Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way. 2. Be concise and roland mathesis make every word count. This is related to Tip #1.

You want the voegelin most important stuff to jump off the page, but every word on your resume should serve the human studies in australia purpose of showing that you are the voegelin best candidate for the specific job. It’s just one page. Barthes Mathesis! 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. Keep in the forefront of essays, your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Strengths As A Writer! Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on voegelin essays, your resume. If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to talk about the research on any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues.

5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of essays, $300 million in floating rate notes by human a large U.S. Essays! manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. Strengths And Weaknesses Writer Essay! For example, which is voegelin, more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Books! Be sure all information is up-to-date. If you are no longer on essays, a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”).

No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of on employee, today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of voegelin, yours and not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. The Hobbit Book Report Essay! If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to break the ice or end the interview on a lighter note. Aside from voegelin true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and on employee compensation not just passive participant in these organizations. Essays! Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about barthes mathesis it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in voegelin raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in your chair and confess that you are on the e-mail list for phd thesis management, the committee but have yet to essays attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the page.

So if you went to a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. Thesis Compensation! In the voegelin essays case of a tie, I’d go with work experience first. On Employee Compensation! 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Voegelin! Tape your resume to a wall about roland mathesis 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint. Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Squint and voegelin essays then follow your instincts. Strengths As A Essay! 10.

Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. And another friend. And your legal recruiter. Voegelin Essays! Then proofread it again. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?.

Here’s a freebie. Roland Barthes Mathesis! It’s not the voegelin essays most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of thesis, you in the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in voegelin the right-hand sidebar on my screen. If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at human rights case studies, the firm where you’re interviewing.

Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on essays, the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. Easy Books To Do Research Papers On! But there are wrong ways. Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in the door in essays the next step of on technology, your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Lateral Link is one of the top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over voegelin essays, 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in roland placing attorneys at the most prestigious law firms in the world. Essays! Managed by former practicing attorneys from top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to on employee execute the lateral leaps of practicing attorneys.

Click ::here:: to find out more about us. Sign up for our newsletter. Voegelin! The Ugliest Law Schools In America. How Consultants Recommend Cutting Legal Bills. Senior Attorney Fired For Cruel Commentary On Las Vegas Shooting. Law Firm Partners Face 20+ Years In Prison On Bribery, Wire Fraud And Other Charges. The Trump Administration Seeks To Rip The Heart Out Of Labor And Employment Law. Woman Abandons Law Degree To Become Porn Star. The Freestanding Law Schools With The Highest Student Loan Default Rates. WilmerHale And The Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day Of Leaking Client Whistleblower Docs To The WSJ. On Employee Compensation! How Do Criminal Defense Attorneys Sleep At Night After Getting Killers Out Of Jail?

Lawyers Aren#8217;t Necessarily Good Managers#8230; So Why Do We Let Them Manage Firms? What’s Up With All The New York Mid-Market Lateral Moves? What Were You Thinking? Equifax GC Probed For Executive Stock Sales Before Public Learned Of Breach. Subscribe and get breaking news, commentary, and opinions on law firms, lawyers, law schools, lawsuits, judges, and more. Breaking Media Editor at Large. Sign up for our newsletter. 2017 Breaking Media, Inc. All rights reserved.

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English and essays, Comparative Literary Studies. This handbook is a guide that I’m hoping will enable you. It is and weaknesses as a writer essay geared, in particular, towards the seventeenth-century literature and culture module but I hope you will find it useful at voegelin essays other times too. I would like to stress, though, that it is not the phd thesis on technology only way to voegelin essays do things. It may be that you have much better ideas about what makes for a successful essay and have tried and thesis on employee compensation, tested methods of executing your research. There isn’t necessarily a right way and so I hope you will not see this as proscriptive and limiting. You should talk to all your tutors about what makes for a good essay to get a sense of the different ways that you might construct an essays, essay. 1. Essay writing (p.2) 2. Close reading (p. 4)

4. Constructing an mathesis, argument (p. 8) 5. Voegelin? Help with this particular assessment (p. As A Writer Essay? 9) 6. Grade descriptions (p. 10) 1. ESSAY WRITING (and historicist writing in particular) Essay writing has four stages: reading, planning, writing and proof-reading. Excepting the last, you may not find that they are not particularly discrete but rather interlinked and mutually informative. If any stage is skipped or done badly, though, it will impair your work. 1) Read the text and make sure you understand it.

Use the Oxford English Dictionary online to essays look up any words you don’t understand or if they are operating in an unfamiliar context. Available on the Warwick web: http://www.oed.com. 2) Do a close reading. Human Rights Studies? Make a list technical features (cf. the voegelin essays page in this booklet entitled ‘close reading’; refer to the section on poetic form in the back of your Norton Anthologies pp. 2944-52). Ask yourself: ‘how does the text achieve its effects?’ Then ask yourself: ‘how do those poetic effects relate to the meaning of the text?’. 3) Do some research, particularly on the historical theme, period, cultural group that you’re interested in. You could begin with a general history and then do a literature search for more specialist books and articles. Rights? It may help you to narrow your research to a particular theme or idea that is suggested, hopefully by your reading in 1) and voegelin, 2). Rather than trying to find out about the whole of seventeenth-century culture, limit your research to the restoration, cavalier culture, medicine, the roland barthes family or whatever. (See the handout on research).

4) Be careful when you take notes so that you will make no mistake, when you come to writing and referencing your work, about what is your work and what is someone else’s. Read and voegelin essays, be clear about the university’s rules on essay, plagiarism which are laid out in voegelin essays, the blue booklet ‘Essay Writing and Scholarly Practice’ which you can get from the general office. 1) Begin by making a spider plan of all your ideas and the relationships between them. IF YOU DON'T LIKE SPIDERS FORGET THIS BIT. 2) Then write out easy a paragraph (which you will not include in voegelin essays, your essay necessarily) called ‘MY LINE OF ARGUMENT’. This will be information to yourself (so it can be very boringly and functionally written) about what you intend to say.

Ideally this should be a single big idea, which you can sustain for the length of the essay, made up of stages that can be demonstrated with reference to the passage in question. It may well be that you want to write something similar to in australia this ‘line of argument’ paragraph, only in a more dynamic and elegant way, for your introduction. See the page entitled ‘constructing an argument’ that has an example of a ‘line of argument’ paragraph. 3) Then write out a linear plan of voegelin essays, your essay with a logical ARGUMENT, an argument that is assertively stated and human case studies in australia, then proved through the course of your piece. TIP: try not to voegelin essays separate out style, content and context; discuss them together to show how the relate to one another. You are aiming to produce something that identifies and describes both the compensation wood and the trees; indeed, the trees are your evidence for the existence of the wood! You need to essays put together a big argument out of lots of bits of evidence. 1) Everyone has his or her own way of writing. I sometimes find it easier to on employee compensation write the middle of the essay first and then come to the introduction last, which is perhaps the hardest bit to write. You may find that your ideas change and are worked out more fully as you start to write. Essays? In which case go back to B) and produce another plan.

Present your ideas as a finished thought, rather than a thought process. 2) Keep yourself closely to your argument by imagining your reader. Perhaps a friend, a tutor or a parent might serve: imagine them behind you as you write asking ‘SO WHAT?’, making you insist on thesis compensation, its relevance and trying to voegelin essays prove a particular point. Imagine that you are a newspaper editor writing a polemic, trying to convince your readership of a particular point of book, view. 3) Inventing a title and writing an introduction. You should try to make your essay interesting to an examiner. Voegelin Essays? Which do you think is the best of these three titles: ‘Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’; ‘Discuss the question of barthes mathesis, race in Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’; ‘The “gallant slave”: the idea of the noble savage in Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’. Similarly with the introduction.

The first sentence should grab the voegelin examiner immediately. Which is a better first sentence: ‘Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko was published in 1688 and and weaknesses essay, is a prose work about Surinam’; ‘At the heart of voegelin, Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko stands the deep paradox of the ‘royal slave’. 4) Using secondary literary criticism. It is, of course, good to read lots and to books to do research papers on incorporate that reading into your work. What you are attempting to do, though, is to position your independently arrived at voegelin ideas in relation to phd thesis management other critics in the field. You shouldn’t be deferential or let the ideas of others drag you off course. You should USE other people’s work in the service of your own argument. For example, you might disagree with a critic; you might apply their theory about one text to voegelin essays another; you might say that their work hasn’t gone far enough in its assessment. Never use a quotation from someone else to clinch an argument: just because someone famous has said x or y it doesn’t mean that it’s necessarily true. I sometimes find it useful to write a draft of my paper that includes no secondary reading at all, basing it just on my general knowledge of the thesis on employee compensation critical field.

I then do some detailed research in secondary criticism before writing a second draft. This means that the agenda is not dictated by other scholars, and ensures that I use them rather than becoming their spokeswoman. Make sure, of course, that all your reading is properly referenced to avoid a charge of plagiarism. 1) Check the essays spelling: in particular the names of the author and the text that you’re looking at MUST be spelled correctly. 2) Check your punctuation. If you don’t know how to use particular punctuation marks please get a book and learn how. In particular the misuse of apostrophes is rights case studies in australia deeply irritating to an examiner. Essays? The Collins gem guides are really good also Lynne Truss, Eats, Shoots and Leaves is fun and rights, informative.

3) Make sure that you get hold of the blue booklet, ‘Essay Writing and Scholarly Practice’, from the general office. You must use the reference guide in there. I favor the MHRA guidelines; you may prefer the MLA style. If you do reference a website it is best to put it in voegelin, a footnote rather than the text were it looks ugly. You should always include some close detailed analysis of the literary text(s) that you’re discussing in and weaknesses, your essay. This demonstrates your sensitivity to the forms, textures and ideological purpose of language. You should aim to essays show the relationship between form and meaning, between the text and its world. Before you can put together an argument about the relationship between a text and its time you will need to do some close reading, compiling a list of technical features in a text or an excerpt from a text. Choose excerpts that relate to themes or passages that interest you. Then you can develop a checklist of phd thesis on technology management, features to look for.

Use this as a guide but you may want to add to, or amend it. *** What you see will be very different from what other people see. So, although it looks like a slightly dry exercise, this is where your ideas, your originality will come from. Essays? Close reading, in any module, will make your essays sparkle. *** #61623; Prose, drama or poetry? #61623; Genre? (e.g. is it panegyric, epic, restoration comedy or what ever) #61623; Does it remind you of anything? Can you compare or contrast it with something of a similar date?

Or, alternatively, compare it with something of a similar genre from the previous or next decade, for example, in order to investigate change over roland barthes, time. #61623; Poetry: metre, rhythm and rhyme. Voegelin? Look at the section on poetic form at rights case studies in australia the back of the Norton Anthology (p. 2944) and other guides. Essays? Don’t just describe metre etc but ask yourself how it works in that particular passage. How are units of meaning created by the line divisions? When a poet downplays or emphasizes a particular word through positioning it in a particular way, what effect does it have? How does the poet manage tone, pace and register with his use of thesis on employee, rhyme and rhythm? iF THESE FEATURES ARE NOT IMPORTANT IN YOUR PIECE IGNORE THEM.

#61623; Drama: look at the length / speed of the speeches, the stage directions, the essays entrances and exits. #61623; Prose: rhetorical features and clause structure are the phd thesis management things to look out for in particular. Are the sentences complex or simple? Is it in hypotaxis or parataxis? What about word order and syntax, is there anything unusual or unexpected there? #61623; What is the voegelin essays overall structure of the passage / text? Are there abrupt changes or a progression from one idea to another?

#61623; What other structures are there? Symmetries, comparisons and to do research papers on, contrasts, digressions, asides, repetition. Is there any dialogue? Are the arguments circular or progressive? #61623; Are there any words you don’t fully understand? If you aren’t in a closed exam you could look them up in the Oxford English Dictionary online. Voegelin Essays? This would also give you a sense of the other meanings that that word might have. Are there any puns? #61623; Think about management grammatical features: tenses, conditional constructions, the passive voice. Is the passage in the first, second or third person? Perhaps there are tense or person shifts; what effect do these produce?

#61623; Look out for predominance: several superlatives or comparative adjectives and adverbs; a lot of words that mean a similar thing, repetitions of voegelin essays, possessive pronouns or what ever. #61623; What kind of language is being used? i.e. what register is easy it in? Is it elevated or earthy, legal or lyrical, rhetorical or religious? Why? #61623; Look for voegelin essays particular rhetorical features: metaphor and simile, hyperbole and litotes, personification, metonymy and so on. #61623; Look at punctuation (but be careful: it could be the intervention of a printer or a later editor). Look out strengths as a essay for: enjambment, parentheses, direct speech? When the punctuation is voegelin sparse, why? Is it because there is rights case studies a proliferation of conjunctions that resist punctuation like, for example, the word ‘and’. This may indicate parataxis or a very conversational style.

#61623; Look out for allusions and references, often to the bible or classical stories. Voegelin? If you don’t know them and you’re not in a closed exam, look them up in a reference dictionary or on roland, the internet. #61623; What is the essays tone of the passage? Is it homiletic, comic, anxious, melancholy or ironic? How is this effect created? #61623; Where else does that poet use similar phrases, ideas, patterns and images? What does it say about books to do his or her concerns and art? TIP: Don’t make simple associations between sense and sound. For example, whilst there are a lot of warm words that begin with ‘m’ (like, for example, milkmaid, mother, magic etc) there are also some, like ‘malice’, ‘muscular’, ‘murder’ which evoke quite different associations.

You then need to think how those technical features, which you’ve noted construct the meaning of the passage / text. Do not think about form and content as separate things as if form were a kind of voegelin, cloak in which meaning is dressed: they are organically connected. Above and beyond that you will also need to think about how that text (both its form and its meaning) relate to on technology management the particular concerns and fashions (literary, political, philosophical etc) of its time. You might think about the way in which repeated ideas in your text / excerpt link to significant contemporary discourses. Voegelin Essays? Look for substituted vocabularies: i.e. Barthes? when love / sex is discussed with the language of money / credit for example. Voegelin Essays? Could that be related to prevailing economic trends and ideas? When you are constructing your ARGUMENT and barthes mathesis, writing your essay, consult your close reading list.

Not everything there will be relevant to your ARGUMENT; you only essays want to include the things that relate, that offer evidence for a particular point of view about how the strengths as a text is placed culturally, politically, socially and / or historically. Research is crucial for any essay and voegelin essays, requires a certain amount of initiative. You will partly have to learn by trial and error. The Hobbit Book Report? Here are a few tips and ideas, though. Read both narrowly (and address the theme of your essay) and voegelin essays, also widely. So if you are, for example, researching infanticide, also research the family or law / crime. When you research a context it might be worth look at the work of philosophers, painters, and theologians and see what they were saying / doing in this period. An essay which looked at the early modern patriarchal family in the light of Robert Filmer’s political tract Patriarchia, for example, would be much more interesting than one that only thesis on employee looked at modern historians’ account of the early modern family.

An essay that discussed the panegyric written to, or on a particular king, alongside the portraits that were painted of him could also be very suggestive. EEBO might be very useful here at helping you to find out about, say, sermon culture or advice literature. (look at the last page of voegelin essays, this booklet for some help here). Think of some the areas, themes, historical moments, authors and on employee, ideas that you want to find out about. List them as key words. For example: Aphra Behn, Oroonoko, race, royalism, restoration, early modern, colonialism, slavery etc Do not be limited here. Think of terms / phrases that will give you some background too. How about voegelin essays ‘cheap print’, ‘renaissance politics’ etc Then begin on the computer. Phd Thesis On Technology Management? Be careful of stuff that you find on the ordinary WWW.

It is not usually very reliable. Often this is stuff that people can’t publish in proper books. Use it is a guide and be very critical. 1) http://www.jstor.org (through the Warwick network only). Here you can read articles from reputable, peer-reviewed journals on line. An excellent starting point. Try various combinations of voegelin, your search terms in either the Basic search (will give you hundreds of items) or in the advanced search form (which will give you much narrower and probably more useful stuff.

Try it out; go to the advanced search form: A) In the box marked ‘All of these words’ insert the word ‘Behn’. Then tick the box marked ‘title’ and books to do, then also the box marked ‘article’. Press the ‘Search’ button. See if you can identify any articles with a particularly historicist bent.

B) In the box marked ‘All of these words’ insert the words ‘White’ and ‘Black’ and essays, ‘England’. In the on technology box marked ‘exact phrase’ enter ‘Seventeenth-century’. Voegelin? Press search and see what you get out. Try other, similar search terms. C) In the box marked ‘All of these words’ insert the word ‘Royalist’. Books Research? In the box marked ‘at least one of these words’ enter the words ‘print culture’. Perhaps limit to articles by checking the relevant tick box. Press search and see if any of those are useful. [you will see that sometimes you have to voegelin do some considerable sifting to find good things.]

2) The Modern Language Association of America database direct access from the Warwick network at: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/library/electronicresources/databases/#m. The bibliographic databases are listed alphabetically so scroll down to ‘M’. Select ‘MLA’. This will give you the reference only (although Warwick may provide a link to the on-line journal). Phd Thesis On Technology? You may find that some of the things that are listed you won’t be able to voegelin get because Warwick doesn’t subscribe to that journal or perhaps the item is a doctoral dissertation from human in australia another institution. Voegelin Essays? Don’t worry, you’re not expected to compensation read everything under the essays sun. Leave those things that you can’t get. Try it out: put in the search terms ‘Aphra’, ‘Behn’ and ‘race’ into the keywords box.

Press search and see what you get. 3) Historical abstracts: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/library/subjects/arts/elecresources/#databases_internet. Again, use this database to the hobbit help you compile a list of articles or books that you could look at either on-line, if Warwick has a link, or in the library. Ignore the voegelin things that you can’t get hold of. A) Put the search terms ‘restoration’, ‘race’ and ‘England’ into the keywords box. Press search. B) Put the search terms ‘early modern’ and ‘print culture’ into the hobbit essay, the keywords box.

Press search. Again you will have to decide what’s useful / relevant. 4) Use the library catalogue, don’t limit yourself to books about English. Put in search terms that will give you books on the historical background that you’re looking for. Voegelin Essays? Once you have found one book on thesis on employee compensation, the shelf look around in that same area for others that will be related by subject.

5) Look on essays, your reading list for general background books. CONSTRUCTING AN ARGUMENT. Producing a successful argument is a process that has a number of stages. Strengths And Weaknesses Essay? Often you will understand your argument better after you have started writing. It is voegelin essays important that you go back and re-plan your work, taking into account your new findings. You will need to and weaknesses as a essay develop a provisional thesis, however, so that you have somewhere to start: a focus for your close reading and research. You don’t need to argue that history is important for essays the study of literature.

You can take that as a given and move on human case, to say something a bit more sophisticated about how the voegelin essays particular poem / play or prose piece you’re working on easy to do papers on, intersects with a particular set of events or ideas in a specific historical moment. A good argument should be fairly specific rather than general and comprehensive. In particular, when writing a historicist essay, do not list the ways in which one text is embedded in its period. Instead choose one of those ways and research it in more depth. So, rather than writing about, say, Ben Jonson’s interest in Anabaptists, Spanishness, alchemy, the essays plague, etc in The Alchemist, choose one of roland barthes, these themes and find out about it in the historiography of the seventeenth century and couple this research with a close reading of those sections of the voegelin essays play that treat that theme. Your readings of the text and the history of the times should suggest your detailed argument.

Don’t think of your argument first and then try to easy books papers press it onto the play or poem you’re interested in; allow your idea to voegelin essays grow out of your reading. Below is roland my best attempt at essays a LINE OF ARGUMENT for on employee an essay on Rochester and Milton. Again, I should stress that this is only by way of demonstration what I would do. This is very different from what you would do. There is no one way and essays, your ideas will be as interesting / valid as mine. Don’t think that you have to produce something the same, or even necessarily similar I have done this just to give you an example of what I mean.

I have tried to construct an argument which uses both close reading and historical context. Imagining the future in the restoration: a critical comparison of the poetry of John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester and John Milton. Line of Argument: This essay will argue that Rochester’s poetry is roland barthes not only everywhere fascinated by voegelin essays, time, regularly exploring what it is and how it operates, but that this interest betrays his sophisticated engagement with contemporary political philosophy. It will closely interrogate the forms of several of Rochester’s time-related poems for their political sensibilities.

It will then contrast those poetic forms and political sensibilities with those in the poetry of John Milton and especially Paradise Regained. Milton as I shall show with the use of historical evidence is very differently socially and politically placed, indeed at the other end of the ideological spectrum from the Earl of Rochester. I shall show that the difference is one of dispossession (Rochester) and providence (Milton). Rochester’s narrators exist in fear of, and subject to an arbitrary and absolute future; Milton’s Paradise Regained, on book report essay, the other hand, asks an imagined republican reader to wait in voegelin essays, anticipation of a future in which God will deliver their political success. I shall explore the way in books to do on, which Rochester’s pessimism the idea and essays, tone of dispossession in his poetry and Milton’s optimism the visionary quality of his providential allegory stand in contrast to the respective fortunes of the political groups to easy books research papers on which those poets actually belonged and at the particular times when the voegelin poems I’m discussing here were written and published: i.e. Rochester’s being part of the royal court and Milton’s being displaced from his office at the restoration of the hobbit essay, Charles II. This will arrive at, by way of conclusion, the demonstrable sadness of some of Rochester’s verse which indicates the complex circumspection with which he viewed his own aristocratic, political community and its limited expectations of monarchical authority. HELP FOR THIS PARTICULAR ASSESSMENT.

Details of what you are expected to do are on the departmental website at: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/english/undergrad/modules/second/en228/assessedessay2/ There you will find a list of texts and details of how to find them on EEBO (Early English Books Online). Their website is at: http://eebo.chadwyck.com/home. You need to download those texts, read them and then choose one to voegelin essays write about. You could also read the essays, published on the EEBO website, by barthes, previous Warwick students that have won prizes for their attempts at this assignment. http://www.lib.umich.edu/tcp/eebo/edu/edu_win_03.html. You might also use EEBO in your essay research. Try the subject list in particular. If you get yourself to the search form at essays http://eebo.chadwyck.com/search you can click on the link marked ‘select from strengths and weaknesses as a a list’ next to the subject keyword box.

This has all sorts of interesting categories: look up, for example, ‘anti-catholicism’ or ‘restoration’, ‘credit’ or ‘murder’. I would like you to do what you can in voegelin essays, terms of strengths writer essay, placing the voegelin text of your choice, and researching it. Then I’d like you to come and phd thesis on technology management, see me at the end of term with a title and voegelin essays, a line of phd thesis management, argument. You could also, if you wish, bring a longer essay plan. This is Isabel talking to her group. We will all be available on essays, email over the holidays--do ask. Gabriel won't be here after the holidays--he lives in London--but do come and see me, his group, if you need a person to talk to. USING THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY. The OED can be found online (through the Warwick network) at book http://www.oed.com. When we read an voegelin, edited text we often have a helpful gloss which an editor has provided so that words and phrases that we don’t understand are defined for compensation us. Essays? In this assignment you will have to put together that gloss for yourself and the best way to start to do that is with the OED.

The OED is an extraordinary resource that will give you assistance in all sorts of ways. For example: a) it will obviously help you to rights case in australia understand words which you don’t understand or unusual applications. It will also help you to voegelin essays find obsolete and thesis on employee compensation, dialect words. b) it will help you to see how words have changed their meanings or emphases over time. c) it will help you to identify puns. Voegelin Essays? There may be sexual or religious connotations to a particular word that we may have lost.

Some times our modern definitions will co-exist with old, and now obsolete meanings. d) it will tell you the earliest use of a particular word. This is useful for working out which of several definitions might apply to the word you’re looking at. Look at on employee the examples, that is the quotations that are given, and note their dates. It may be that you find that the word was new or recently borrowed from another language.

Click the ‘date chart’ button to see the uses represented on voegelin, a time line. It may be that you will find that a word is on employee compensation used differently and in different contexts at different points of the seventeenth century: what might the use of a particular word / phrase tell us about an author’s engagement with political, historical or sociological movements? e) Look at the etymology: this might tell you about how the voegelin essays text you’re looking at engages with particular fashions or imperial encounters. Look up, for example, ‘chocolate’ where does the word come from? At what period does it come into the language? f) the examples given in the dictionary will also help you to see how other contemporaries used the word or phrase you’re interested in, and in what sort of contexts it came up. In this way it can operate as a concordance. You should investigate the concordances available in the library, by the way. Roland? Similarly they will give you a sense of how a particular word or phrase is voegelin used elsewhere. You should use the OED not just to look up words that you don’t understand but also other words, especially those that are used in an unfamiliar way. You will find more interesting things if you look up lexical, rather than grammatical words.

That means verbs, adjectives, adverbs and nouns rather than prepositions, articles and pronouns. You need to remember that there was no standard spelling in the early modern period; the on employee compensation move to voegelin essays standardize spelling did not occur until the human rights case studies middle of the eighteenth century. This means that when you have a word you don’t understand it you may not get an adequate definition by putting it in exactly as it is into the OED search box. Try that first but if it isn’t found, or you get a definition that is not right (i.e. the examples indicate that its earliest use was a lot later than your text) you should try different spellings. In particular the voegelin vowels are often interchangeable. Try every vowel combination that you can think of. Try substituting ts and cs, us and vs and other related consonants. Try out the OED. Look up the following words: how have their meanings have changed? Where do the strengths as a writer words come from? How were the words used at different points in voegelin essays, history?

And in thesis, the seventeenth century in particular? Department of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Humanities Building, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL.

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