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How to autobiography help, Write a Bibliography – Examples in creative four by david starkey pdf, MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is essay help, used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. Critical Thinking? If the example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you. Format for entries: A single space is autobiography essay, used after any punctuation mark. Creative Four Genres In Brief? When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry.
Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find. Click here to see a selection of autobiography help Common Abbreviations used in documentation.
For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and laughter an essay comic, documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. Essay Help? The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of publication indicated.
Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed.
Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. —. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of essays on obamacare Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000.
Suskind, Ron. The Price of autobiography essay help Loyalty: George W. Laughter On The Comic 1900? Bush, the autobiography essay help, White House, and the Education of. Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004. If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the writing genres in brief by david pdf, actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay. (Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses . New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of Vol.
2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of autobiography essay help Hatred ) Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred . London: Harper, 1994. (Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. Creative Writing Four Genres In Brief By David Starkey Pdf? The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995.
(Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Book with two authors or editors: Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International.
Environment of Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002. Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Autobiography Essay Help? Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds.
Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal. Jubilee . Essays On Obamacare? New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Autobiography Essay Help? Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and creative four genres in brief by david, Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed.
Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005.
Book prepared for publication by two editors: Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington. 3. Autobiography Essay Help? Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special. Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie.
The Power of Focus for College. Students . Of The Comic? Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Autobiography Help? Let’s Go: Germany 1998 . New York: St. Martin’s, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002. Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance:
A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on comic, the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and autobiography help, Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003.
Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds. Ucla Doctoral Approval? The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and essay, Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Thinking? Canadian Facts and essay, Dates . Essays On Obamacare? 3rd ed. Markham, ON:
Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary. Series for ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. Essay Help? Book with compilers, or compilers and on the of the comic 1900, editors: McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions.
from 1256 A.D. to the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and autobiography essay, Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. Dissertation Approval Form? = compiler or compiled by. 6. Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events.
That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to autobiography help, the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Laughter Meaning Of The 1900? Photographs of. Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004. 7. Book with one author, translated by another: Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Autobiography Essay Help? Rita and Robert Kimber.
New York: Metropolitan, 1998. 8. Essay? Work in autobiography, an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001.
306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and essay tartuffe, Survival . Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. 211-22. 9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . 2000 ed. 10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author: If the autobiography essay, encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to argumentative essays, indicate the volume and autobiography help, page numbers.
If the thinking paper, encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of help article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. Book Of Essays 2012? “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed. Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ed. D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols. Autobiography? New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Article in ucla approval form, a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75. “Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct.
2002: B6. “E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to essay, Fund Obesity Education on Danger of on the meaning of the Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18. “Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star. 25 Nov. 2004: A18. “Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan.
2005: I6. 12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive.
Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to essay, the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full. Note also that there is four genres by david starkey, no period after the autobiography essay, month. The period in “Mar.” is for critical thinking paper essays, the abbreviation of March. Autobiography Help? If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the ucla approval form, months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g.
Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you. An article in a scholarly journal is autobiography help, treated somewhat differently: Nielsen, Laura Beth. Of Essays 2012? “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of autobiography Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number.
If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e). Bogomolny, Laura. Four In Brief Pdf? “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and autobiography help, Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London] Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb.
2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News. 10 Oct. 2004: A1-2.
Mather, Victoria. Of Essays? “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.” Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45.
Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. Autobiography Essay Help? “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2. Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18.
Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. 13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from SIRS:
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. Critical Thinking Paper? “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20.
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. Essay Help? 1992: 30-40. Work . Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Essays On Obamacare? Art.
20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. Essay Help? 7 Feb. 2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx. GEICO. Of The Comic 1900? Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92.
IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . Autobiography? 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement. Atlantic Monthly . On The Meaning Comic? Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated:
Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author: Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler). Creager, Angela N.H. Autobiography Essay Help? “Crystallizing a Life in writing in brief by david starkey pdf, Science.” Rev. of autobiography help Rosalind Franklin: The.
Dark Lady of laughter on the meaning DNA , by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66. Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36. Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by help Kathryn.
Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37. Hoffman, Michael J. Essays? “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry. Finn , by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente. Autobiography? Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from genres in brief by david Within , comp.
and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998: Neier, Aryeh. Help? “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan.
2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and in brief starkey pdf, Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir. Julie Taymor. National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+.
Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated. Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of essay Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. Creative Four Genres In Brief Starkey Pdf? “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by.
Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. Autobiography Essay? 2002: 14+. 18. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip.
A Place in the Sun . Dir. George Stevens. 1951. Ucla Doctoral Dissertation Approval? DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Essay? Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. 1992: B1.
CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Creative Writing Four Genres Pdf? Vol. 4. Art. 42. Links 2003: Championship Courses . Help? CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. Creative Writing Genres In Brief Pdf? CD-ROM. Autobiography? Montreal: 19.
Computer service – e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Creative Writing Pdf? Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065.
When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the autobiography, number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary. “Mug.” Def. 2. Essays? The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed. 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. Autobiography Essay Help? (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. Argumentative Essays? (written by). Autobiography Essay? A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir.
Tim Burton. Based on book by ucla doctoral form Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf. Autobiography Essay Help? Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Essays? Tim Burton. Based on book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005.
Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein,
Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Christianna. Brand. Prod.
Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and autobiography essay, Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and critical, dir. Autobiography Essay? Mark Romanek. Prod.
Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Satire? Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Help? Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth. Century Fox and Paramount, 1997.
The Tuxedo . Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of four genres by david starkey pdf publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada. Autobiography Essay? Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength:
Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of critical paper essays Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and essay, Human. Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Essays On Obamacare? Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. Essay? federal government documents.
In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers. Example – for the following record: United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996. Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on book 2012, how to autobiography essay help, cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed.
23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation: 2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious.
6) Date of article, of satire Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site. 8) Access date (the date you accessed the autobiography help, Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and genres by david starkey pdf, carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at autobiography essay help, the end of the citation.
Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL. If the URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in book of essays, the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. Autobiography Help? SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and of essays 2012, be treated differently by help some browsers. Critical? Remember that the autobiography help, purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential.
a. Internet citation for an advertisement: IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm. b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g.
SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated: Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to essay satire, Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html. Clifford, Erin. “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . 10 Oct. 2005. Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Autobiography Essay? Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004.
10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips.
Newsletter . Dec. 2003. Critical Essays? NetMechanic. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/ If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the essay, library or library system, plus the location of the library where the argumentative, database is accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. Autobiography Essay Help? “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002. SIRS.
Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14.
Leave out page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Book 2012? Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. Autobiography Help? 10 Apr. Thinking Essays? 2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the essay, school. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”.
Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. 2006. http://www.proquestk12.com. c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia: Duiker, William J. Argumentative Essays On Obamacare? “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005.
“Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclop?dia Britannica . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629. “Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct. Autobiography Help? 2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567. d. Of The 1900? Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct.
2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. “Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec. 2003. 10 Oct. Autobiography? 2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html. e. Creative Four Genres By David Starkey Pdf? Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. Autobiography Help? 7 June 2003. f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: “Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online . Thinking Paper? 1993-2003.
Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/ Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/ Lee , Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005.
Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com . 25 Apr. Autobiography Help? 2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. “Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State. Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail:
Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003.
“NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. Essay Satire Tartuffe? 8 Sept. 2005. PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith. h. Internet citation for an online government publication:
Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board. Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/ United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses,
Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005. Seaside Harry . “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online. posting. 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=. j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U. School of Medicine. 10 Oct.
2005. http://www.madsci.org. O’Connor, J.J., and autobiography essay help, E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002. Paper? U of St. Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/
Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty. Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr. Autobiography? 2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/. Savill, R. Richard. Ucla Approval? “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. Essay Help? 2000. 12 Apr. 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/ Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr.
2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?” Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and. Research Institute. 10 Oct. Essay Satire? 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?
k. Autobiography Help? Internet citation for a software download: It is not essential to include the file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor. RAMeSize . Vers. 1.04. 15K. Laughter On The Meaning Of The Comic? 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct.
2004. l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an essay editor: Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . Ed. Roy P. Paper? Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955.
Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. 2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by essay another: Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. Book Of Essays 2012? 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Essay Help? Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. Creative Genres In Brief? 28 Apr. 2006. Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.
State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. Help? “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of critical paper Houston. Autobiography Essay Help? 15 Mar. 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug.
2002: 4. Lange, Rick. “U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo. News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16. Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan.
2003: 33-37. Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. A letter you received from laughter an essay meaning of the 1900 John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to the author. Autobiography? 15 June 2005. Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Webster.
18 Mar. 1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . Book? Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005. Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map. 2004 Andex Chart . Chart. Essay Help? Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004.
Canada . Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. “Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise.
Strauss, Richard. Traumerei , op. 9, no. 4. Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication. Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op.
7, No. 1 . New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene . 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953.
Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65 . Critical Paper? 1819. London: Harris, 1933. 29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of autobiography essay artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined.
3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . [c. 2500 BC].
Giza. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . 1814. Dissertation Approval Form? Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underline title of artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of autobiography help publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number.
Abell, Sam. Japan . Tartuffe? 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection,
Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . Autobiography Essay? By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Kasebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal . Doctoral Approval Form? [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath.
A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Autobiography Help? Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the doctoral dissertation approval form, Louvre Museum . Autobiography Essay Help? New York:
Abbeville, 1979. 31. Michelangelo. David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. Argumentative Essays On Obamacare? The Great. Masters . By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. Essay Help? New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis.
Wainright Building . An Essay On The Meaning 1900? 1890-91. St. Essay Help? Louis, MO. A Basic History of dissertation form Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Autobiography Essay Help? Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, Tohaku, Deme. Laughter On The Meaning Of The? Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan.
Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . Autobiography Essay Help? By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Book Of Essays 2012? Dusan. Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the essay help, Baptist . Doctoral Dissertation Approval Form? 1742-51.
Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Konemann, 1998. 118. Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes).
2) Name of person who took the autobiography essay help, photograph. 3) Date photograph taken. War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author. Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005. Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s).
2) Title of patent. 3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope. in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917.
July 1996. “Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and laughter meaning of the comic 1900, Methods.” US Patent 5971091. 31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto. 9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Tolkien. Autobiography Help? Dir.
Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael. Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Of The Comic? Chor. and Libretto by James. Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of.
Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. Help? 30 Dec. 1999. Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Book? Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto.
20 Sept. 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Autobiography Help? Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005. Components: 1) Title of episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate.
2) Title of program, underlined. 3) Title of series. 4) Name of an essay on the meaning 1900 network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel. 6) Broadcast date. The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn.
CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003. Law and Order . Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002. “New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News . WBEN, Buffalo.
“New York Museum Celebrates Life of autobiography essay Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. “The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. Form? 2002.
“U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. 33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape: 1) Name of autobiography author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). Essay? 3) Title of recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version.
6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from autobiography help Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life . Millennium. Meaning Of The Comic? CD. Exclusive Management by.
The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Autobiography Help? Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and argumentative essays on obamacare, Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power.
Plant Recording Studio, n.d. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Autobiography? Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power.
Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997]. Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.” McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back . LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by R. ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E . Diskette.
Vers. 1.0. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Creative Genres By David Starkey Pdf? Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette. tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Ginger . Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out . Vancouver: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir. Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on novel.
by J.K. Autobiography Essay? Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. Warner, 2004. Jane Austen’s Emma . Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York: New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Dir.
Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Laughter Comic? Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. Essay? DVD. Universal, 2005. The Sisterhood of the laughter an essay on the of the, Traveling Pants . Autobiography? Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf.
Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005. Super Searching the Web . Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of Oz . Dir. Argumentative Essays? Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins.
MGM, 1939. VHS. Warner, 1999. State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year. Elmendorf, James. “The Military and autobiography help, the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA. thesis. Hampshire College, 1995. Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss.
Columbia U, 1962.
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A Guide to Life as a Mature Student. Mature students those over the age of 21 now make up a quarter of the UKЂ™s university student population. The term Ђњmature studentЂќ encompasses a big age bracket, with figures from UCAS suggesting that around two fifths of mature students are aged between 21 and 24, a fifth between 25 and autobiography essay help 29, and two fifths aged over 30. There are many reasons why people choose to become mature students. Sometimes itЂ™s because theyЂ™ve had a short break from academia to creative in brief starkey gain work experience; others may be taking up their studies much later in life, perhaps while theyЂ™re on a career break, or as a retirement activity for essay the pure enjoyment of writing four genres starkey, learning. Others embark on degrees in order to essay bring about a change of paper essays, direction in their careers. The figures suggest that itЂ™s more popular than ever. Yet much of the advice out there for students is aimed at those who are going straight to university from school. Being a mature student brings its own set of challenges, and in this article, weЂ™re going to essay help address them with some tips to writing by david pdf help you prepare for this life-changing experience. What are the challenges facing mature students?
Universities are increasingly accommodating the needs. of students with children. Autobiography Essay! Going back to laughter an essay on the of the comic education is essay help, a life choice not without its hurdles, particularly for those in the older range of the mature student age bracket. 2012! The main challenges facing mature students are as follows: Mature students have often been out of education for a while , which means that their academic skills such as critical thinking and essay writing are not as sharp as they used to be. Because of this, some mature students may initially struggle to get to grips with the academic demands of their course. Previously gained knowledge of the subject may have been forgotten . Essay! This will usually only be a problem for those taking a degree in a subject theyЂ™ve studied previously, or in a subject for which prior knowledge of a related discipline would be advantageous (such as mathematical knowledge for a physics degree). Writing Four Genres In Brief! Being older, mature students often have more responsibilities than younger students, meaning that they may have to balance studying with a career, children and autobiography possibly a mortgage. These extra demands on their time makes time management particularly challenging for mature students, and university is hard enough without these extra concerns. However, if youЂ™ve been in employment for years, you will at least be at an advantage in argumentative essays on obamacare, that youЂ™re more used to early starts for those 9am lectures. Socially , many mature students find it hard to autobiography essay help mix with a lot of much younger people, with whom they feel they probably have little in doctoral, common and whose inexperience and immaturity may even feel irritating to essay help them. Activities geared towards students tend to focus on going out, staying up late partying, and other such frivolities that many older students may have done when they were younger, but now feel they have moved beyond. Argumentative Essays On Obamacare! Priorities change as you grow older, and autobiography essay even five or ten years between you and other Freshers can make a vast difference to your outlook on life.
ItЂ™s not all difficulties, though. Mature students have often made sacrifices in critical essays, order to study, and autobiography help this makes them incredibly motivated to succeed academically, meaning that they often outperform younger students, who lack the laughter an essay of the comic 1900, life experience and maturity. TheyЂ™ve chosen to go to university after careful consideration, because they really want to and because theyЂ™re genuinely interested; itЂ™s not that theyЂ™re going because everyone else is or because itЂ™s a rite of passage. How to prepare for life as a mature student. The UCAS application process for essay help mature students is essay, exactly the same as for every other student, but there are a few extra things you may need to do as a mature student to help prepare you for life at autobiography essay, university.
Figure out how youЂ™re going to fund your studies. Struggles with financing university study are something. mature students have in common with their younger peers. Funding options may be more limited for mature students, so figuring out how youЂ™re going to satire tartuffe fund your studies and autobiography researching what loans and grants may be available to you will be an writing four genres in brief pdf, important first step. You may be entitled to autobiography essay Government funding if youЂ™re over the age of 25 and/or youЂ™re independent of your parents. Critical Paper! However, itЂ™s not easy to tell you what the exact amount youЂ™re entitled to will be, as this will depend on whether or not youЂ™ve completed a higher education degree before, as well as where you live and what youЂ™re hoping to study. This page explains in the situation in more detail. If you have a family, youЂ™re also going to have to work out how youЂ™ll be able to essay cope with a much lower household income while youЂ™re studying. Take an online course to thinking sharpen up your academic skills.
If youЂ™ve been out of education for a while, you may find that your academic skills arenЂ™t what they used to be. Autobiography Essay Help! Without regular practice, such skills can easily fall by the wayside such as the on the of the, ability to essay help conduct thorough research in an academic library, the ability to analyse a source of information, or the ability to essay satire tartuffe approach a scholarly text critically. You can get your academic skills back in autobiography help, gear prior to laughter an essay meaning comic 1900 starting at university by essay help, taking an online course, either in general academic skills such as essay writing, or in the basics of the subject youЂ™re going to be studying. Take a look at our online courses for some more ideas and to find one relevant to your course. Decide what youЂ™re going to do about argumentative essays on obamacare accommodation. Some student accommodation is geared towards. Many mature students decide to go to university in essay help, the town or city they already live in 2012, (or near), and commute to university from autobiography their own home. This is much less an issue for mature students than for those whoЂ™ve just left school, as the latter are generally much more concerned about their social life, which is likely to be affected by not living in halls of residence. Student accommodation may seem rather too much like Ђroughing itЂ™ after youЂ™ve been used to living in your own house, and argumentative on obamacare itЂ™ll almost certainly be noisier if youЂ™re going to be living among hordes of younger students.
That said, many universities do provide dedicated mature student accommodation, which should be a bit quieter. If youЂ™re not prepared to autobiography help settle for essays on obamacare any kind of student accommodation and youЂ™re not going to be able to essay live at home perhaps because your university is too far away to commute to then you might alternatively look into renting private accommodation. Before you go to university, youЂ™ll need to sort out necessary arrangements with regard to things like travel and on obamacare childcare, where applicable. Essay! These two things can add a considerable amount of expense, but your university should be able to advise on the cheapest ways of doing things. There may, for example, be a crЁche on campus so that you can bring your children to university with you, if you have them.
Get up-to-date with technology if you have the approval form, opportunity. If you fall into the older age bracket of the mature student demographic, you may not be quite so comfortable using the technology thatЂ™s commonplace in the modern educational environment. You would benefit greatly if you can confidently use a computer before going to university including knowing how to use word processors, email and the internet. These are expected parts of university life, and without these skills, youЂ™ll struggle. If technology isnЂ™t your strong point, consider signing up for a few lessons or enlisting the autobiography essay, help of a younger relative to help you get up to speed. Once your course starts, youЂ™ll have a new way of life to get used to and a lot of settling in to do. The tips below should help you adjust to university life with the an essay meaning of the, minimum of stress. Adjusting to the academic workload.
Your academic workload may come as a shock to the system if youЂ™ve been out of education for a while, and youЂ™ll need to help get used to essay tartuffe conducting academic research, writing essays and giving your opinions in autobiography help, class. It might feel like being back at school to begin with, but youЂ™ll soon get into the swing of things. Try to allow yourself a bit more time than you think youЂ™ll need for ucla doctoral approval form the first few weeks, so that you donЂ™t feel too rushed and you have the essay help, time you need to acclimatise gradually. Find yourself a quiet place to ucla approval work. If you have children and/or a partner at home, and you intend to help do some of your studying at home, youЂ™ll need to impose a few boundaries so that your family knows when not to disturb you. Find somewhere quiet for you to study, put a ЂDo Not DisturbЂ™ sign on the door, and set aside a regular time so that they know thatЂ™s when youЂ™re going to essay satire tartuffe be working. Learn how you can work remotely if needed.
There may be times when external commitments (such as a sick child) force you to study remotely, rather than in the university library. ItЂ™s worth investigating what opportunities there are for autobiography essay accessing library resources remotely (electronically), so that you can still make use of university resources when youЂ™re not on campus. You should be allocated a pastoral tutor when you start university. Your tutor is there to help you and provide guidance, so make full use of four in brief starkey pdf, their support by going to them if youЂ™re having problems with absolutely anything, either course-related or otherwise. TheyЂ™ll recognise the extra demands placed on you by the fact that youЂ™re a mature student, and theyЂ™ll be more than happy to help. Essay-writing skills are vital for autobiography essay many courses. You may find that your university runs refresher classes for mature students whoЂ™ve been out of essay satire, education for a while, so sign up for help any that seem relevant.
Particularly useful would be classes in academic skills such as essay-writing. If English isnЂ™t your native language, and you need help to improve your use of academic English, then extra English tuition would also prove helpful. Creative Writing Genres By David Starkey! You may find it easier to mix with fellow mature students, as theyЂ™re better able to understand your situation and the specific pressures youЂ™re facing. Most universities have groups dedicated to mature students, so make sure you sign up to one so that you can meet people who are going through the same things as you. Be open-minded when you meet people. Although it may be easier to befriend other mature students, donЂ™t rule out the idea of making friends with younger students as well, as they will often be glad of an older, more experienced friend who can provide a different point of view to theirs, both academically and socially.
You may not think you have much in common on the face of it, but youЂ™re both studying at autobiography help, the same university, and possibly even the doctoral, same course, so thatЂ™s a good start. You might be surprised by how many younger people you end up hitting it off with. If youЂ™re not into sports or nightlife, you might enjoy. something like the Food and Drink Society. The chances are that as a mature student, many of the autobiography help, social activities organised by the student union during FreshersЂ™ Week and throughout the university year such as pub crawls or club nights may not appeal to you. But naturally youЂ™ll want to creative in brief make friends, so youЂ™ll have to explore other avenues for autobiography essay socialising if the main activities donЂ™t appeal to you. YouЂ™re more likely to meet like-minded people if you get involved with a society devoted to something youЂ™re interested in; youЂ™re less likely to notice age difference and more likely to notice that you have this interest in common. Go to the FreshersЂ™ Fair and sign up for a few societies youЂ™re never too old! No student settles into ucla doctoral dissertation approval form, university life overnight, regardless of their age. Autobiography Essay Help! You will almost certainly find it hard at first; few newcomers to university find the experience a completely easy ride. But bear with it.
YouЂ™ll soon start to enjoy it and youЂ™ll revel in the confidence boost youЂ™ll get from having the courage to take this brave step towards changing your life for the better. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. Argumentative On Obamacare! English Essay Writing. Autobiography Help! #8220;The course was very interesting and critical thinking paper essays exciting.#8221; (An Introduction to Medicine) This course had a lot of interesting information on autobiography a very wide range of topics based on US history. I would recommend it to four by david pdf anyone looking for a basic overview of issues in 20th-century America. (20th-century American History) #8220;This course is very helpful and autobiography help encouraging!
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Cultural autobiography essay - Common Steps to Write a Superb
Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is autobiography, found in all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is creative writing four by david pdf, a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of help, societies.
It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and laughter an essay meaning comic control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of autobiography, life. It is said that man from the essay, earliest times has been incurably religious.
Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings. It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is autobiography essay, pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words.
The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. Book 2012. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’. The first root refers to belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. Help. The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the thinking paper essays, supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the essay, word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to creative writing four in brief by david starkey, all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation.
By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to James G. Essay. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life”. As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and ucla dissertation approval form self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by autobiography essay knowledge, which relates man to creative writing four by david pdf, an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the help, controllable.”
According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the essays on obamacare, supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to essay, achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in essay history, from the autobiography essay help, earliest to genres in brief by david starkey, very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is autobiography, not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of creative four genres by david starkey pdf, life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life.
According to help, Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. Thinking Paper Essays. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of essay, them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in critical thinking paper essays the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by any name. Autobiography. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of critical thinking essays, religion.
There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the autobiography, heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses.
Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the laughter an essay on the meaning comic, unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc.
Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is essay, believed that the argumentative essays, powers of the autobiography essay, other world cherish these principles. The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the of essays 2012, behaviour is not in accordance with the help, religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of ucla doctoral dissertation approval, Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life.
The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the autobiography, institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities.
Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of what may be called as “the age of tartuffe, reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of autobiography help, life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for argumentative essays, the religious group and for the wider society. Essay Help. These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to critical paper, help in the struggle for societal survival. Autobiography Essay Help. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean.
Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in writing genres starkey an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to essay help, certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the thinking paper essays, empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in essay this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways.
Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and creative genres pdf norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Essay Help. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the book, rallying point for all persons who share the autobiography help, same values. An Essay On The 1900. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of autobiography essay help, integration through social control. It regulates the argumentative essays on obamacare, conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on essay them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into paper, a Cohesive Whole:
It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. Autobiography Help. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and critical thinking paper requires him to essay, accept limitations upon his wants and desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control:
It is one of the means of informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them. Dissertation Form. It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to autobiography, render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people.
Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of dissertation approval, giving alms and assistance to the helpless and autobiography help needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture. The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and argumentative disappointment.
In this world man often suffers disappointment even in essay help the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to creative writing genres starkey pdf, bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth. 8. Autobiography Help. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant.
Man considers himself the creative by david, noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of autobiography help, China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and critical thinking paper with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the essay, spread of writing genres by david starkey pdf, education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and help political life. On The Meaning. Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions.
Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Autobiography. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms.
2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from ucla dissertation approval, religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to autobiography, changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the genres by david starkey, ethical legitimacy of essay, money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in India prefer to laughter on the of the, take the advises of priests and essay help religious leaders before starting some ventures.
But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the thinking paper, oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and help the soul of soulless conditions. An Essay Meaning Of The. It is the opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and autobiography essay legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being.
Superstitions like evil spirits and ucla dissertation form ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in essay help inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and dissertation form battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of essay help, money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and laughter an essay on the 1900 ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings.
It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and autobiography essay help inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Critical. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and autobiography essay misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions.
It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of book 2012, status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts.
For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. Essay. They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is 2012, undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of help, man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the four by david pdf, economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at autobiography, this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the critical thinking, matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough.
The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is essay help, deeply rooted in ucla doctoral dissertation approval form the social relations of essay, men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of by david pdf, man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the autobiography, world of man, the state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the book of essays 2012, fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being.
But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the autobiography, economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to give up the illusions about creative writing four by david pdf, its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of essay help, politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for salvation. This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. Laughter On The Meaning Comic. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change.
No form of religion is static. In some cases the autobiography, change may be slow and critical paper minor, in others relatively rapid and essay major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal. Hence, there is also an element of critical paper, censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from autobiography, complex to creative writing genres pdf, simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in autobiography essay chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of ucla doctoral dissertation approval, rituals and ceremonies. Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against essay the Vedic ritual which was both complex and laughter of the expensive, and also beyond the common man’s reach.
In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from autobiography, Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Book 2012. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of autobiography help, religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of argumentative essays, religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is autobiography help, gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance.
This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the ucla doctoral dissertation approval form, working class in autobiography help Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on ucla approval form dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge.
As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for help, the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of creative pdf, modern science and essay help Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and book of essays 2012 symbols. The process of secularisation was started in autobiography help India during the British rule.
But the ucla doctoral dissertation form, process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in autobiography essay India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in laughter an essay on the meaning comic 1900 religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life.
But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in autobiography help India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. Satire. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in autobiography essay help ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation.
The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by ucla doctoral form it. Autobiography Help. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and an essay on the comic conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and help his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and critical paper Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of essay, religion and essays the rise of rationalism.
‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to autobiography essay help, ‘the process by which sectors of society and laughter on the meaning culture are removed from the essay help, domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the argumentative, development of rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and autobiography essay social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith.
He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways. Essay Satire Tartuffe. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of autobiography essay, meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the essays, word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent.
One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an essay area in paper essays public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is autobiography essay, expected to leave one’s faith behind. In contrast, the non-Western meaning of argumentative essays on obamacare, secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions.
In the help, Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. Essay Satire. It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Essay Help. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in book 2012 its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India.
The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by autobiography help neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen.
Besides, the State is not to an essay on the of the, give preference to any religion over another. Autobiography Help. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of essay tartuffe, any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society.
If there is autobiography, any trend of decline in any aspect of of essays, religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. Essay Help. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is of the, taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. Essay. There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs.
In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the thinking essays, religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and autobiography desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society.
In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . Paper. This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs. People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and help their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the ucla form, ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type.
Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is based on testing of arguments and autobiography essay beliefs by on the meaning comic rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion.
It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies. Essay Help. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process.
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In what circumstances can attitudes predict behaviour. In what circumstances can attitudes predict behaviour? This essay aims to show that attitudes do not always predict behaviour, and autobiography essay help, a number of other variables should be in place before we can estimate the likelihood of a person behaving according to laughter on the of the 1900, their attitudes. Essay Help? Social Psychologists have suggested that variables such as the intention to act according to attitudes, the perceived control over one's actions, the strength and accessibility of essay satire, attitude, and the situational context shape the circumstances in which attitudes predict behaviour. Attempts to predict behaviour from attitudes without making these crucial qualifications have found a lack of correlation between attitudes and behaviour. There was a time when the concept of attitudes was hailed as the most important contribution of Social Psychology (Allport 1935). The term 'attitude' is now taken for essay, granted in our everyday lay vocabulary, but has been treated with increasing scepticism by laughter on the of the comic 1900 some Social Psychologists. A major blow to popular assumptions about attitudes came from evidence of a discrepancy between attitudes and behaviour. Autobiography Essay Help? This posed serious problems for the study of attitudes, because it was previously believed that attitudes could be inferred from behaviour. This apparent discrepancy has led to a re-thinking and refining of the definition of attitudes.
The simplest definition of attitude is 'a feeling or opinion about something or someone' (Cambridge International Dictionary, 2002). This much Social Psychologists agree on, but from here they diverge. A key difference is over how many components attitudes consist of. The three major models are as follows: The one component model (pioneered by Thurstone), which sees attitudes as emotional assessment of objects; the two component model, which stresses the predisposition to negative or positive action towards an argumentative essays on obamacare evaluated object; and the three component model, which asserts that attitudes are made up of cognitive, affective and essay, behavioural components (Hogg, 1998: 118).. It is implicit in 2012 the two and three component models that attitudes predict behaviour. The discrepancy between attitude and behaviour, mentioned above, forces us to question these models. This discrepancy was most dramatically observed in an experiment by LaPiere. Autobiography Essay Help? Accompanied by two Chinese, he visited 66 hotels, auto-camps and tourist homes, and 184 restaurants. Only one establishment turned them away.
Six months later, LaPiere sent around a questionnaire to the places he had visited, asking 'will you accept members of the Chinese race as guests in your establishment?' 92 per doctoral dissertation approval cent of the replies were negative, only one per cent were positive, and the remainder claimed that it would depend on the circumstances (Hogg 1998: 124). Essay Help? Further studies have confirmed LaPiere's findings, and Wicker concluded that at most, attitudes predict only essay, 9 per essay help cent of our behaviour (Wicker 1969). Book Of Essays 2012? If attitudes do not predict behaviour then perhaps the help, concept of the attitude is an essay meaning comic, not of such great use after all. Attitudes are also notoriously difficult to measure accurately. Questionnaires are the main techniques for essay, attitude measurement, which rely on honest answers from participants.
However, people do not always wish to of essays, share their private attitudes, especially if they run counter to the values of the given culture. For example, in Britain today, fewer people would admit to holding racist attitudes than the autobiography, number that actually have them, because such attitudes are no longer generally considered acceptable. If the measured attitude is not the same as the actual attitude then it is even harder to thinking paper, assess whether attitudes are predicting behaviour. We must remember that 'attitude' is a theoretical construct, which is valid only if it can withstand scientific testing. Because the measurement of attitudes is imprecise, we cannot really say with confidence what an attitude is. Other methods have been devised for measuring attitudes with greater accuracy, but these are fairly controversial. Autobiography Help? The bogus pipeline technique dupes participants into thinking that they are connected to an essay of the comic 1900, a 'lie detector' which can judge their emotional responses (Hogg 1998:155). Autobiography Essay? Participants are consequently more honest about their attitudes, since they are led to believe that they cannot hide them if they try.
This method is quite effective, but is possibly unethical, as it intentionally misleads participants. Physiological measures of attitude which test skin resistances, heart-rate, and pupil dilations overcome the problem of participant honesty, but have problems of their own. Other factors than emotional attitudes can influence the physical response, including nervousness induced by ucla being assessed. Furthermore, such physiological measures cannot distinguish negative from positive feelings, as strong feelings of both kinds elicit similar responses (Hogg, 1998: 153). However, these dilemmas have not led Social Psychologists to essay help, abandon the study of attitudes.
Ajzen and Fishbein refine the link between attitudes and critical paper essays, behaviour, reckoning that attitudes can indeed predict behaviour, but it is a mistake to try to predict specific behaviour from general attitudes. Specific attitudes can predict specific behaviour, and general attitudes can predict general behaviours using a multiple act criterion as a behavioural index based on a mean or combination of a number of specific behaviours (Hogg 1998: 126). Fishbein and essay help, Ajzen's theory of reasoned action states that behaviour cannot be predicted by attitude alone. Intention to act in a certain way plays a crucial part in determining whether or not the action is taken. The actor's intention is essay satire tartuffe, influenced by his own attitude towards the essay help, behaviour, and subjective norms, which are the perceived beliefs of other people. The value that the individual places on these factors can also vary. Some people are more concerned than others about subjective norms, and in different cases different people care more or less about the object of their attitudes. Ajzen further refined his perspective on attitudes with his theory of planned behaviour. This theory also incorporates the effect of the individual's belief that he has control over his actions.
People with a greater sense that certain behaviour is feasible are more likely to actually behave in that way. Thinking Essays? Madden (1992) showed that students' perceived control over their actions correlates with their intentions to behave and their actual behaviour, especially with behaviour that is essay, actually easier to control. Terry (1993) applied the four genres in brief by david starkey pdf, theory of help, planned behaviour to the issue of safe sex, and found that the degree of control that people believe they have substantially improves the prediction of behaviour from attitudes in this real world context. Both the theory of reasoned action and the theory of argumentative essays, planned behaviour place emphasis on the rationality of human behaviour, but not all kinds of behaviour are equally reasoned. Habit is an important example of behaviour which is not thought through, but occurs almost unconsciously without being mediated by attitudes. Habits are the result of repeated previous behaviour, and they guide future behaviour. Autobiography Essay Help? Addictions are extreme kinds of habits, and it is physically and psychologically harder to break them. Satire Tartuffe? In the help, case of smoking, the smoker's behaviour is essays on obamacare, determined more by his habit than by attitudes.
A survey showed that 71 per essay help cent of smokers agreed that 'cigarette smoking causes disease and death' (Oskamp 1984), yet the habit had such a hold on them that this attitude did not determine their behaviour. There are also ways in which previous experience can strengthen attitudes and therefore make them more likely to predict behaviour. Argumentative On Obamacare? Fazio and Zanna (1978) found that the attitudes of students who had previously participated in psychology experiments gave a more accurate prediction of autobiography essay help, whether they would participate in future psychology experiments than the attitudes of students who had only critical paper essays, read about such experiments.. Fazio proposes attitude accessibility as a factor in determining which attitudes will predict behaviour. Strong attitudes can be more easily accessed from the memory, and autobiography essay help, therefore have a greater influence over behaviour. Attitudes which are directly concerned with one's own life are generally stronger, as well as those which are based on direct experience. Essays On Obamacare? Simple repetition is help, also enough to essay satire tartuffe, reinforce an attitude. The accessibility of attitudes held by autobiography essay help participants who were asked their attitude six times was greater than that of ucla approval form, participants who were only asked once (Powell and Fazio 1984).
These theories of attitude do not apply equally to all people at all times. There are a variety of moderator variables which can improve the essay, predictions made of argumentative essays on obamacare, behaviour from attitudes by adjusting the hypotheses to different situations. People tend to express or act on autobiography essay help attitudes which are consistent with social norms. Terry argues that attitudes are more likely to predict behaviour if they are markers of a social group with which the person identifies. The more strongly the individual feels associated with the group, the more likely he will be to act on the shared attitudes (Hogg 1998: 133).. The dispositional perspective emphasises the influence of personality in determining whether attitudes predict behaviour. According to Bem and Allen (1974), people who score consistently on personality tests are more likely to satire tartuffe, be consistent in their behaviour across different situations. More accurate predictions can thus be made over whether a person's attitudes will determine their behaviour if the individual has a stable and essay, clearly defined personality. Although we often assume that attitudes predict behaviour, Social Psychologists have seen the need to qualify that statement.
Social Psychologists have also found that there are instances in which behaviour influences attitudes. The theory of cognitive dissonance states that people prefer consistency between their various attitudes and also between their attitudes and behaviour. When our beliefs are at odds with our behaviour, we experience feelings of unease, which we wish to reduce by of essays restoring the autobiography help, harmony (Eiser and essay satire tartuffe, Pligt 1988: 32). We can either bring our behaviour in line with our attitudes, or we can bring our attitudes in line with our behaviour. Autobiography Essay? In many cases, it is more convenient to change our attitudes than our actual behaviour, especially if social or economic circumstances limit the action we can take.
We may therefore conclude that attitudes do exert an influence over dissertation approval behaviour, but that the relations between attitudes and behaviour are not one-sided but dialectical. Previous behaviour can also form and essay help, strengthen attitudes, and attitudes can change in order to book of essays, justify habitual behaviour that is harder to reverse. Attitudes predict behaviour only essay, once strength of argumentative, habit and help, many other factors are assessed. Behaviour is guided by ucla approval many things, not merely the attitude of the individual. In the recent decades, Social Psychologists have recognised this and refined their concept of attitude to fit it into the wider context. Behaviour can be predicted from autobiography attitudes only if we know the details of the tartuffe, attitudes, the autobiography help, details of the specific situation, and the extent to which the individual wishes to act on his attitudes and feels that he can. Allport, 1935, 'Attitudes', in essay satire tartuffe Murchison, Handbook of Social Psychology, Clark University Press. Bem and Allen, 1974, 'On predicting some of the people some of the time', Psychological Review, 81. Eiser and Pligt, 1988, Attitudes and Decisions , Routledge. Fazio and Zanna, 1978, 'Attitudinal qualities relating to the strength of the autobiography essay help, attitude-behaviour relation', in Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 14.
Hogg and Vaughan,1998, Social Psychology , Prentice Hall Madden, 1992, 'A comparison of the theory of planned behaviour and the theory of reasoned action', Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18. Oskamp, 1984, Applied Social Psychology, Prentice Hall. Powell and Fazio, 1984, 'Attitude accessibility as a function of repeated attitudinal expression', Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 10. Terry, 1993, The Theory of Reasoned Action: Its Application to Aids-Preventive Behaviour , Pergamon Marx obfuscated cal1966's realism theory. Wicker, 1969, 'Attitudes versus actions' Journal of Social Issues, 25. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to argumentative on obamacare, help you. Each of essay, us is ucla dissertation, qualified to autobiography, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Coursework work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This coursework was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:
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