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arabian family essay The population was characterized by a high degree of cultural homogeneity. This homogeneity was reflected in college board ap gov, a common Arabic language and in adherence to Sunni Wahhabi Islam, which has been fostered within the political culture promoted by design a book cover report, the Saudi monarchy. Above all, the cultural homogeneity of the kingdom rested in the diffusion of values and attitudes exemplified in the family and in board ap gov, Arabian tribal society, in particular the values and attitudes regarding relations within the family and relations of the family with the rest of society. The family was the most important social institution in design cover, Saudi Arabia. For Saudis generally, the family was the primary basis of identity and board essays, status for the individual and the immediate focus of individual loyalty, just as it was among those who recognized a tribal affiliation. Of Mice And Men. Families formed alignments with other families sharing common interests and life-styles, and individuals tended to socialize within the circle of board essays, these family alliances.
Usually, a family business was open to participation by sons, uncles, and male cousins, and functioned as the social welfare safety net for all members of the extended family. The structure of the family in Saudi Arabia was generally compatible with the structure of tribal lineage. Families were patrilineal, the boundaries of family membership being drawn around lines of descent through males. Relations with maternal relatives were important, but family identity was tied to and men essay loneliness introduction, the father, and children were considered to belong to him and not to the mother. At its narrowest, a family might therefore be defined as comprising a man, his children, and his children's children through patrilineal descent. Ap Gov. Islamic laws of personal status remained in force in Saudi Arabia without modification, and the patrilineal character of the family was compatible with and art internship letter, supported by college ap gov, these Islamic family laws. Marriage was not a sacrament but a civil contract, which had to be signed by witnesses and design cover book report, which specified an amount of money ( mehr ) to be paid by the husband to the wife. It might further include an agreement for an additional amount to be paid in the event of divorce. The amount of the college ap gov essays mehr averaged between 25,000 and 40,000 Saudi riyals in the early 1990s, although some couples rejected the mehr altogether, stipulating only a token amount to letter, satisfy the legal requirement necessary to validate the marriage contract. The contract might also add other stipulations, such as assuring the wife the board essays right of essay, divorce if the ap gov husband should take a second wife.
Divorce could usually only be instigated by the husband, and essay, because by law children belonged to the father, who could take custody of them after a certain age (the age varied with the Islamic legal school, but was usually seven for boys and puberty for girls), legally a wife and mother could be detached from college ap gov her children at the wish of supporting, her husband. When women married, they might become incorporated into the household of the husband but not into his family. A woman did not take her husband's name but kept the name of board essays, her father, because legally women were considered to belong to the family of in tamil, their birth throughout their lives. College Ap Gov Essays. Many in Saudi Arabia interpreted the retention of a woman's maiden name, as well as her retention of control over art internship cover letter personal property as allowed under Islamic law, as an indication of women's essential independence from a husband's control under the Islamic system. Legally, a woman's closest male relative, such as a father or brother, was obligated to support her if she were divorced or widowed.
Divorce was common. College Board Ap Gov Essays. According to a book, Islamic law, men are permitted to board ap gov, marry as many as four wives. Among the adult generation of educated, Western- oriented elites, polygyny was not practiced. Deforestation In Tamil. Polygyny was common, however, among some groups, such as the religiously conservative and the older generation of the royal family. In the board cities, polygynous households were seen among recent migrants from rural areas.
For a family of design a book cover report, means, a polygynous housing arrangement usually entailed a separate dwelling unit for each wife and her children. These units might be completely separate houses or houses within a walled family compound, in which case the compound might include a separate house that the college essays men of the family shared and used for male gatherings, such as meals with guests or business meetings. Because the prerogatives of divorce, polygyny, and child custody lay with the husband, women in Saudi Arabia appeared to be at a considerable disadvantage in marriage. Of Mice Essay. However, these disadvantages were partially offset by a number of factors. The first was that children were attached to mothers, and when children were grown, especially sons, their ties to the mother secured her a place of permanence in the husband's family. Second, marriages were most often contracted by agreement between families, uniting cousins, or individuals from families seeking to expand their circle of alliances and enhance their prestige, so that a successful marriage was in the interest of, and the desire of, both husband and college ap gov, wife.
In addition, Islamic inheritance laws guaranteed a share of essay, inheritance to daughters and wives, so that many women in Saudi Arabia personally held considerable wealth. Because women by law were entitled to full use of their own money and property, they had economic independence to cushion the impact of divorce, should it occur. Most important, custody of children was in practice a matter for family discussion, not an absolute regulated by religion. Furthermore, judges of the sharia courts, according to informal observations, responded with sympathy and reason when women attempted to initiate divorce proceedings or request the support of the board ap gov court in family-related disputes. Families in Saudi Arabia, like families throughout the Middle East, tended to be patriarchal, the father in the family appearing as an authoritarian figure at the top of a hierarchy based on age and supporting essay, sex. Undergirding the patriarchal family were cultural and religious values that permeated the society as a whole, and that found their clearest expression in tribal values and practices. College Board Ap Gov. Families shared a sense of corporate identity, and the esteem of the family was measured by the individual's capacity to live up to deforestation essay in tamil, socially prescribed ideals of honor. The values and practices inherent in these ideals as well as adherence to Islam, were at the heart of the cultural homogeneity among the college essays diverse peoples--tribal and nontribal--of the kingdom.
The society as a whole valued behavior displaying generosity, selflessness, and hospitality; deference to those above in the hierarchy of the family; freedom from dependence on others and mastery over one's emotions; and a willingness to support other family members and assume responsibility for their errors as well. An example of the sense of corporate responsibility binding Arabian families may be seen in background, an incident that occurred in the 1970s in a Hijazi village. Although this incident occurred among beduin who were recently settled, the group solidarity illustrated was applicable to college board essays, the Arabian family in general as well as to those united by tribal affiliation. A Book Cover. An automobile accident took the life of a young boy, and the driver of the car was obligated to pay compensation to the boy's father. The family of the college board essays driver, although indigent, was able to borrow the money from a local merchant and present it to the boy's father in a ceremony to forgive.
Afterward, delegated members of the tribe assumed the responsibility of collecting money toward repayment of the compensation from all the people in the tribe, who happened to include close relatives of the boy who was killed. In this way, all parties to the tragedy were satisfied that the best interests of the extended family/tribal group had been served in serving the interests of an individual member. Chastity and sexual modesty were also very highly valued. Applied primarily to women, these values were not only tied to family honor but were held to be a religious obligation as well. Specific Quranic verses enjoin modesty upon women and, to a lesser degree, upon men; and women are viewed as being responsible for sexual temptation ( fitna ). Although this attitude is photo ancient in college board essays, the Middle East and found to some degree throughout the bachelor thesis theoretical area in modern times, it has taken on religious significance in Islam through interpretations of Muslim theologians. The veiling and separation of college board essays, women were considered mechanisms to ensure sexual modesty and art internship, avoid fitna . In practice, the effect of college, veiling and separation also ensured the continuing dependence of women on men.
Some families adopted more liberal standards than others in defining the extent of veiling and separation, but the underlying value of sexual modesty was almost universal. Because the supporting separation of women from unrelated men was accepted as a moral imperative, most activities of a woman outside her home required the mediation of a servant or a man; for example, if a woman should not be seen, how could she apply for a government housing loan in an office staffed by men? In fact, how could she get to the government office without a servant or a man to take her, because women were not allowed to drive. The continuing dependence of women on men, in effect, perpetuated the family as a patriarchal unit. Control of women ensured female chastity and thus family honor as well as the college board essays patrilineal character of the family.
In Saudi society in general, the role of women was basic to maintaining the structure of the family and therefore of society.
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literature proposal This is ap gov, a work in progress, intended to organize my thoughts on design a book book, the process of formulating a proposal. If you have any thoughts on the contents, or on the notion of making this available to students, please share them with me. Thanks. This is a guide to writing M.A. research proposals. The same principles apply to dissertation proposals and to proposals to most funding agencies.
It includes a model outline, but advisor, committee and funding agency expectations vary and your proposal will be a variation on board ap gov essays, this basic theme. Use these guidelines as a point of departure for discussions with your advisor. They may serve as a straw-man against which to build your understanding both of your project and of proposal writing. Proposal writing is important to your pursuit of a graduate degree. The proposal is, in effect, an deforestation essay in tamil, intellectual scholastic (not legal) contract between you and your committee. It specifies what you will do, how you will do it, and college ap gov essays, how you will interpret the results. In specifying what will be done it also gives criteria for determining whether it is done.
In approving the proposal, your committee gives their best judgment that the approach to the research is reasonable and likely to yield the anticipated results. They are implicitly agreeing that they will accept the result as adequate for the purpose of granting a degree. (Of course you will have to write the thesis in and men acceptable form, and you probably will discover things in the course of college ap gov, your research that were not anticipated but which should be addressed in your thesis, but the minimum core intellectual contribution of your thesis will be set by the proposal.) Both parties benefit from an essay in tamil, agreed upon plan. The objective in writing a proposal is to describe what you will do, why it should be done, how you will do it and what you expect will result. Being clear about these things from the beginning will help you complete your thesis in a timely fashion. College Essays! A vague, weak or fuzzy proposal can lead to a long, painful, and often unsuccessful thesis writing exercise. A clean, well thought-out, proposal forms the backbone for the thesis itself. Bachelor! The structures are identical and through the miracle of word-processing, your proposal will probably become your thesis.
A good thesis proposal hinges on a good idea. Once you have a good idea, you can draft the proposal in college essays an evening. Getting a good idea hinges on familiarity with the topic. This assumes a longer preparatory period of essay in tamil, reading, observation, discussion, and essays, incubation. Read everything that you can in your area of interest.
Figure out what are the important and missing parts of our understanding. Figure out bachelor thesis theoretical, how to build/discover those pieces. Live and breathe the topic. Talk about it with anyone who is college ap gov, interested. Then just write the important parts as the proposal.
Filling in the things that we do not know and that will help us know more: that is what research is all about. Proposals help you estimate the size of deforestation essay in tamil, a project. Don't make the project too big. Our MA program statement used to say that a thesis is equivalent to a published paper in scope. These days, sixty double spaced pages, with figures, tables and bibliography, would be a long paper. Your proposal will be shorter, perhaps five pages and certainly no more than fifteen pages. (For perspective, the NSF limits the length of proposal narratives to 15 pages, even when the request might be for multiple hundreds of thousands of dollars.) The merit of the proposal counts, not the weight. Shoot for five pithy pages that indicate to a relatively well-informed audience that you know the college board ap gov essays topic and how its logic hangs together, rather than fifteen or twenty pages that indicate that you have read a lot of essay, things but not yet boiled it down to a set of prioritized linked questions. Different Theses, Similar Proposals.
This guide includes an outline that looks like a fill-in the blanks model and, while in board ap gov essays the abstract all proposals are similar, each proposal will have its own particular variation on the basic theme. Deforestation! Each research project is ap gov, different and photo grading rubric, each needs a specifically tailored proposal to college board essays, bring it into focus. Different advisors, committees and agencies have different expectations and and men, you should find out what these are as early as possible; ask your advisor for college board ap gov essays, advice on photo rubric, this. Further, different types of thesis require slightly different proposals. College Board Essays! What style of work is published in your sub-discipline? Characterizing theses is difficult. Essay! Some theses are straight science. Some are essentially opinion pieces. College Board Ap Gov! Some are policy oriented. In the end, they may well all be interpretations of observations, and differentiated by the rules that constrain the interpretation. (Different advisors will have different preferences about the rules, the meta-discourse, in essay which we all work.) In the abstract all proposals are very similar.
They need to show a reasonably informed reader why a particular topic is important to address and how you will do it. To that end, a proposal needs to show how your work fits into college essays what is already known about the topic and what new contribution your work will make. Specify the question that your research will answer, establish why it is a significant question, show how you are going to answer the question, and indicate what you expect we will learn. The proposal should situate the work in the literature, it should show why this is an (if not the essay most) important question to answer in the field, and convince your committee (the skeptical readers that they are) that your approach will in fact result in an answer to the question. Theses which address research questions that can be answered by making plan-able observations (and applying hypothesis testing or model selection techniques) are preferred and perhaps the easiest to write.
Because they address well-bounded topics, they can be very tight, but they do require more planning on board ap gov essays, the front end. Theses which are largely based on synthesis of observations, rumination, speculation, and opinion formation are harder to write, and theoretical background, usually not as convincing, often because they address questions which are not well-bounded and essentially unanswerable. (One 'old saw' about research in the social sciences is that the finding is always: some do and ap gov essays, some don't. Try to avoid such insight-less findings; finding who do and who don't is better.) One problem with this type of supporting essay, project is that it is college, often impossible to tell when you are done. Another problem is that the nature of argument for a position rather than the reasoned rejection of alternatives to it encourages shepherding a favored notion rather than converging more directly toward a truth. (See Chamberlain's and Platt's articles). A good proposal helps one see and and men essay loneliness introduction, avoid these problems. Literature review-based theses involve collection of information from the literature, distillation of it, and coming up with new insight on an issue. College Board Ap Gov Essays! One problem with this type of research is that you might find the perfect succinct answer to your question on the night before (or after) you turn in the final draft --- in someone else's work. This certainly can knock the wind out of your sails. (But note that even a straight-ahead science thesis can have the problem of discovering, late in the game, that the work you have done or are doing has already been done; this is where familiarity with the a book book report relevant literature by both yourself and board ap gov, your committee members is important.) A Two Page (Preliminary Proposal) Model.
Here is a model for a very brief (maybe five paragraph) proposal that you might use to interest faculty in sitting on of mice loneliness introduction, your committee. People who are not yet hooked may especially appreciate its brevity. In the first paragraph, the first sentence identifies the general topic area. The second sentence gives the research question, and board essays, the third sentence establishes its significance. The next couple of paragraphs gives the larger historical perspective on the topic. Essentially list the major schools of thought on the topic and very briefly review the literature in the area with its major findings. Who has written on the topic and what have they found? Allocate about a sentence per important person or finding.
Include any preliminary findings you have, and indicate what open questions are left. Restate your question in this context, showing how it fits into this larger picture. The next paragraph describes your methodology. It tells how will you approach the of mice and men essay question, what you will need to do it. The final paragraph outlines your expected results, how you will interpret them, and how they will fit into college board ap gov the our larger understanding i.e., 'the literature'. The two outlines below are intended to show both what are the standard parts of essay in tamil, a proposal and of a science paper. Notice that the college ap gov essays only real difference is that you change expected results to results in the paper, and usually leave the budget out, of the paper. Another outline (maybe from Gary Fuller?). Each of these outlines is essay loneliness introduction, very similar. You probably see already that the proposal's organization lends itself to word-processing right into the final thesis.
It also makes it easy for readers to find relevant parts more easily. Board Ap Gov! The section below goes into slightly more detail on supporting essay, what each of the points in the outline is and does. A good title will clue the reader into the topic but it can not tell the whole story. Follow the title with a strong introduction. The introduction provides a brief overview that tells a fairly well informed (but perhaps non-specialist) reader what the proposal is board essays, about. It might be as short as a single page, but it should be very clearly written, and it should let one assess whether the research is relevant to their own. With luck it will hook the reader's interest. What is your proposal about? Setting the topical area is a start but you need more, and quickly. Get specific about what your research will address.
Once the topic is established, come right to the point. What are you doing? What specific issue or question will your work address? Very briefly (this is still the introduction) say how you will approach the work. What will we learn from bachelor thesis background your work? Why is this work important? Show why this is it important to answer this question. College Ap Gov! What are the implications of bachelor thesis background, doing it? How does it link to other knowledge?
How does it stand to inform policy making? This should show how this project is significant to our body of knowledge. Why is college board, it important to our understanding of the world? It should establish why I would want to read on. Report! It should also tell me why I would want to support, or fund, the project. State of our knowledge. The purpose of the literature review is to situate your research in the context of what is already known about a topic. It need not be exhaustive, it needs to show how your work will benefit the whole. It should provide the theoretical basis for your work, show what has been done in the area by others, and set the stage for your work. In a literature review you should give the reader enough ties to the literature that they feel confident that you have found, read, and college, assimilated the literature in thesis the field.
It might do well to include a paragraph that summarizes each article's contribution, and a bit of college essays, 'mortar' to hold the edifice together, perhaps these come from supporting your notes while reading the board essays material. The flow should probably move from the more general to the more focused studies, or perhaps use historical progression to art internship cover, develop the story. It need not be exhaustive; relevance is 'key'. This is where you present the holes in the knowledge that need to be plugged, and by doing so, situate your work. It is the place where you establish that your work will fit in and be significant to the discipline. This can be made easier if there is literature that comes out and says Hey, this is a topic that needs to be treated!
What is the college ap gov essays answer to this question? and essay grading, you will sometimes see this type of board essays, piece in the literature. Perhaps there is a reason to read old AAG presidential addresses. Your work to date. Tell what you have done so far. Essay Grading! It might report preliminary studies that you have conducted to establish the college ap gov feasibility of deforestation essay, your research. It should give a sense that you are in a position to add to the body of knowledge. Overview of approach.
This section should make clear to the reader the way that you intend to approach the research question and the techniques and logic that you will use to address it. This might include the field site description, a description of the college essays instruments you will use, and particularly the data that you anticipate collecting. You may need to comment on site and resource accessibility in the time frame and budget that you have available, to photo essay rubric, demonstrate feasibility, but the emphasis in board ap gov this section should be to fully describe specifically what data you will be using in essay in tamil your study. Part of the purpose of doing this is to detect flaws in the plan before they become problems in the research. This should explain in some detail how you will manipulate the data that you assembled to get at the information that you will use to answer your question. Board Ap Gov Essays! It will include the statistical or other techniques and the tools that you will use in processing the data. It probably should also include an indication of the of mice and men introduction range of outcomes that you could reasonably expect from your observations. In this section you should indicate how the anticipated outcomes will be interpreted to answer the board ap gov research question.
It is extremely beneficial to in tamil, anticipate the range of college ap gov, outcomes from your analysis, and for each know what it will mean in terms of the answer to your question. This section should give a good indication of what you expect to thesis background, get out of the research. Ap Gov! It should join the essay data analysis and possible outcomes to the theory and board ap gov, questions that you have raised. It will be a good place to summarize the bachelor significance of the work. It is often useful from the very beginning of college, formulating your work to write one page for this section to focus your reasoning as you build the rest of the proposal.
This is the list of the relevant works. Art Internship Cover! Some advisors like exhaustive lists. I think that the Graduate Division specifies that you call it Bibliography. College Ap Gov Essays! Others like to see only the literature which you actually cite. Design Cover Book! Most fall in between: there is no reason to cite irrelevant literature but it may be useful to board ap gov, keep track of a book report, it even if only to say that it was examined and found to college essays, be irrelevant. Use a standard format. Order the references alphabetically, and use flag paragraphs as per the University's Guidelines.
Read. Of Mice Essay Introduction! Read everything you can find in your area of interest. Board Ap Gov Essays! Read. Read. Read. Take notes, and talk to your advisor about the topic. If your advisor won't talk to you, find another one or rely on 'the net' for intellectual interaction. Email has the advantage of forcing you to get your thoughts into written words that can be refined, edited and photo essay grading rubric, improved. It also gets time stamped records of when you submitted what to your advisor and how long it took to college ap gov, get a response. Write about the topic a lot, and don't be afraid to tear up (delete) passages that just don't work. Often you can re-think and essay, re-type faster than than you can edit your way out of a hopeless mess.
The advantage is in the re-thinking. Very early on, generate the research question, critical observation, interpretations of the possible outcomes, and the expected results. These are the core of the essays project and will help focus your reading and thinking. Modify them as needed as your understanding increases. Use some systematic way of recording notes and bibliographic information from the very beginning.
The classic approach is a deck of index cards. You can sort, regroup, layout spatial arrangements and work on the beach. Possibly a slight improvement is to use a word-processor file that contains bibliographic reference information and notes, quotes etc. that you take from the source. This can be sorted, searched, diced and sliced in cover letter your familiar word-processor. You may even print the index cards from the word-processor if you like the ability to physically re-arrange things. Even better for some, is to use specialized bibliographic database software.
Papyrus, EndNote, and other packages are available for PCs and MacIntoshs. The bib-refer and bibTex software on college essays, UNIX computers are also very handy and have the advantage of working with plain ASCII text files (no need to worry about getting at your information when the wordprocessor is several generations along). All of these tools link to various word-processors to make constructing and formating your final bibliography easier, but you won't do that many times anyway. If they help you organize your notes and thinking, that is the benefit. Another pointer is to keep in mind from the outset that this project is neither the photo essay grading rubric last nor the greatest thing you will do in your life. It is just one step along the way. Get it done and get on college board ap gov essays, with the next one. The length to shoot for is equivalent to a published paper, sixty pages of double spaced text, plus figures tables, table of contents, references, etc. is probably all you need.
In practice, most theses try to do too much and become too long. Cover your topic, but don't confuse it with too many loosely relevant side lines. This is not complete and needs a little rearranging. The balance between Introduction and Literature Review needs to be thought out. The reader will want to be able to figure out whether to read the proposal. The literature review should be sufficiently inclusive that the essay rubric reader can tell where the bounds of board ap gov, knowledge lie. It should also show that the proposer knows what has been done in cover letter the field (and the methods used).
The balance may change between the proposal and the thesis. It is common, although not really desirable, for theses to make reference to every slightly related piece of work that can be found. This is college board, not necessary. Refer to the work that actually is linked to your study, don't go too far afield (unless your committee is adamant that you do ;-). Krathwohl, David R. 1988. Grading Rubric! How to Prepare a Research Proposal: Guidelines for Funding and Dissertations in the Social and Behavioral Sciences . Syracuse University Press. Recent National Science Foundations Guidelines for essays, Research Proposals can be found on supporting, the NSF website, www.nsf.gov. Chamberlain, T.C. The Method of Multiple Working Hypotheses, reprinted in Science , Vol 148, pp754-759.
7 May 1965. Platt, J. Strong Inference in college board ap gov essays Science , Number 3642, pp. 347-353, 16 October 1964. Strunk and White The Elements of Style. Turabian, Kate. Supporting! 1955 (or a more recent edition) A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations , University of Chicago Press. Mortimer J. Board Essays! Adler and Charles Van Doren. 1940 ('67, '72 etc). How to Read a Book . Simon and deforestation in tamil, Schuster Publishers.
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Uc Prompt Examples Essays and Research Papers. Characterization Murtagh is a half brother of college board Eragon and holds an uncertain position in this story. He strongly desires to prove to rubric, people that he isn’t . like his father, Morzan. People treat him unfairly because of his relation to Morzan. An example of this treatment could be seen with his arrival to the Varden with Eragon.
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mess you up for life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to teach you how to deal with the unfairness . in life. When I first started middle school I felt so out of place, I mean I had to deal some very flaky people and I was very stressed out a lot. The reason why I was so stressed out was because of the changes that I had to endure around and to me. For example I had to college board essays, deal with the essay grading rubric disturbing fact that I was growing hair in various places on my. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. well with long-term goals more difficult to engage with the cigarette / tobacco / drugs compared with the permissive family, with emphasis on the philosophy . of doing its own affairs, and The most powerful influence is when the old self into shape example that is as heavy smokers, so their children will likely to mencontohnya. Conduct smoke more is found in those living with one parent (single parent). Teenagers will behave as a smoker faster when their mothers smoke from the board ap gov father who smokes, it. Adolescence , Childhood , Cigarette 1162 Words | 4 Pages. Blog Examples The New Collaboration: Differences breathe life and sameness means death.
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22. At a party, your friends offer you a cigarette. You accept although you haven’t smoked before. Do you then: ____ Feel . silly because you don’t know how to smoke? ____ Watch your friends and follow their example ? ____ Think they’re looking at you and therefore try to do the drawback?Sur. 2006 singles , Stevie Wonder 1176 Words | 5 Pages.
capitalism. An oligopoly is a small group of essay grading businesses, two or more, that control the market for a certain product or service. This gives these businesses . huge influence over price and other aspects of the college essays market. Since it is the middle ground, oligopoly examples are abundant in essay loneliness introduction our economic system today. College Board Ap Gov? Monopoly A monopoly is exclusive control of the market by one business because there is thesis theoretical background no other group selling the product or offering the ap gov essays service.
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If you are sending all of ap gov, your materials as an attachment, mention what#8217;s included, position you are applying for, and of mice and men loneliness contact information. Here#8217;s an example from the University of Minnesota: I am a first year law student at the University of college ap gov essays, Minnesota Law School applying for a summer clerkship with your firm. I have attached the resume, cover letter and transcript that you requested to this email. If you have questions or need more information, you may reach me through the report, phone number or email below. I look forward to board, hearing from you, If you want to inquire about the status of your application: Wait about two weeks before sending a follow up email and demonstrate your interest, not asking for a response, says hiring expert Alison Green. Here#8217;s what she recommends you say: I recently applied for your __ position, and I just wanted to reiterate my strong interest. I think it might be a great match, and I#8217;d love to talk with you about it when you#8217;re ready to begin scheduling interviews. If you want to say #8220;Thank You#8221; after a job interview: The key here is to reference something that came up specifically in the interview. And Men Essay Introduction! Here#8217;s an example from Berkeley Law School: Thank you for taking the time to college board essays, meet with me this past Tuesday. After speaking with you and learning more about the structure of Blank, Blank#8217;s summer program, I am even more enthusiastic about the possibility of working at Blank, Blank next summer. I particularly enjoyed hearing about your work in representing several Latin American companies in essay trade-related matters.
Read the college ap gov essays, rest of the email and advice from Berkeley Law School. Also, Career Services at West Virginia University provides examples of what to say if you want to add more information (say, a sample of your work) or address a question that came up in the interview. If you want to rubric, follow up after a job interview: If you haven#8217;t heard from an employer and the interviewer has given you a timeline, Alison Green recommends this email: Hi Jane, you’d mentioned that you were hoping to be ready to move forward on college board essays, the Communications Manager position by the end of the theoretical background, month, so I wanted to check in with you. I’m very interested in the role, even more so after our last conversation, and would love to know what your timeline looks like moving forward. College Board Essays! LinkedIn is design cover book report, a great place to discover new connections that can help you advance your career.
Forbes outlines helpful tips on searching for college, mutual contacts and essay crafting a compelling request for an introduction. We met briefly at the Delta Leadership conference last fall, during the round-table discussion. College Ap Gov Essays! To refresh your memory, I am changing careers, from being an accountant to being a fashion merchandiser. Of Mice Loneliness Introduction! You were kind enough to give me advice on companies that might appreciate my background. Since we last spoke, I’ve decided it would be helpful to get online clothing company experience.
Acme Shoes is one of the college board, companies I admire in a book cover book report the online world and I noticed that you have a first-degree connection to Ellen Jones, a marketing director there. If you want to introduce yourself to college board ap gov, someone new: Sometimes you don#8217;t have a mutual contact on LinkedIn and just need send a cold email. Here#8217;s a template from Alyson Weiss of Career Moves, a division of cover, JVS. I hope you are doing well. We are both in board the Boston Networking Club, so I was hoping it would be okay if I reached out to you. [Name of HR person] posted a description for a Community Engagement Recruitment opening at thesis theoretical background, your company today on board ap gov essays, the YNPN list serv that I am really interested in learning more about. If you want to request an informational interview: Just Jobs has several templates (for various circumstances) that include the characteristics of a good informational interview request: short, specific, and mentions some common ground and background info. Of Mice Loneliness! I’m a [your profession]who has worked with [name of warm contact]and I’m currently making time to board, develop my skills and design book report focus on what’s really important in [profession]when it comes to college board, hiring a [professional]for a project. I’ve had a look through your website and especially enjoyed the [whatever]. Deforestation Essay! I’d love the opportunity to spend 20 mins with you to discuss your decision making process with regards to [professionals]and what your expectations are when working with them. If you want to thank a new contact or to someone who has helped you: And you should!
However, in college essays addition to showing gratitude, you can continue to keep in touch by being helpful and showing how their advice has helped you. Here#8217;s a sample of one out of three emails you should send, from Ramit Sethi of I Will Teach You to Be Rich: Just wanted to thank you again for meeting with me earlier. I’m definitely going to get in touch with Susan like you recommended. I’ll keep you in supporting essay the loop, and of course, please let me know if there’s anything I can do to repay the favor! If you want someone to recommend you on LinkedIn: It never hurts to have people sing your praises in public! Ask someone to write a recommendation for you on college essays, LinkedIn. Here#8217;s what Indie Business Network recommends: I hope this message finds you well. It was great seeing you at the networking event last week!
As we discussed, one of the things I am doing is creating new ways for my prospective customers to quickly see how I can serve them. Since you were so pleased with the consultation we had a while back about your business, I am hoping that you would be so kind as to write a LinkedIn recommendation about art internship cover my business expertise that I can share with others. If you need someone to be a reference: References are often the least thought about aspect of a job hunt, but you should choose your references carefully. College Board! Once you have identified someone to essay loneliness, vouch for you, here#8217;s what Snag A Job recommends you say: I am sending you this email in hopes you will be a reference for me during my job search. Throughout my time working with you, I was able to grow professionally and feel like this experience has really helped me become an ideal employee. I know you would be able to attest to my reliability and willingness to college essays, learn. This list is not exhaustive, but hopefully it will help you break through any writer#8217;s block you have and send great emails. For other tips on of mice and men introduction, how to write emails check out the following resource: Advance your career by writing better emails. Board! Any other email templates or formats work for you?
Share them below! Former Editor and cover letter Creator of Idealist Careers, a publication of Idealist.org. Follow me on Twitter @ajlovesya. It is college board ap gov, indeed an amazing effort for a large cohort of job seekers across the theoretical, world. I must appreciate the entire team of Idealist for this contribution. well done and keep it up. Like what you're reading?
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essays history film Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. Essays! This of design cover book report course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in college board their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in art internship cover many cases that won’t matter. Board Essays! Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital.
Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in essay watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. Board Ap Gov! For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. Some are documents of thesis theoretical everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to college board, reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. And Men! They force us to essays, acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films.
By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for bachelor background social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is essays, this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline.
Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into in tamil, our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field. The first edition of college ap gov Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in deforestation essay in tamil 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of college board ap gov essays cinema as it is essay grading, conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. College Board Ap Gov Essays! But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and deforestation pornographic films.
We limit our scope to ap gov essays, theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and loneliness animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in board essays college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only design, film histories. College! For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the supporting, life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points. There is college ap gov, no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in the course of an letter, argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do?
While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to ap gov essays, ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is art internship cover letter, poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out college essays, how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original.
Other scholars are studying a group of in tamil films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to college ap gov, discover how the a book book, Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and board other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the in tamil, accumulating of facts about their passion as an end in college ap gov itself.
But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is thesis theoretical background, organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of ap gov assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of deforestation essay a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in college board ap gov essays a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified. Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the photo rubric, date of production or of release?
In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the college, film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in thesis Belgium, where the college board essays, print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself.
The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps.
The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and of mice and men essay loneliness introduction the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. College Essays! All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the essay grading, mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of board ap gov Bertini’s career. A plot description of deforestation in tamil a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the college ap gov essays, identification depended on cover, certain assumptions. For example, the board ap gov, researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about supporting, forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation.
An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and essays it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Cover Letter! Its collection also includes scripts in board essays various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and supporting essay costumes. This is college ap gov, a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions.
One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company. She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to and men loneliness, one program but peripheral to college ap gov, another. Essay Rubric! The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about board, a daring visual innovation introduced by and men loneliness the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and essays pursuit of of mice and men essay information.
The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and board ap gov essays answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to art internship letter, ask questions.
But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the board, 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. Thesis Background! 1.
Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in college ap gov essays quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. In Tamil! 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of college board essays cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data.
Sometimes the research question seems to art internship cover, have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of college board bankruptcy and bachelor thesis was desperate to save itself. Board Essays! But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to photo grading, researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from college ap gov facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for cover letter breaking into ap gov, the ranks of the major studios.
4. Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at bachelor thesis, least two things. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. What is this film, and college board who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the of mice, vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in ap gov essays this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it?
Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for background all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the college board essays, richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of essay in tamil affairs.
He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out college ap gov, responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . A Book Cover! Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge. College Ap Gov! In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of photo essay grading facts but an argument. The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for college an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to photo essay rubric, answer some historical question. Most arguments about college ap gov essays, film history rely on deforestation, evidence.
Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is college essays, sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to supporting essay, the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the college board ap gov essays, films they study are central pieces of photo grading evidence. But this data set is partial.
Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only board, a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to of mice and men loneliness, retain. College! Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only art internship, about 20 percent of silent films are known to ap gov essays, survive.
Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and supporting newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony.
Historians of ap gov essays film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and supporting essay other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the board ap gov, sort of photo essay rubric descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of board essays verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions.
In the grading rubric, 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and college board ap gov essays one for export. These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and of mice essay loneliness introduction revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version.
Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the college ap gov essays, print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to and men essay loneliness introduction, be aware of the differences among the college, versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is cover, being studied. For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material.
Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. Board Ap Gov Essays! A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of deforestation film criticism during the board ap gov, 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches.
There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on in tamil, film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and ap gov essays machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on thesis theoretical, the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an ap gov essays, interest in deforestation in tamil one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question.
Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into college, only one of these pigeonholes. Grading! If you want to know why a film looks the ap gov essays, way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of letter film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the ap gov essays, contemporary political context.
We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the of mice and men, Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an college board ap gov essays, answer to a historical question may involve both description and bachelor thesis theoretical background explanation, in college ap gov essays different mixtures. The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. And Men! For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the board ap gov essays, stock on which it is printed. The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in bachelor theoretical background turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the board ap gov essays, evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them.
Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the bachelor, sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect.
Historians work with conceptions of college board various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the a book cover report, attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. College Board Ap Gov! It is of mice and men essay, simply to board ap gov, say that historians may justifiably appeal to essay in tamil, what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation.
Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the power to create historical change. This view is college board ap gov, sometimes labeled the a book, Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in college ap gov the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is essay, probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it.
Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the college essays, beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Essay Rubric! Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in ap gov group-based causes. This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of a book book report groups are important to essays, the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about design cover book, institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and board ap gov essays other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of of mice introduction filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and ap gov essays critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and supporting the like. Board Essays! The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement.
Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the cover letter, 1960s. Board Ap Gov! In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Design Book Report! Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in essays the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director.
Influence does not mean simple copying. A Book Book! You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the college, arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. Of Mice And Men Loneliness! The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by college board ap gov essays examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films.
Influences are particular kinds of design a book cover book causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of board data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to photo essay grading rubric, explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into board, a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material.
For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. Cover! A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends. Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency.
Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to board essays, explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the theoretical background, answer to board essays, a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. Art Internship Cover! All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality.
By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to board essays, explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out of mice essay loneliness, a sequence of events indefinitely. College Board! Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time.
She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is design a book book, creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out ap gov essays, periods according to of mice and men essay loneliness, the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the board ap gov, early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is supporting essay, not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods.
Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in ap gov essays step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in film form or the film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the a book cover report, historian’s research program and college board essays central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. Bachelor Theoretical! This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of college board ap gov essays film histories rather than a single film history.
Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the essay, state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the board ap gov, films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the design a book, like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of board ap gov essays its influence on bachelor thesis, other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to ap gov, try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of photo grading historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in board ap gov most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends.
They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of essay Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of course in board ap gov essays some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical.
Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the of mice and men loneliness, medium” we include matters of film form: the college board ap gov, part/whole organization of the of mice loneliness introduction, film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern.
The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the board essays, patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to art internship cover, survey the college, uses of the medium in different times and design cover book report places.
Sometimes we dwell on college board ap gov, the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking. Supporting Essay! At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the college board ap gov, film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the deforestation, medium? Films are made within modes of college production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Bachelor Thesis! Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. College! The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of letter labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the college board ap gov essays, most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in a book which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and college essays sound of the finished products.
An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the bachelor thesis theoretical, major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of ap gov color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to art internship, do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in college board ap gov essays the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into cover, theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by college board essays directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in in tamil turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie.
Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and board essays regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to of mice, see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. College Board! For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in essay the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s?
Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and college board ap gov essays social. If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and thesis background industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and college essays exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Essay In Tamil! Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the college board ap gov, film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology.
For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of background portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in college the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of thesis background a film they were seeing. Ap Gov Essays! In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from letter circulating. At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and college board hindered that of others. In addition, the bachelor thesis theoretical, circulation of board ap gov U.S. films abroad served to deforestation essay, spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility.
In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the ap gov essays, type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Photo Essay Grading! Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting.
Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story. For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to college ap gov essays, explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story.
As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the art internship cover letter, situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the essays, past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the art internship letter, late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to board essays, the 1980s, and of mice loneliness the contemporary era (1980s-the present). College Board Ap Gov! These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story.
If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for a book cover book instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and college board so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of bachelor thesis theoretical Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in college ap gov chronological order to deforestation, trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and college essays the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in supporting different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on college board, different spheres of photo essay German life.
5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of college ap gov essays our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of art internship Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about college ap gov essays, him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. Design Cover! W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.
Perhaps this has been the college ap gov essays, case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the deforestation essay, Corner (1940). College Board Essays! Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director.
After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to deforestation essay in tamil, be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and college ap gov essays how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an essay, art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany.
A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the college essays, war. He moved into features in 1918. I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage.
The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study. Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally.
The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in deforestation essay in tamil place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to board ap gov essays, Hollywood. It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the of mice and men essay, German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in ap gov most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of deforestation in tamil which was to tailor film technique to board, tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to cover letter, the most salient part of the essays, action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally.
The technique became codified as three-point lighting. Essay! 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on board ap gov essays, glances and small gestures than on art internship letter, pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the board ap gov essays, action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by essay grading rubric American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into college board essays, play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and of mice loneliness introduction Lubitsch was in board the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and essay he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in ap gov America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and essay in tamil soon he was in college board turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of photo essay grading rubric masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925).
For example, we can see the ap gov essays, change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in supporting essay three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to college board ap gov, pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of art internship cover questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over board, this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films?
What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on in tamil, German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. Ap Gov Essays! To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to of mice and men essay, study Lubitsch’s films in board ap gov detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at supporting essay, acknowledged masterpieces, for college ap gov essays I wanted to bachelor background, track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and board ap gov the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and bachelor thesis background American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about college board essays, their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions.
I could identify the of mice and men essay introduction, point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. College Board Essays! I was able to bachelor background, do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on college board ap gov, German films than the bachelor thesis theoretical background, other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. College Ap Gov! Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the bachelor, industrial and social conditions in college ap gov essays Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences.
The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of and men essay loneliness Hollywood film on college ap gov essays, mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to essay, show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years.
Within chapters the ap gov, discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the supporting essay, last one left Lubitsch and college concentrated almost entirely on essay introduction, German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to college essays, Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the in tamil, Mummy (1918) is available.
The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. Ap Gov! (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is deforestation, arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the college board, “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to art internship cover, ask questions. College Essays! They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments.
The facts and questions, data and thesis arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to college, comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and essay rubric effort than writing a review of college ap gov a current film. Theoretical Background! Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to essays, understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy. A Book Book! Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. College Board Ap Gov Essays! What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of deforestation in tamil our moment. 7.
4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in board Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and supporting essay Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into ap gov essays, various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog.
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founder of essay The universe we know and inhabit is random, chaotic, and college board entropic. Art Internship Cover Letter? We impose order, temporarily, and with uncertain consequence. A multitude of coherent individual actions may, in college board ap gov sum, be non-coherent. They may conflict. We invent rules to lubricate human activity, but lubrication is loneliness, not an engine. Leadership is the engine that brings out the best in human society. Leadership is the engine that will power America in the twenty-first century. During the early years of college board essays my life I had the supporting very best leadership training and experience.
I attached no special significance to that fact until many years later when I had the college board essays painful, good fortune to be associated with an organization that had the essay grading worst possible leadership. The contrast between the best and the worst caused me to realize that I possessed a valuable insight into ap gov the nature of leadership. The shelves of bookstores are burdened with books about how to be a successful chief executive of a major corporation. Most of us spend most of our lives not being a chief executive of a major corporation. Most of our leadership time is invested in eyeball to eyeball, nitty-gritty, sweat producing confrontations in less than glamorous surroundings. This essay is for those who learn, teach, and lead.
It is for those who are under fire in essay grading the front lines of leadership. We sometimes expect or hope that the next President of the United States will solve our problems. It will not happen. College Board Ap Gov Essays? Pray that it does not happen, because if it does, another Hitler or Stalin will have put his imprint on humanity. Our society has become vast and complex, and the velocity of change is dramatic. No single leader can solve our problems, democratically, not even a President of the United States. Tens of thousands of leaders are required. The best laws for design book report regulating human conduct are derived from socially approved behaviors which develop gradually in a human community and are codified only after acceptance is nearly universal. Enforcement is substantially accomplished by instruction of the young and by social disapproval of errant behavior.
The formal system of enforcement can then handle the occasional aberrant behavior without undue burden. In the board ap gov essays stable mid-western community where I grew up several decades ago, high school civics teachers told their students that ignorance of the law was not an supporting essay excuse for breaking the law because everyone knows right from wrong. In that community, in that era, a rational person who reached 21 years of age had been imbued with a sense of right and wrong. It is not true today. The concept of right and wrong is in a state of change in our society.
We enter the twenty-first century AD (or CE) as billions of people with colliding interests, powerful technology, and primitive instincts. College Board Essays? The simple, ancient concepts govern our behavior: greed, fear, love, hate, courage, desire for grading power over others, passion, compassion, and charity. Our behavior has changed very little since time immemorial. We speak a thousand languages, each representing centuries of isolation. We are challenged to find transcendental values in almost every human endeavor to optimize our potential and to avoid endless conflict and chaos. The opportunity for emergence of leaders is great. The need for leadership is unparalleled. It is difficult to provide a useful definition of leadership.
Leadership is a means used to cause people to do what we want them to do, but there are many ways to achieve that end and most of them are not leadership. We place first reliance on physical force. A system of revenue production and college essays a system to implement physical force are the bases for every government, even the most democratic governments. We devote vast resources to essay grading rubric military forces and board ap gov police forces. We rely on physical force to implement our will, when necessary, both internationally and thesis domestically. Even those among us who fervently believe in the value of leadership as a means to an end are not prepared to forego military and police forces. Leadership as a means to an end has not been perfected to a degree that would allow us to college board have sufficient confidence to rely on it for book crucial matters of state.
Historically, physical force, including torture, has been a primary tool used by governments, criminals, and even business if we include the institution of slavery. And, sadly, physical force has too often been used in family and personal relations. The idea that government could regulate physical force and board govern the application of physical force by law has been in the process of refinement for centuries. Leadership, as a means to achieve ends, is a relatively new intellectual concept, even though leadership may have been practiced, successfully, by thousands of leaders over the centuries. Would a leader rely on physical force? Probably.
But physical force is not leadership. It is art internship letter, merely one tool among many used to achieve an end. Although we routinely rely on physical force, we are frequently distressed by the result of the application of physical force and generally believe it should be used, infrequently, for the defense of society. Hence, we perceive a need for other means to accomplish our objectives. After force we place reliance on authority. Authority may be backed by force though not necessarily. We vest people who head organizations with the authority deemed necessary for college board ap gov essays successful operation of those organizations. We do not rely on leadership. Such vesting includes authority to deforestation essay in tamil hire and fire, promote or not, transfer, design or abolish jobs, and control funds. Business, governmental, and college board essays charitable organizations are routinely vested with various degrees of authority.
We have, in Western societies, attempted to limit the use of physical force to specific institutions, individuals, and defined situations. The license to use physical force is carefully restricted. Authority, however, is available to a much wider range of people. Authority is a powerful tool to compel human behavior. But authority is not leadership. We might be content to be subjected to authority were authority perfectly executed. Bachelor Thesis? Unfortunately, authority, although necessary, is imperfectly executed by fallible human beings. There are other carrot and stick techniques used to shape behavior which are neither force, authority, nor leadership.
Coercion is one of those means. College Board? Coercion, as used here, is basically a request wherein the requester has a capability to punish non-compliance. Supporting? The punishment is often indirect, but real. Coercion is college board, fairly common. Coercion is a means to achieve an end. It is not leadership. Intimidation is thesis, another tool used to exact desired human behavior.
Intimidation is exploitation of fear. Leaders allay fear. College Board? They do not exploit fear. Fearless people cannot be intimidated. But fearlessness is and men essay loneliness, not always wise.
Many individuals have very limited capabilities, especially compared to wealthy and powerful organizations, and those people may be vulnerable to intimidation. Naive people may also be intimidated by awe. Intimidation is not an act of leadership. Exploitation of fear is not leadership. Threat is a tool used to gain compliance. A threat may be direct or implied and may be backed by a real capability or it may be a bluff. Threat makes good Hollywood entertainment when the good guys tell the bad guys how it is going to be. But in real life, leaders do not threaten.
There are confrontational situations in international affairs where future actions are announced to preclude misinterpretation and unintended military conflagration. These actions may exhibit characteristics of college threat but have a broader purpose. Blackmail is a means sometimes used to influence human behavior. Cover? It is a derivation of college board threat, usually a threat to reveal embarrassing information. It is definitely not a leadership tool. Flattery is photo essay grading, another means to shape attitude. Flattery is insincere or unwarranted praise. Leaders certainly extend justified praise but never flatter. Deceit may be used to affect human behavior. When discovered it destroys trust.
Deceit is not a leadership tool. Deceit is the practice of misleading people which, by essays, definition, is not leading. Bribery, the payment of photo essay something of value to college board essays effect a particular behavior, is not a leadership tool. Humiliation of others is sometimes used to shape human behavior, but not by leaders. Fear is a prime motivator of art internship cover human behavior, but leaders do not exploit fear. College? Leaders allay fear. Hatred is a prime motivator of human behavior. Leaders do not exploit hatred. Acceptance and rejection, both formal and informal, are means to shape human behavior.
Acceptance into a group or rejection from the group can be a powerful factor in shaping behavior. It is a leadership tool only if the acceptance or rejection is based on design a book report, legitimate, accepted rules of the group governing acceptance or rejection. Praise, promise, promotion, and reward are means that a leader uses if warranted, but only if warranted. Misuse of board these means is not an act of supporting essay leadership. Persuasion is a legitimate means of influencing human behavior and is used by leaders, but a caveat is college board ap gov essays, needed. A confidence man uses persuasion to con his victims. We shall return to art internship cover the subject of college board persuasion. Imagine that you awaken and discover that you are the only human being on the planet. Everyone else has disappeared. You own everything. You own all of the luxury homes, resorts, hotels, restaurants, businesses, entertainment industries, airlines, automobiles, cruise ships, all of the gold, diamonds, cash, stocks and bonds, manufacturing industries, minerals, productive farm land and forests.
It's all yours. Deforestation Essay? Are you wealthy? No, you are impoverished. Who will generate your electricity? Who will pilot your airliner? Who will grow your food? Who will prepare your gourmet meals? Who will provide your medical care?
Who will produce your entertainment? Who will manufacture your clothing? Ownership of physical objects and financial instruments is not wealth per college board ap gov, se. Wealth is the power to compel people to do what you want them to do. Bachelor Theoretical Background? If each of us possessed equal wealth, no one would be wealthy.
It would not be possible to compel other people to do the grunge work. Without substantial numbers of board non-wealthy people, wealth does not exist. Use of wealth to design get people to do what we want them to do may be benign or harmful, but in either case, it is not leadership. It is a different means to achieve an end. We can list most of the means that are not force or authority and not leadership under the generic term, manipulation. Deception and manipulation are common practices. Board? We find it very easy to of mice essay introduction convince ourselves that the end justifies the means. Civilization is, in part, recognition that only college board ap gov carefully defined and approved means of of mice and men essay influencing or controlling behavior are acceptable. Most writings about leadership fail to distinguish among the various means that may be used to gain compliance. Differentiation among those means is ap gov, essential if we are to understand leadership.
An analogy may explain the need for deforestation precise differentiation. At some point in human history our ancestors began to ap gov recognize that diseases might be caused by microorganisms they loosely called germs. It was a useful insight, but accurate knowledge of disease prevention and cure awaited differentiation between bacteria and viruses, and photo essay rubric further differentiation among the many types of each as well as the environment required for each type of organism. And, of course, refinement of the differentiation goes much further. The capability to distinguish differences, great and subtle, is a necessary part of the advancement of science and civilization. Our concept of leadership is meaningless unless we distinguish the things that constitute leadership from other means used to college essays cause people to act at our behest. We can effectively teach leadership only when we clearly understand what it is cover, and, quite importantly, what it is not.
We have examined some of the things that do not constitute leadership. We will now look at what does constitute leadership. Leadership is based on earned trust . Trust is earned up close and personal and, excepting extraordinary circumstances, requires an extensive investment of time: years, decades, a lifetime. College Essays? Trust is never permanently earned. It must be continuously re-earned. Trust is earned by placing the welfare of your followers before your own welfare. Trust is earned by actions that demonstrate, unequivocally, your reliability. Art Internship Cover? Trust is earned by taking personal risks to benefit your followers. Trust is earned by making personal sacrifices to board ap gov benefit your followers. Trust is earned by of mice essay introduction, demonstrating competence. Trust is earned by accepting responsibility and accountability for your actions.
Trust is earned by demonstrating integrity. Trust is earned by displaying courage: physical bravery when required, moral courage always. Physical courage, far from universal, is more common than moral courage. Board Ap Gov Essays? We reward physical courage. We rarely reward moral courage, but moral courage is an indispensable aspect of leadership. Trust is of mice essay loneliness, earned by college board ap gov essays, being sincere. Some people may be natural leaders, but all of these things that constitute leadership can be learned and willfully practiced. Hope is central to the human spirit.
When hope fades life ceases. Maintenance of hope is a leadership function that warrants recognition. Sir Ernest Shackleton led an exploratory expedition to Antarctica in 1914. Bachelor Thesis Background? The ship was crushed by ice. The crew, led by Shackleton, survived on college ap gov essays, ice floes for two years under conditions that could easily have caused despair. Deforestation? Shackleton preserved hope, and all of the crew survived.
Whether Shackleton would have been an equally effective leader in different circumstances, a modern industrial organization for example, can be debated, but his ability to preserve hope under adverse conditions may be unequaled. Leadership is college board essays, required when the burden is onerous or the issue requires contravention of conventional wisdom. Leadership is not easy because leadership isn't required to get people to do something they want to letter do. It doesn't require leadership to persuade children to visit an college ap gov essays ice cream parlor. Photo Essay Rubric? Leadership is required if the follower must risk something he values. Leadership is required if the follower must commit time or effort or must sacrifice.
Leadership is required when the follower is board ap gov, asked to pursue a course he would ordinarily not pursue, do something he would prefer to avoid and would not do unless asked by a leader who has earned his trust and respect.