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Two literary examples of the importance of boyhood friendships

Boyhood friendships essays

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Two literary examples of the importance of boyhood friendships

Another ACA Treasury Regulation That Lacks Statutory Authority – Guest Essayist: Grace-Marie Turner. New research about implementation of the boyhood Affordable Care Act finds that Obama administration regulations are allowing taxpayer subsidized health insurance for some people earning less than the statutory income floor and value essay also for unlawful immigrants. A new study by Andy S. Grewal, an boyhood friendships associate professor at the University of Iowa College of Law, explains that the ACA provides tax credits to coin U.S. citizens with incomes between 100 and 400% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). Boyhood? However, IRS regulations were written to extend credits to citizens below 100% FPL in some cases. Where Papers? Also, Section 36B of the ACA grants credits to some non-citizens with low-incomes only if they are themselves lawfully present in boyhood friendships essays, the U.S. and value essay cannot obtain Medicaid coverage. IRS regulations, however, contradict the statute and allow subsidies if “the taxpayer or a member of the boyhood taxpayer’s family is lawfully present in the United States,” and “the lawfully present taxpayer or family member is not eligible for the Medicaid program.” The regulations were issued on August 17, 2011, but the discrepancy between the in war law and the regulations was carefully documented in boyhood essays, a post by Grewal on Bloomberg BNA, “Lurking Challenges to term papers the ACA Tax Credit Regulations.” “A Treasury regulation that extends premium tax credits to individuals whose household incomes fall below the floor established by Section 36B(c)(1)(A) lacks statutory authority,” Grewal concludes. Boyhood Friendships? “Another Treasury regulation that extends those credits to some unlawful aliens suffers from a similar infirmity.” He highlights “the pitfalls associated with Treasury’s failure to recognize limits on its administrative authority.” That is the core issue before the U.S. Supreme Court in King v Burwell where King et al are challenging an china coin IRS rule that allows tax credits to flow through federally-facilitated health insurance exchanges, contrary to the language of the statute which allows the credits only boyhood essays through state exchanges (article originally published May 28, 2015). Only to concept people earning between 100 and 400 percent of FPL are eligible for premium tax credits under the ACA, but Treasury extended the definition in its 2011 rule to also allow credits for those whose income falls below 100 percent. Further, “These taxpayers are generally given larger credits than are given to those who actually meet the statutory criteria,” Grewal writes. And taxpayers who get a larger subsidy than they were due because they mis-estimated their income do not have to repay the money. Boyhood Friendships? “The regulation allows a taxpayer to fully keep her tax credits even if, at the close of the taxable year, the taxpayer’s household income did not meet the statutory floor and on creative techniques the taxpayer was not entitled to friendships essays any credits.” Grewal says it is clear that the regulations contradict the statute , saying, “the statute leaves no room for no winners essay interpretation,” and the regulation “contradicts the congressionally prescribed criteria.” This “reflects an boyhood essays impermissible interpretation of the statute,” he writes. Citizens who submitted comments on essay the proposed regulations asked Treasury to allow similar flexibility for those earning more than 400 percent of FPL.

Treasury’s answer: No, because that would be “contrary to the language of section 36B.” “In other words,” Grewal writes, “the Treasury thinks that it’s ambiguous whether a taxpayer at the 99 percent level comes within the friendships essays 100-400 percent statutory range but that a taxpayer at merchant of venice on love, the 401 percent level unambiguously exceeds it.” Grewal’s conclusion: “Nothing in Section 36B allows the Treasury to rewrite the criteria for qualifying as an applicable taxpayer,” including stretching the income eligibility beyond statutory bounds. But the illegal regulations don’t end there : “Treasury regulations, however, expand the statute and provide tax credits to individuals not lawfully present” in the United States. “Unlike very low-income citizens, whom Congress thought would obtain Medicaid coverage, some low-income lawful aliens may enjoy premium tax credits under Section 36B.” However, a special Treasury rule expanded the definition beyond individual to friendships essays allow subsidies if a “ taxpayer or a member of the coin taxpayer’s family is lawfully present in the United States,” and “the lawfully present taxpayer or family member is boyhood friendships essays not eligible for the Medicaid program.” The italicized language, not found in where term papers, the governing statute, allows the lawful status of a family member to boyhood friendships essays qualify an unlawful alien as an in war essay applicable taxpayer. Once again, the statute “does not present an interpretive gap for the Treasury to fill,” Grewal writes. Friendships? “In precise terms, Congress crafted a special rule that treats an merchant of venice alien whose household income falls outside of the statutory range as an applicable taxpayer only if the alien himself enjoys lawful status, and it specifically denied credits to dependents.” Grewal’s conclusion: “Literally speaking, the regulation allows unlawful aliens to obtain tax credits,” he writes. “Current regulations reflect a desire to implement the ACA as the Treasury thought it should have been drafted, rather than as it was drafted.” The Galen Institute has been cataloguing the major changes made to the ACA. Prof. Grewal’s newly-uncovered finding represents change #50 but is essays #3 on our list because the obscure regulation was issued the year after the law’s passage. It is the 31 st change made by in war the administration without statutory authority.

The above was originally published at Forbes.com on May 28, 2015. Grace-Marie Turner is president of the Galen Institute ( galen.org ), a non-profit research organization focusing on market-based health policy solutions. Click Here to Read More Essays From This Year’s 90 Day Study!

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Nature Of Boyhood Friendships Essay Examples | Kibin

nyu essay 3 mailing Although the boyhood friendships city of Dayton is merchant of venice on love small and has been hit hard by the decline of essays, industry, in on creative writing, Xenia and Yellow Springs the boyhood friendships land is green, fecund, and books techniques alive, even in the relentless heat of summer. Xenia is three miles from boyhood friendships, where the first private black college, Wilberforce, opened, in 1856, to essay on love, meet the educational needs of the growing population of boyhood, freed blacks that crossed the Ohio River. Essay? Yellow Springs, a stop on the Underground Railroad, was initially established as a utopian community in 1825. In 1852, Horace Mann founded Antioch College and served as its president. During the ’50s and ’60s, Antioch and boyhood essays Yellow Springs were hamlets of essay, anti-McCarthyism and antiwar and civil rights activism. Today there are a lot of hippies and essays there’s even more tie-dye. Value Of Reading? Between the villages, you can drive over rolling hills and pastures and not see another car for miles, and only far off on boyhood friendships essays, the horizon will you be able to spot a farmhouse. I spent a week in this part of Ohio, and during my stay I was invited to do all sorts of things with people of all kinds—rich and poor, white and black. I was invited to go flying, dig for china coin, worms at midnight, and plant raspberry bushes.

My request to drive a tractor was turned down, not because I don’t know how to drive but because the tractor had been put away. In Ohio, there is boyhood space for people to do what they want. There is a lot of land, plenty of it. Of Reading? This is where enslaved people ran to, certain that they had finally evaded capture. This is where America’s first prominent black poet, Paul Laurence Dunbar, wrote “We Wear the Mask.” And somewhere in the midst of it all is Dave Chappelle’s home. From above, everything seems smaller and less complicated—or at essays the very least things are put into value essay, perspective. From a plane at thirty-five thousand feet it was much easier for essays, me to understand why Dave Chappelle quit his hit TV show, Chappelle’s Show , and said goodbye to of venice on love, all that, and didn’t stop until he got home to Yellow Springs, Ohio. When news of his decision to cease filming the third season of the show first made headlines, there were many spectacular rumors.

He had quit the boyhood essays show without any warning. He had unceremoniously ditched its cocreator, his good friend Neal Brennan, leaving him stranded. Chappelle was now addicted to writing techniques, crack. He had lost his mind. The most insane speculation I saw was posted on a friend’s Facebook page at 3 a.m.

A website had alleged that a powerful cabal of black leaders—Oprah Winfrey, Bill Cosby, and others—were so offended by Chappelle’s use of the n -word that they had him intimidated and banned. The controversial “Niggar Family” sketch, where viewers were introduced to an Ozzie and friendships essays Harriet–like 1950s suburban, white, upper-class family named “the Niggars,” was said to have set them off. The weirdest thing was that people actually went for such stories. Chappelle’s brief moment in television had been that incendiary. China Coin Essay? It didn’t matter that Chappelle himself had told Oprah on national television that he had quit wholly of his own accord. Chappelle didn’t seem to understand that these rumors of drugs and insanity, though paternalistic, were just the result of disbelief and curiosity. Like Salinger’s retreat from fame, Chappelle’s departure demanded an explanation: how could any human being have the willpower, the boyhood friendships chutzpah, the determination to refuse the amount of books, money rumored to be Chappelle’s next paycheck: fifty million dollars. Say it with me now. Fifty.

Million. Dollars. When the boyhood essays dust settled, and Chappelle had done interviews with Oprah and where term papers James Lipton in an attempt to recover his image and tell his story, two things became immediately apparent: Dave Chappelle is without a doubt his generation’s smartest comic, and friendships essays the hole he left in comedy is so great that even ten years later very few people can accept the china coin reason he later gave for leaving fame and fortune behind: he wanted to find a simpler way of life. You know you must be doing something right if old people like you. Dave Chappelle was in boyhood essays, his teens when he first appeared on essay on love, the comedy-club circuit. He was twenty-three when he and essays his friend Neal Brennan wrote Half Baked , a now-classic stoner flick about four hapless friends who try to enter the drug-dealing game so they can get bail money for to buy papers, their friend Kenny, who has landed in jail after inadvertently killing a cop’s horse. Boyhood? They were young and had no expectations except to have fun and be funny. Essay? They certainly had no idea Chappelle’s Show , another collaboration, would become the boyhood friendships essays most talked-about show on television.

But early into the show’s first season, critics at merchant of venice essay on love the New York Times would take notice of Chappelle’s “kind of laid-back indignation” and his “refusal to believe that ignoring racial differences will make anyone’s life better.” What Brennan and Chappelle were doing every week was so unusual that the Times declared that “it almost looks like a renaissance for African-American humor on television.” Chappelle’s comedy found fans in many worlds. At a recent barbecue in Philadelphia, a friend of the host dutifully but disinterestedly interrogated me about my life, and friendships got excited only when my mother let it slip that I was working on of reading essay, a piece about Dave Chappelle. “Aw, man. I miss that guy,” he said. “He was my friend. I really felt like he was my friend.” I hear this a lot, usually from boyhood, white people, and usually from white people without many black friends—like this seventy-year-old comparative literature professor in Birkenstocks. Part of what made the concept show so ingenious was that Chappelle’s racial invective found friends in strange places. With a regularly broadcasted television show, Chappelle was finally able to display what writer and activist Kevin Powell described in an Esquire profile as a “unique capacity to stand out and blend in, to cross boundaries and set up roadblocks.” Almost overnight, Chappelle became America’s black friend. Boyhood Essays? He was a polyglot.

He told Powell that, growing up, h e used to “hang out with the Jewish kids, black kids, and Vietnamese immigrants,” and it was apparent that Chappelle had used these experiences to become America’s consul and translator for all things racial. More than any comic of his generation, he lanced the where to buy term papers boil of how race works and also prodded at friendships how nuanced race had become. “Sometimes convention and value essay what’s funny butt heads,” Chappelle confessed to boyhood, Entertainment Weekly in 2004, “and when [they do], we just err on the side of what’s funny.” Besides race, three things make Dave Chappelle’s comedy innovative and universal: wit, self-deprecation, and value of reading essay toilet humor. This is the same triumvirate that makes Philip Roth’s writing so original. Boyhood Essays? Woody Allen’s movies, too. Chappelle had a keen sense of the archetypal nature of race, and understood just as acutely how people work on a very basic level. In a Chappelle’s Show sketch about the reality show Trading Spouses , a black man sits on a toilet in a white family’s house and flips through a copy of People magazine while taking a dump. He looks up: “Who the fuck is writing essay Renee Zellwedger?” In another sketch, a stodgy, Waspy white man (Chappelle in friendships essays, whiteface) lies in bed with an attractive black woman in classy lingerie. He wants her. But he wants to make love with his pajamas on. Chappelle did such a good job of truth-telling, on every subject, that nobody knew what to do when he just stopped talking.

In no way did his quitting conform to our understanding of the comic’s one obligation: to be funny. To talk to essay, us. To entertain us. To make us laugh. Essays? We aren’t used to of reading essay, taking no for an answer, to being rejected, especially not by the people who are supposed to make us smile. Especially not by black men who are supposed to make us smile. And yet Chappelle did just that. And so, like everyone, I wondered what had happened.

What had happened, and, more so, what had brought Chappelle to—and kept him in—Yellow Springs?At a stand-up appearance in Sacramento in 2004, a frustrated Chappelle lashed out at boyhood essays his hecklers from the stage, yelling, “You people are stupid!” So what was it about this small college town—where hippies slipped me bags of where term papers, Girl Scout cookies, where Tibetan jewelry stores and fair-trade coffee shops dotted the main street, and where kindly white ladies crossed the street to tell me my wild hair was giving them life—that made it more satisfying than celebrity or fame? Even before Chappelle himself, politely but firmly, turned down my interview request, I had begun to essays, suspect that the keys to everything he was doing politically and culturally—block parties with Erykah Badu, videos with Mos Def and De La Soul, and in war campaigning for young black candidates like Kevin Powell, who stressed social responsibility—were interests deeply informed by his parents. His mother is a historian and his father was a dean of community services and a professor of friendships, music. Essay? Edward Countryman, the American historian, has pointed out some worthwhile context: “Until John Hope Franklin joined the University of friendships essays, Chicago in 1964, no black person held a senior rank in books on creative writing techniques, a major history department that encouraged research and friendships essays trained doctoral students.” But Chappelle, like Kanye West, grew up in where term papers, a home where black activism and black leftist thought were the languages of the household. No wonder, then, that both Chappelle and West have wrestled so bitterly and publicly with their sense of responsibility to and also their failure to meet those same obligations. “It’s a dilemma,” Chappelle told Kevin Powell. Boyhood? “It’s something that is techniques unique to us.

White people, white artists, are allowed to be individuals. But we always have this greater struggle that we at least have to keep in mind somewhere.” Chappelle’s throwback kind of celebrity and his many concerns about friendships “social responsibility” are faintly reminiscent of the work that his mother, Professor Yvonne Seon, did in the ’60s and ’70s as a scholar of the value of reading essay Negritude movement. In 1939, the poet Aime Cesaire would return to his island homeland of friendships, Martinique, in the Caribbean, after spending years in Europe. The move would prompt his book-length piece of prose poetry, which Andre Breton would call a masterpiece: Cahier d’un retour au pays natal (Notebook of a Return to the Native Land) . Cesaire, a gifted writer, was sent to Europe as a young man to study in the center of the French-speaking world. Writing Techniques? Once there, he reunited with his childhood friend Leon Damas and a young Senegalese poet and essays future president named Leopold Sedar Senghor. Together, as black men in France, they attempted to educate themselves in a culture where the on creative techniques word negre was inherently a pejorative. To cope while living under the boyhood friendships double bind of colonialism and racism, they created “Negritude,” literally a “Blackness” movement. Sometime after my first few interviews with Seon, she mailed me an china coin essay essay that she wrote in 1975 that had been published in a magazine called Black World . The issue features Muhammad Ali on the cover, and in her essay Seon describes Negritude as being more of a sensibility than a literary movement that is boyhood friendships essays fixed in writing, the past. To me, more than anything, it voices the dilemma her son would experience decades later: When one speaks of Negritude, one may be speaking of either of two quite different things.

In its narrow definition, Negritude is a literary movement of the late 1930’s. In this restricted sense, it represents the use by Black French-speaking poets, of the techniques of French Impressionism to break away from French culture and to give creative expression to an inner, African self that had been hidden away. But the broader, more important meaning of Negritude has to do with a process isolated and identified by boyhood friendships essays these poets. It is the process by which Black people, who have been cut off from and made to learn to know themselves again, come to in war essay, accept themselves, and essays begin to believe in (i.e. to essay, value) themselves. Seon was born in essays, Washington, DC. Her father was a fair-skinned man who was adopted by a black woman. No Winners Essay? Although he self-identified as black, by all accounts he looked Greek. He was also blind.

On the day Martin Luther King Jr. was shot, Chappelle’s grandfather was on boyhood, a city bus and overheard rumblings of a beat-down about to merchant of venice on love, happen to a white fellow on his bus. That guy’s gonna be in trouble, he thought. He did not realize that he was the essays white man being threatened. On Creative Writing Techniques? This anecdote about his grandfather would inspire Chappelle’s “Clayton Bigsby” sketch—the unforgettable short mockumentary about a blind white supremacist who does not know he is boyhood friendships black. Beginning in 1944, Seon’s mother worked as an administrative assistant for the NAACP. Seon tells me about early memories of sitting outside of NAACP meetings and in war waving hello to essays, the organization’s chief counsel, Thurgood Marshall, who was working on the cases that would dismantle the Jim Crow laws. In the ’50s, when Africa began to hammer off its colonial shackles, her family found itself in books, the front lines as black American allies. “My mother was very much one of the people who was paying attention to what was going on in Africa; she knew the ambassadors, we went to the celebrations of independence.

So we were following Africa and that part of the involvement, just watching what they were doing. Boyhood Essays? We were aware of the avant-garde, the people who were questing for liberation in Africa.” Seon was twenty-two when she met Patrice Lumumba, the papers young, energetic prime minister of the Congo, at a society mixer. That same afternoon, he offered her a job. She went home and asked her parents for permission, and they came back and talked with Lumumba. Boyhood Friendships Essays? It was agreed she would fly to the Congo and help Lumumba, who, unlike Ghana’s President Kwame Nkrumah, didn’t have a college degree or much of a background in government. Instead, Lumumba was a beer-selling postmaster who had crushed one of the most dehumanizing, despotic colonial regimes with pure rhetoric and was now learning how to establish a new nation. She made plans to leave in merchant on love, the winter, but on December 1, Patrice Lumumba was arrested. “The hardest part was not knowing,” she says. In the weeks to boyhood essays, come they found out: Lumumba had been murdered, most likely by books techniques American and Belgian operatives; Lumumba’s pan-Africanism, his vision of boyhood, a unified Congo, and his utter lack of patience had alarmed the no winners West so much they had had him killed. (Belgium apologized in 2002 for its “moral responsibility” in the murder.) But here is the part you should remember if you want to understand Dave Chappelle’s unbridled wit and boyhood essays compulsion to be free: a young Yvonne Seon still decided to take off for the Congo, not knowing what to techniques, expect, but knowing that her contact there—a man who was being mourned by Malcolm X and boyhood Che Guevara, whose death incited outraged protests all around the world— had been murdered.

She needed to fulfill her promise to of venice essay, the dead man and his hope for boyhood, a “history of dignity” for African people. Writing Techniques? “We were very much aware that if America was going to have its independence, our independence was tied to the independence of the African countries. Boyhood Essays? And I personally believed at china the time that African Americans would not be able to boyhood friendships, get civil rights until Africa had won its independence, that the two things were interrelated.” Before she left, her father told her that if he hadn’t been blind, he would have gone to Africa with her. When she returned to the States two years later, Seon attended graduate school and met her husband, William David Chappelle (who died in 1998), in books techniques, those times of great hope and unrest. In the late ’60s, they came to Yellow Springs to essays, visit friends for the weekend, and, besotted with the no winners in war town’s counterculture, diversity, and leftist vibe, her husband didn’t want to leave. When Chappelle was two, his parents divorced, and essays his father returned to Yellow Springs to teach at Antioch while his mother stayed in Washington, DC, with the children. Dave Chappelle has said of his childhood, “We were like the concept essay broke Huxtables. There were books around the house; everybody was educated to a college level. We used to boyhood friendships essays, have a picture of Malcolm X in Ghana. Last Poets records. We were poor but we were cultured.”

When they reached the age where he and his siblings could start “running the essay on love streets,” his mother sent them to Yellow Springs to live with their father. Chappelle returned when he was fourteen. He later told Kevin Powell, “I left in pre-crack Washington and came back inpost-crack Washington, so I got the before-and-after picture. Boyhood Friendships? It was literally jolting, like, what the fuck happened? My freshman year of high school, over five hundred kids my age were murdered.” In addition to the typical growing pains that accompany adolescence, Chappelle found himself having to essay, navigate what he described to James Lipton as being “a very segregated city, especially at that time. Statistically speaking to this day—statistically speaking—there’s not one poor white person in boyhood friendships essays, Washington.” DC was a far cry from Yellow Springs, and he struggled to adjust to the culture shock. China Coin Essay? It was his mother who gave him a copy of a magazine with Bill Cosby on essays, the cover. Chappelle felt instantaneously connected to the comic. Books Writing? When he finished reading, he says, “I put it down. Boyhood Friendships Essays? And it was like: I’mma be a comedian.

And, man, I’m telling you, I could see it so clearly, so clearly, man—this is it. I was so excited I told my family, ‘I have an announcement to make: I’m gonna be a comedian.’” Because he was fourteen and his mother took him to gigs around the city, other comics called him “the kid .” He remembers telling his grandmother once before he went onstage, “You might hear me say some things that you might not want to no winners in war essay, hear your grandson say… And she said, ‘Just relax and do that shit.’ I was like, Wow. Friendships Essays? I had never heard her curse!” Over lunch in in war, Ohio, Seon tells me, with the boyhood friendships same optimism as every other time we’ve talked, about the years she spent in Kinshasa. Of Venice Essay? Her stories are populated with dangers she still seems impervious to: Evariste Kimba, a prime minister who soon succeeded Lumumba, was also executed, and boyhood friendships essays the Congo was at the start of a long period of war. But her memories also retain a sense of hope I have trouble even imagining. “You know,” she says, “I’ve never gone back to the Congo, because it is difficult, you know, to look back at a place that was so full of possibilities and see what has happened.

That is value of reading always hard to see, isn’t it?” There is a strange moment in James Lipton’s interview with Chappelle where the boyhood friendships comedian discusses his decision not to attend college. “I was the coin first person in my family not to go to boyhood, college, that had not been a slave.” The audience laughs. I can never tell if they realize that he is serious. In his fantastic profile of china essay, Muhammad Ali, Hunter S. Thompson writes that “the Champ, after all, had once hurled his Olympic gold medal into the Ohio River, in friendships, a fit of essay, pique at some alleged racial insult in boyhood friendships essays, Louisville.” The medal was a symbol of of reading essay, a white world that Ali “was already learning to treat with a very calculated measure of boyhood friendships, public disrespect.” Like most people of the post–civil rights generation, I think that Chappelle, whose family had long been free, educated, leftist, and radical, had hoped that his success would not need to follow that same militant path. Despite the fact that four in china essay, ten white Americans do not have any black friends, and essays more pressingly, that all too many workplaces are integrated only in theory, I think Chappelle hoped that he could bring Yellow Springs’ open-mindedness to the world. For a while he did, but then he became aware that his brand of humor was not without a history and was forced to acknowledge its context.

Next came conferences with suits at Comedy Central about coin essay his use of the n-word and his being chastised in the press, and boyhood finally he was humiliated and called insane. Like Thompson once wrote of Ali, Chappelle was put through “one of the meanest and most shameful ordeals any prominent American has ever endured.” Without knowing his history, Dave Chappelle’s decision to figuratively toss his gold medal into the Ohio River does seem like a bizarre, illogical act that abbreviated a successful career on its ascent. But was it illogical? Hardly. Revolutionary? Possibly.

To turn his back on Hollywood, to walk away from the spotlight because it was turning him into a man he didn’t want to be—a man without dignity—was a move that was, in a way, Chappelle’s birthright, his own unwieldy kind of writing essay, Negritude. There’s no friends like the old friends. “I wasn’t crazy but it is incredibly stressful,” Dave Chappelle explained to boyhood, Oprah on The Oprah Winfrey Show in 2006. With his mother sitting in the front row, he was trying to where to buy term, explain why ten months years earlier—without explanation to his wife, to boyhood, Brennan, or to his bosses at Comedy Central—he had quit his show. “I would go to no winners in war essay, work on boyhood friendships essays, the show and I felt awful every day,” he said. “I felt like some kind of prostitute or something. If I feel so bad, why keep on showing up to this place? I’m going to Africa.” Five years have passed since that interview, and Brennan has gone on writing, to write for President Obama at the White House Correspondents’ Dinner and to work with comedians like Amy Schumer and Chris Rock.

Brennan repeats to me how much he respects Dave, but he tells me that being “trashed” by Chappelle on Oprah still bothers him. In 2011, he told a reporter: “You know, for friendships, a black artist that’s beloved to go on TV and say he was victimized by a white corporate structure, that is like white-people nectar, it’s like white liberal nectar, like, ‘Oh my god, this young black man has been victimized.’ Dave did real well from the show, you know. Essay? There was a huge benefit to Dave. Friendships Essays? So the idea that somehow he was victimized . . Merchant Of Venice? . My experience was he wasn’t victimized and that it was a matter of pressure and needing to eject from the pressure.” Over salads at a cafeteria-style table that we share with a tall, thin, tan European family at a luncheonette in Midtown Manhattan, Neal Brennan tells me his nigga jokes (or rather his jokes where he says the word nigga ). Essays? Two weeks earlier, in New Orleans, I had hung out in the whitewashed wings of the Civic Theatre and watched Brennan direct his first Comedy Central one-hour special. There I’d heard some PAs discussing what they called his n-word jokes , but because I had to catch a cab to the airport, I never got a chance to see the show.

In New York, sitting a few feet from each other, I tried to prepare myself for to buy papers, the inevitable, but each time I thought about it my hands had instinctively cocked and curled into boyhood, fists under the table. Brennan says Chappelle’s Show told two stories: “What it was like to be a dude, and what it was like to in war essay, be a black dude.” He grew up in the Philadelphia suburbs and is a former altar boy, the boyhood essays youngest of ten kids in a large Irish Catholic family. He is very thin and he has what he himself calls a “roguish charm.” Brennan is really, really funny and quick. China? He wears a uniform of jeans, sneakers, and a T-shirt. He has large ears and wide eyes and spiky hair that is often gelled to a point, cockatoo-style. As we talk, I realize that I recognize many of his expressions from the show.

Brennan tells me that as a writer he knows how to shape and structure a joke. He directs the boyhood essays jab. “My job and life are basically just saying, ‘Hey, say this.’ Say, ‘Doctor says I needs a backiotomy.’” Brennan met Chappelle when they were both eighteen. Everyone else in the New York comedy scene was in their late twenties. “Comedy,” he shrugs and of venice sighs deeply, “is incredibly racially integrated. Boyhood Friendships Essays? Probably the most diverse workplace there is, and no winners essay it’s not clannish—there is a table at boyhood friendships essays the Comedy Cellar where we all go, and you can look around some nights and it is Mexican, white, Jewish, black. You are friends based on your comedy ability, not based on your age or something. Like race is almost irrelevant.”Brennan studied film at NYU during the day, and at night he stood outside and worked as the annoying guy who yells, “Hey! Come inside and check out the on creative comedy show!” Chappelle had moved to New York to do stand-up and was working in Washington Square Park, learning from a street comic named Charlie Barnett. Neal and boyhood Dave had similar sensibilities: they liked the value of reading same movies (Spike Lee Joints), the same music (hip-hop), the boyhood friendships essays same TV shows ( Family Ties ). It was kismet. “Chappelle had been on all of these pilots and writing had been paired with all of the wrong writers, wrong actors; like no thought to chemistry. Just: ‘He’s a hot writer and friendships you’re a hot stand-up,’” Brennan says.

Entertainment Weekly would say of Chappelle’s first sitcom: “The worst thing about Buddies is that it makes racism boring.” Years passed, and Brennan left New York to live in Los Angeles and write comedy for where to buy term papers, Nickelodeon, but he stayed in boyhood friendships essays, touch with Chappelle. Their film, Half Baked , was totally unexpected and came about merchant essay quickly. In fact, they had only friendships essays, a month to outline it. “We pitched it. Universal sold it in, like, March, and we were shooting it in July. Which is crazy. Really crazy. But we didn’t know anything because we were, like, twenty-three.” From the moment they arrived on the set, Brennan says he knew that something was off about the production. “First of no winners in war essay, all, it should have looked more like Kids and Trainspotting . So we get there and Dave turns to me and friendships asks, ‘Is this how you pictured the no winners set?’ And I go, ‘Nope.’ And he goes, ‘Me neither.’” Neal shrugs again. “But again, twenty-three. Boyhood Essays? And there is just nothing you can do.

I’m not a fan of the concept writing essay movie. Dave’s not a fan of the movie.”Directed by Tamra Davis, Half Baked was released in 1998, the same weekend as Titanic , and flopped. Brennan and Chappelle stopped talking for a while. These silences are themes in their friendship. I ask him why. “I guess not wanting to acknowledge responsibility, negative association, you want to leave the scene of the crime. Like having a child die and friendships the parents want to get a divorce.” It would be the first defeat in a series of many. After Half Baked , Dave bought his “Fuck you, Hollywood” farm, sixty-five acres of no winners essay, land in Ohio.

He was living there and having a tough time professionally. Killin’ Them Softly , his one-hour special, came out in 1999. Brennan is blunt about it: “No one cared. But Killin’ Them Softy is boyhood essays a great one-hour special. “Dave called his manager the Monday after it aired,” Brennan says, “and [his manager] goes, ‘Sorry, man, the phone’s not ringing.’” That is how it was. It cemented a sense within Brennan and Chappelle that show business is built upon what’s hot and what’s not, and, worse, that show business is random, anti-intellectual, and essay often pretty far behind. “We were the underdogs.

We were left for dead and boyhood essays came from behind and did CPR on ourselves.” He pauses and peers over the heads of the china coin essay towheaded European family sitting next to friendships essays, us. Value Of Reading? “To give you a sense of boyhood essays, things, this is how little respect Dave was getting: we pitched Chappelle’s Show to one station and they literally looked at merchant us like we were lepers. Like, because Chris Rock had just gone off the air, they were like, ‘Chris Rock is everything and you’re nothing, Dave.’ Then we walk up Fifth Avenue and pitch it to Comedy Central. They buy it. And it becomes the show. Essays? And now Chappelle’s Show has sold three million copies on DVD.” (It remains the world’s top-selling TV-to-DVD series.)

In Brennan’s mind, he and Dave Chappelle had literally beaten the Philistines and no winners essay had finally made it in television. But, as Chappelle told Oprah, this was not at boyhood friendships essays all true. China? When Brennan discusses the demise of the show, he discusses it as a conflict about renegotiating the terms of the friendships essays third season. Or, as he told fellow comedian Joe Rogan in writing essay, an interview where Brennan looks visibly pained, “It became an ego thing, once the boyhood friendships essays negotiations started. It was the worst period of my life… but as Lorne Michaels once said, ‘Comedians don’t like admitting they have help.’” Brennan says that at the height of the contretemps, they both said awful things to each other. When Chappelle discusses his exit, he does not deny that things went haywire, but he attributes it mostly to his discomfort with the material, the politics of the show, and the climate on the set.

He told Oprah, “ I was doing sketches that were funny but socially irresponsible. It was encouraged. Where To Buy Papers? I felt I was deliberately being encouraged and I was overwhelmed.” I ask an older friend who is black and a theorist of friendships, sorts what he thinks about Chappelle’s Show . I get an answer that surprises me with its vitriol: “Chappelle was at the end of the one-hundred-and-fifty-year minstrel cycle and fifty years after the height of the civil rights movement and to buy papers ten years after the beginning of Southern hip-hop and in the midst of the most coonish aspects of dirty South hip-hop. Boyhood Friendships? He wrung the last bits of potential energy out of taboos that had been in guarded reserve that show niggas as violent, unintelligent, unlettered beasts. And he portrayed niggas that way (while maintaining an ironic distance from those caricatures). The thing was, many took his shit literally, which is why he ultimately quit.” I go back and books on creative writing watch “The Mad Real World” sketch, a spoof of the MTV reality show.

In the sketch a white man moves into a house full of black roommates and, in friendships essays, the ensuing weeks, his father is stabbed while visiting, his blond girlfriend is concept essay turned out by two guys, and the living room is regularly transformed into boyhood, a makeshift nightclub. Essay On Love? The black characters are indeed portrayed as “violent, unintelligent, unlettered beasts,” but the whole skit is pitched on a high register of irony. When I ask Brennan how he dealt with backlash about the show’s use of the n -word and friendships essays its edgy racial humor, he objects. “As much as people say that about no winners Chappelle’s Show , no one ever got pissed. People ask, ‘Were you worried?’ and it’s like, no, because it was all founded on real, empirical observations and lived lives. Like, that ‘Real World’ sketch was a discussion we had been having for boyhood friendships, a decade about black people on The Real World . The guy who pulled the blanket off the girl was Dave’s best friend. So we knew what that shit was like. “Look,” he says, appearing exhausted, “I think I have a fairly decent gauge of what the line is. It is not perfect, but, like, I say the n -word eight times in my stand-up. And it works. People can tell if you mean it. Value? And the other thing is I never say it, I’m always paraphrasing someone.

And… I open up by shitting on white people. Friendships Essays? And pedigree. I think people know that I’m known for being friends with black dudes, especially Dave. And I talk about books on creative writing that, I talk about being called it. Boyhood? I talk about the first time I was called the n -word. I get called the to buy term n -word every day. I can show you texts.” Scrolling through his phone without looking up, he tells me, “So it is boyhood friendships essays a weird thing where you expect me to inhale something and not exhale. And people are like, ‘You can’t say that.’ But I get called it every day. Concept Writing? Constantly, for twenty years.” Later on, Brennan brings up an boyhood essays idea first posited by the psychologist Beverly Tatum about the ways we tend to segregate ourselves as we get older and writing grow apart from our friends of different races.

Neal tells me, “It’s like when black kids sit at the lunch table with only black kids, and the white kids sit with white kids. I think it is just like, ‘Well, they look like family.’ It is just some animal shit. Boyhood? It is value essay safety.” When I read Tatum’s book, she says something that sticks with me: that so often the essays difficultly in on creative writing techniques, discussing race is about working around the divide of that which we do not know. As I listen to Brennan talk, I think about how he is right, that comedy is different. Comedians live for the joke and the joke alone. White writers have long written jokes for boyhood, black comics with great success (my favorites being Ed. Weinberger for Bill Cosby and to buy Louis C.K. for Chris Rock), but at the same time none of this goodwill can negate the possibility that Chappelle experienced what his mother had written about twenty years before: the desire to “learn to know himself again.” And that for essays, all the post–civil rights progress we have made, it is possible that you could be best friends with someone of value, a different race without being able to friendships essays, enter worlds and spaces that they can, or in no winners essay, the way that they do. After two hours of remarkably easy conversation, I can tell it is time for the moment I’ve been clenching my fist about. Boyhood? Maybe he had needed to feel me out.

Neal Brennan, who definitely embodies the value of reading essay best of the easy wit of Chappelle’s Show , goes for it. “The joke in my act is: ‘It is boyhood so bad I call myself it when no one’s around.’ It will be lunchtime and I’m like, Nigga, you need to no winners, eat. And I’m like, Who are you talking to?” My hand unclenches. His n- word joke reminded me of the weird moments when I’ve been around young white men who identify with hip-hop culture and boyhood friendships essays who, for some strange reason, despite their stated best intentions, need to access that word as proof that they are accepted or acknowledged by writing the community they are involved with. They do not realize the friendships essays hubris and dominance inherent in the act of wanting to use that word.

Brennan’s joke is a joke on those guys, but it is also, inadvertently, a joke on himself. I think he knows this. Concept Essay? Neal Brennan inhabits a strange place as a white man whose closest friends are mostly black. But what, if anything, does that mean? I ask him what I think is the only logical next question: “So do you think you are black?” “No!” he says emphatically, like I had missed the point, because that would be absurd. “I also think that is a silly thing. Boyhood Friendships? Like I’ve never spoken Ebonics.” “Do you think that you’re a racist?” I ask, but not because I think Brennan is any more racist than any other white person, especially if racism is no winners in war viewed as a system of white privilege and unearned benefits. I ask this because part of knowing where the line is is knowing where you situate yourself along it or against it.

“Uh, I think that everybody is racist. It is a natural human condition. It’s tribal.” Another evening, Brennan and boyhood friendships I talk about what the ride of success felt like. Essay? He remembers hanging out at a club in Arizona where he and Chappelle were approached by a white fan who was loose with his use of the word nigger and who praised Chappelle for boyhood friendships essays, making it so funny. “It was awful,” Brennan recalls. The thing is, I like Neal Brennan. And I got the where to buy joke, I think. But when he first told it to me, there was an friendships essays awkward silence that I think both Brennan and I noticed.

The cafeteria seemed to swell with noise. And for a brief moment, my head clouded, and coin there was nothing I could think of to say, so to boyhood, get out of the silence, I did what was expected: I laughed. When I got home, this troubled me deeply. You can’t say anything real when it comes to race. That’s why Bill Cosby’s in such trouble for saying black folks have got to on love, take responsibility for friendships, their own lives. I spoke at my high school last week and I told them, ‘You’ve got to focus. Stop blaming white people for books on creative writing techniques, your problems … Learn to play basketball, tell jokes, or sell crack. Friendships Essays? That’s the only way I’ve seen people get out.’ Last time I was down South I walked into this restaurant, and this white waitress came up to books, me and said: “We don’t serve colored people here.” I said: “That’s all right, I don’t eat colored people. Boyhood Friendships Essays? Bring me a whole fried chicken.” —Dick Gregory, Nigger.

You cannot really discuss Chappelle’s Show without discussing the n -word. One also cannot discuss the n -word without discussing Dick Gregory. Neal Brennan and Dave Chappelle weren’t even born yet when Dick Gregory bounded onto the American comedy scene and asked to stand flat-footed or to sit down and be spoken to techniques, like a man. Yvonne Seon tells me that when Dick Gregory campaigned for president in boyhood, 1968, “we all had our eyes on him.” Dick Gregory is in war a larger-than-life sort of man. To reach him, you have to boyhood friendships, get past his wife of fifty years, Miss Lillian. “You were lucky,” Gregory tells me. “She is tough. She once told the president I’d have to call him back.” Although things have slowed down from the days when he commanded a weekly rate of something just shy of fifteen thousand bucks, when the only peers in his earning bracket were Woody Allen, Mort Sahl, and Lenny Bruce, Dick Gregory is still on the move.

All of his activity is essay made even more remarkable by the fact that he is now eighty. He still runs and does regular juice fasts, and his long white beard makes him look like a Methuselah among men. And maybe he is. Boyhood Friendships? Richard Pryor once said: “Dick was the greatest, and he was the first. Somebody had to break down that door. He was the one.” Before Dick Gregory, there were no elegant black men in comedy.

The generation before Dick Gregory’s grew up on Stepin Fetchit, the stage name of a black actor named Lincoln Perry and on creative techniques one of boyhood friendships essays, America’s most famous black personalities for more than twenty years. These days it is difficult to find clips of Stepin Fetchit and books writing techniques the existing films are rarely shown. Stepin Fetchit acts like a shuffling, befuddled fool, and because of this many of Perry’s films have been deemed offensive. Little remains to show his enormous influence on- and off-camera: he was the first black A-list actor, a millionaire during the Great Depression; he owned a fleet of limos and sports cars and friendships essays he employed a retinue of Asian maids and of reading essay butlers. He carried guns, he wrote essays for black newspapers, he was handsome, he was a Hollywood outlaw—but none of that mattered on-screen. On-screen he stooped his neck, and dropped his bottom lip, and boyhood friendships essays acted as shiftless and concept writing essay stupid as possible. Stepin Fetchit is the id figure, in characterization only, that sits on boyhood friendships, Chappelle’s shoulder in one of his skits and demands that Chappelle make himself happy and order chicken during a flight. It is not the chicken that is the essay problem, it is the familiarity of the characterization. That whether Chappelle liked it or not, whether Dick Gregory liked it or not, this was the precedent. “When the Playboy Club brought me in,” Dick Gregory recalls, “up until then you could sing, you could dance, but you could not stand flat-footed and talk and just tell jokes, because the people upstairs didn’t want folks to know just how intelligent black folks were. [The Playboy Club] brought me in, though, and it opened up the essays floodgates. Now,” he says, “Will Smith’s movies alone have made three billion dollars.” Dick Gregory’s gig at the Playboy Club started in 1961, and three years later he would write his memoir, entitled Nigger . This is the part of of reading essay, his dedication to his mother that is boyhood often quoted: “Dear Momma—Wherever you are, if you ever hear the word ‘nigger’ again, remember they are advertising my book.”

When I suggest to books writing, Gregory that he used his comedy as a weapon, he shouts, “What?” so loud I get scared. “How could comedy be a weapon? Comedy has got to be funny. Boyhood Friendships? Comedy can’t be no damn weapon. Comedy is just disappointment within a friendly relation.” Chappelle, he says, was very good at it. When Gregory’s son showed him a few episodes of Chappelle’s Show , he told me that he kept thinking, “Damn, I wish I could have thought of that.” Then Gregory volunteers to tell me the names of the value three greatest comedians of all time, and in essays, a proud and awesomely fraternal way, he says, in where term, order: “Lenny Bruce, Richard Pryor, and Mark Twain.” “Yes,” I say. Essays? “But isn’t it difficult to be that profane and that profound, in in war essay, droves, especially as Twain in Pudd’nhead Wilson ?” “Did you say Pudd’nhead Wilson ?” Gregory shouts.

“Yes,” I say, scared again that I’ve said the wrong thing. “ Pudd’nhead Wilson ! Brilliant stuff! I could kiss you! Mmhm,” he says. Boyhood Friendships Essays? “And Twain could last and come up with that stuff because he wasn’t onstage having to come up with material. But listen,” he says, waiting a beat. “Nobody said comedy was easy.” Dick Gregory admires Mark Twain’s audacity as a white man to discuss race in America. He hates the idea of concealing the word nigger behind euphemisms like the n -word, and he seems to think it should be a shared burden. “Before Twain, no white people would ever write about lynchings.

So his column was ‘There were two people lynched last weekend and then we found out they were just “niggers.”’ And then he did the whole article about how the good Christian church people were there. And the white women brought their babies and value of reading children were selling Kool-Aid and lemonade, like, ‘So what? They were just niggers!’ That was the first time that anyone in history wrote anything like that, nothing about boyhood those gatherings had ever been written about in war essay lynching! That had never been done before! And like that, that is comedy!” When I ask Estee Adoram, the boyhood lovely, legendary, no-nonsense booker at New York’s best comedy club, the Comedy Cellar, what sort of person becomes a stand-up comic, the first thing she says is “A very brave person. On Creative Writing Techniques? A person willing to be laughed at.” When I read about boyhood friendships Twain saying the word nigger , in value of reading essay, the exact same way Neal Brennan did, it does not raise the hairs on my neck. I do not think we want censored comics. Boyhood Friendships? But I’m given pause. Estee tells me she can sense when there is “an unfunny bitterness behind the joke.” The fun of humor is the way it pushes at the boundaries. The joke is value of reading essay indeed a tricky thing.

But if I’ve learned anything over these past months, it’s that the best jokes should deliver a hard truth easily. It is the difference between asking girls in the crowd how their butt-holes look—a roast my sister and I endured one night at a comedy club—and mastering the subtlety of the uniquely American art form of friendships essays, stand-up comedy. Dick Gregory has a joke for me: So I’m standing at the airport and I see this white lady talking to her daughter. Might be five years old, and you know how honest kids are, so she walked up to me and said, “Is your name Dick Gregory?” And I said, “Yes.” And she said, “My mamma says you have a tail.” And I said, “Yes, and you tell her my tail is in my front.” Another book you should buy if you can spare twenty bucks is Pryor Convictions and Other Life Sentences , Richard Pryor’s autobiography.

In it, he tells of a dinner party thrown in his honor by Bobby Darin. Of Reading Essay? Pryor is boyhood seated across from china essay, Groucho Marx, who told him “that he’d seen me on The Merv Griffin Show a few weeks earlier, when I’d guested with Jerry Lewis.” It hadn’t been one of my better moments—Jerry and I had gotten laughs by spitting on each other, and Groucho, it turned out, had a few things to boyhood friendships, say about that. “Young man, you’re a comic?” he asked. “Yes,” I nodded. Concept Writing? “Yes, I am.” “So how do you want to end up? Have you thought about that?

Do you want a career you’re proud of? Or do you want to end up a spitting wad like Jerry Lewis?” The man was right… I could feel the stirrings of an identity crisis. It was coming on like the beginning of an acid trip. Groucho’s comments spoke to me. “Wake up, Richard. Yes, you are an ignorant jerk, pimping your talent like a cheap whore. But you don’t have to essays, stay that way. You have a brain. Use it.” The next sentence? “The thing was, I didn’t have to.”

The thing about value of reading essay Chappelle is that he wanted to use it, and he knew how. There is no doubt that Chappelle’s Show is his finest work, but the block party that he put on and filmed in Bed-Stuy in 2004 is boyhood friendships essays also a revealing production in the sense that we get to see the comedian almost at concept writing rest, listening to essays, the music he enjoys with his celebrity friends. Where To Buy Term? I was there, both in the crowd and backstage, and boyhood there was a remarkable amount of solidarity, love, and of venice essay on love exuberance even in boyhood essays, the drizzly September rain. To Buy Papers? The kind that I can’t forget. Watching a triumphant Lauryn Hill resplendent in cream slacks and a Yankees cap, reunited with her bandmates from the Fugees. Looking down from a nearby roof, I believed anything was possible—for them, for us.

Chappelle was the kind of celebrity who wanted to reach out to boyhood essays, fans who looked like him, and it was clear that as much as he aspired to value of reading essay, universality, he realized that “the bottom line was, white people own everything, and where can a black person go and be himself or say something that’s familiar to him and not have to explain or apologize?” So sometimes it was very nice to boyhood friendships, have, as the comic himself said, “Five thousand black people chillin’ in value of reading essay, the rain,” like a Pan-African Congress right off of Putnam Avenue. When I ask Yvonne Seon what she thinks about the boyhood friendships essays n -word and essay how easily it is used these days in hip-hop culture, she says, “There has always been a tendency to try and rehab a word that has been used as an boyhood friendships essays epithet for you. No Winners In War? It’s a way of claiming something that hurt you, hoping that you can say, ‘Now this word won’t hurt me anymore.’ It’s a part of the attempted healing. When James Brown sang, ‘I’m black and I’m proud,’ that is an example of boyhood friendships, how he tried to rehabilitate that word. Because there was a time when I was growing up when you didn’t call anybody black unless you wanted to merchant of venice essay on love, get knocked into next week. Friendships Essays? There was too much shame involved.” “Do you think—” I start. And she laughs and cuts me off with a question. “Do I think, like, ‘I’m black and I’m proud,’ ‘I’m a nigga and I am proud!’ could exist?” We both laugh at the absurdity, and also the writing techniques very real possibility, of friendships, that song. “Hm,” she says. “I have trouble with the value of reading word nigga . I associate that word with lynching, violence, and boyhood essays hate, and I don’t associate the word black with that. But I do associate the word nigga with that history. Essay? So it’s not a term that I could ever use easily or encourage the use of. Boyhood Essays? There have been articles written about of venice on love teaching this history, and we’ve discussed them in my black studies class, but what usually happens is that the class eventually decides that they’re going to be part of the movement against friendships, the word nigger . Once they understand what the concept writing essay history is and what the friendships essays word means, they stop using it and they encourage their friends to concept, stop using it.” “It is about choices,” I say, feeling guilty for a lot of reasons before she demurely stops me.

“Yes, it always is,” she says, “about choices.” Just being a Negro doesn’t qualify you to boyhood essays, understand the race situation any more than being sick makes you an china coin essay expert on medicine. Tamra Davis, the boyhood friendships essays director of Half Baked , is feeding her children, so she can’t say out loud the where term papers last lines of the movie she directed. These are lines she had to fight for, and, along with Brennan and boyhood friendships Chappelle, she had to try to convince fifteen studio executives that they deserved to be in the movie. On Creative Writing? She tries to talk around the lines, but finally she whispers, “I love weed, love it ! Probably always will! But not as much as I love pussy!” She giggles. There are probably worse things than hearing your mom talk about the movie she directed with Dave Chappelle. Tamra Davis is nonchalantly cool, despite having the distinction of having directed the early movies of Adam Sandler ( Happy Gilmore ) and Chris Rock ( CB4 ). Boyhood Friendships? She grew up in California and has been around comedy all her life. Her grandfather was a comedy writer for Redd Foxx, Sammy Davis Jr., and Slappy White.

She understands comedy instinctually, and on creative knows that the difference between a writer and a comic is the energy and love a comic must bring to the stage, to the audience. Like everyone I speak to, Davis thinks exceedingly wonderful things about Dave Chappelle. The man has a hagiography; I hear it from everyone: from Neal Brennan to a former executive of Comedy Central, who tells me, “I have so, so much respect for Dave. He is a great guy.” For all the bridges he has supposedly burned, Dave Chappelle is beloved. Tamra Davis is the most direct. “I just really think his voice is an important voice to be heard. Boyhood Essays? I’ve spent my life working with young people who all of a sudden get launched into an incredible position of celebrity and fame and essay it’s very, very difficult to handle. And people handle it in different ways. And so I’m glad that he is around, you know, because many other people would be crushed by that. Having to have that inner dialogue in your head, knowing that everybody is talking about you.

It’s a very difficult thing to have to friendships, navigate.” What separated Dave Chappelle not just from Neal Brennan but also his fans is no winners that he was suddenly vaulted into friendships essays, the awkward position of being the china coin essay world’s most famous interlocutor in a conversation about race—the one conversation no one likes having. Yes, it is hard to look back. But it’s easy to understand why Chappelle was done with being misread, tired of boyhood friendships, explaining, finished talking. As Brennan, and then everyone else, told me: the man turned down fifty million dollars.

You will never get him to speak with you. “Beware, my body and my soul, beware above all of crossing your arms and assuming the sterile attitude of the spectator, for in war, life is not a spectacle, a sea of griefs is not a proscenium, and a man who wails is not a dancing bear.” —Aime Cesaire, Notebook of a Return to the Native Land. When a chance came to visit Yellow Springs, I had no expectation that Chappelle would be there. But I wanted to see it. In Yellow Springs, I met Yvonne Seon. We had a good time. We discussed my wedding, we discussed Michelle Alexander’s The New Jim Crow , and she introduced me to her family.

It was a lovely day. Idyllic, even. Boyhood Essays? On my way out of town, I felt tired, so I stopped for no winners essay, some coffee at essays a local coffee shop. As I was paying, I saw a few guys out back in the garden, talking, and then I saw Dave Chappelle, in on creative writing techniques, a weird white tank top that strained to boyhood, contain his muscles. No longer lean. Well-defended. So at a cash register in value of reading, Yellow Springs I stood and watched as the person I had so badly wanted to talk to walked toward me.

But when he said hello, I made a decision that—until my plane ride home—I kicked myself for. Moving on essays, pure instinct, I simply said hello, turned and finished paying my bill, and left. Did I mention that the light is beautiful at dusk in Yellow Springs? The people walk the streets, going to the grocery store or looking at the theater listings. There is a cafe that was once a house on the Underground Railroad that now serves delicious Reuben sandwiches and plays disco music. People say hello in passing, kids with Afros zip by on scooters. It is essay small-town America, but with hemp stores. I didn’t want to boyhood friendships essays, leave, because it seems like an easy place to live. Not without its problems, but a place with a quiet understanding that conversation is the china coin minimum for boyhood friendships, living in a better world.

You know, simple things. At a memorial for his father a few years back, standing next to his mother at no winners the podium at Antioch College, Dave Chappelle ended his speech by thanking the community of Yellow Springs. “So,” he said, “thank you to you all for giving my father a context where he could just exist and be a good dude, because to be a good dude, as many good dudes have shown you before, is just not a comfortable thing to be. It’s a very hard thing to aspire to. And so thanks for honoring him, because sometimes it is boyhood a lonely, quiet road when you make a decision to try to transcend your own demons or be good or whatever he was trying to do here.” In my car’s rearview mirror, it doesn’t seem strange to no winners in war essay, me at all that I am watching America’s funniest comic standing in a small town, smoking cigarettes and shooting the shit with his friends. Like everyone else on the street, one friend is white, the essays other is black—the only difference being that they are with Dave. But here Dave is china coin just Dave.

Totally uninterrupted, unheckled, free to be himself, free to have a family, and land, and time to boyhood friendships, recover. Time to be complicated, time to be a confessed fan of fame who one day decided that it was important to learn to be himself again. Chappelle took a drag on his cigarette, and essay laughed, and boyhood friendships essays it was apparent that he was doing what he said he wanted most in life: having fun and being funny. So, for better or for worse, I took this to be my answer.

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100 Cause and friendships Effect Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in where to buy papers helping people write essays faster and easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Boyhood! Speculate about what caused the situation. Essay! Examine the results of an event, choice, or situation. Trace the start of a situation to essays a discussion of its results. Here's how you can use the following topic ideas to of venice on love write an friendships, essay: Reword the value essay, question to boyhood essays fit your assignment.

Use a question for your topic idea helps keep you organized. Use the question for your title or put it right before your topic sentence. The answer to the question is term, your thesis. Simple! What causes divorce? What is the effect of divorce on children? Does the age of the child make a difference? How does the friendships essays, divorce of parents affect the essay on love, dating and friendships essays marriage relationships of their children?

What is the effect of long distance on relationships? How does living together before being married affect a relationship? What causes men to be afraid of concept essay, commitment? What effect has the feminist movement had on men's and women's views of dating? What causes some women to repeatedly get involved in destructive relationships?

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Why are more children poor than any other group? What causes poverty in no winners in war essay the U.S.? What are the effects of boyhood friendships, growing up in poverty? What causes homelessness? What effect does growing up with food insecurity have on children?

What has caused the increase in international adoption in of venice essay on love Western countries? What is the effect on children (or adults) of watching news reports of boyhood friendships, natural disasters, terrorist strikes, sexual predators, and other fearful situations? What effect do non-profit organizations (perhaps pick a particular one) have on social problems? What is the effect of more baby boomers reaching retirement age? What is the cause of men still out-earning women in wages? What is the effect? What is the effect of religious oppression on a society (perhaps pick a particular country or religion)? What are the causes of poor water quality for many people around the world? What is the effect of people not having shoes to wear? What are the effects of inadequate sanitation on a community? What is the cause (or effect) of continued discrimination and racism?

What causes people with disabilities to be unable to get jobs? What is the books on creative techniques, effect on children of growing up in poverty? What has caused the dramatic rise in overweight and obese adults in the U.S. in the last ten years? What will be the effects of this rise in obesity on the healthcare system? What causes the increasing number of children affected by Autistic Spectrum Disorder? What effect does lack of adequate medical insurance have on friendships, an individual's health? What causes people to not go to the doctor when they have medical problems? What effect does not finishing a prescription medication have on future health? What is the cause (or the effect) of people not getting their children vaccinated?

What causes the spread of merchant essay on love, HIV/AIDS in Africa? What is the effect of climate change on infectious medical diseases? What is the essays, effect of globalization on the spread of disease? What causes some diseases like malaria or HIV to be so difficult to eradicate? What effect does stress have on concept writing essay, health? What effect has cancer research had on stopping cancer deaths? What causes people to get cancer?

What causes pancreatic cancer to be so deadly? What has caused cancer to be so difficult to cure? What causes people to seek non-Western medical cures like traditional Chinese medicine or herbal supplements? What is the effect of abortion(s) on a woman's subsequent reproductive health? What effect does birth control have on women? What effect do regular dental check-ups have on oral health? What causes people to go blind? What causes people to develop allergies?

What effect does an increased use of technology have on health? What causes cardiovascular disease? What effect does exercise have on the body? What causes people to make healthy living choices? What causes so many healthcare providers to be overweight?

What are the social effects of having braces on teeth? What effect does cell phone use have on teenagers? What causes families to buy unlimited cell phone plans? What are the effects of violent video games on young children or teenagers? What effects does playing video games cause in the brains of elderly people? Does online shopping cause people to spend more money?

What effect does social media have on teen relationships? What are the boyhood friendships, causes (or effects) of of venice on love, cyber bullying? What causes social media sites to lose popularity? What are the effects of picture and video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on teenage social interaction? What causes a video game to be popular? What effect does moving away from computers and towards tablets and smartphones have on how we browse the boyhood friendships, Internet?

What effect does typing on a screen rather than a keyboard have on how people communicate? What causes Google to be the most popular search engine? What are the social effects of everyone on the planet having cell phones? How have smartphones affected business practices? How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates? What effect does being labeled gifted and value of reading essay talented have on students? What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on boyhood friendships, a child?

What causes students to think school is boring? Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in classrooms cause students to learn better? What is the effect on learning when students do most of their work reading from a computer or tablet rather than paper and books? What are the effects of homeschooling on children? (Or what are the social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on the educational system in your town or state? How do school programs against bullying affect the merchant of venice essay, actual bullying and fears of students? Do single-sex classrooms cause students to learn better? What are the positive and boyhood essays negative effects of having school uniforms? What is the effect of having an open high school campus? What is the coin, effect on the education of students when a district has year-round schooling? What causes teachers to burn out? What causes some schools to fail to educate students?

What causes American students to lag behind students from essays, other countries on international tests? What effect do fine arts have on students? What effect does a good physical education program have on elementary school students? What effect do longer school days have on no winners, a school's educational outcomes? What effect does parent involvement in schools have on education?

What caused the Civil War? What are the continuing effects of slavery on American society? What was the cause of the increasing interest in feminism in the 1960s and 1970s? How were WWII veterans affected by their wartime experiences? What effect did WWII have on boyhood friendships essays, the Jewish people?

What effect did Christianity have on the Roman empire? What caused the Arab Spring? What are the effects of the Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on universities in on creative techniques the U.S.? What was the boyhood essays, effect of colonialism on Britain's view of itself? What were the causes and effects of colonialism? In the viewpoint of the British, what were the merchant of venice, causes and effects of the American Revolution? What causes the drug wars in Colombia?

What causes illegal immigration? What are the effects of immigration on a country (pick any country)? What is the effect of online sales on businesses (in any country)? What was the effect of the boyhood friendships essays, printing press (or other invention) on world history? What are the effects of globalization on the position of women? What are the no winners in war, effects of American drone attacks on terrorists and boyhood friendships essays civilians? What was the cause of the destruction of the World Trade Center on 9/11? What is the cause of increased militancy on the part of North Korea? How to Write a Great Topic Sentence. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Interview Essay Paper Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4.

Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. This was great for me because I had to write an essay about some kind of topic with a cause and an effect and in war essay this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from boyhood friendships, United States. Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students. I have traveled in China four different times and love your country very much!

I am a Chinese student and I think your sharing did help me a lot. Thank you ! this is a great sight for books my informational reading and writing class its good. Hi thanks for helping me. these topics are really good.. Boyhood Friendships! i used some of these topics for my projects and china coin essay got great marks.. i got A+ in all my projects , i am in 7th grade. hubber8893 18 months ago. Boyhood! I think you have presented some great Ideas for hub about relationships. Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. These topics had a BIG impact on china coin, my life. Boyhood Essays! Thanks for your LARGE ammount of tips.

These topics really helped me for school. Ruby 18 months ago from United States. Creative idea for a hub, what was your case and essay effect for making it lol. WOW this is super great to look up stuff for an assignment. Awesome topics thanks a million.

Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from boyhood friendships essays, East Saint Louis. Wow. There are a lot things that cause and effect. Very informative write. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from where term, United States. Thanks Zakeycia and YoLex. My students have come up with most of these topics through the friendships, years and now this is my most visited article so they must have done a good job! I think it got over merchant on love 2000 views one day last week! This is awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol! Great work!

Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. I have a cause and friendships effect essay to type for merchant of venice my English class. I was having a hard time coming up with a topic. Your website and topic suggestions were very helpful. Boyhood Friendships Essays! Thank you. Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago. Thanks. Great topics.

James Packard 2 years ago from Columbia, Missouri. What a great hub! Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics. They are good to write about to do research and clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and also spark very needed discussion. Thanks for sharing. Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from New York, NY. Of Reading Essay! I love this one, VirginiaLynne.

Your hubs are so valuable to students and boyhood friendships essays professional writers. Cause and effect papers are among the most interesting to to buy term read. I voted this hub up, useful, and interesting. I am bookmarking this hub for future reference. Boyhood Friendships! I know I'll be using it! Keep up the excellent work here. Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from Georgia. Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for where to buy papers all categories.

Well done. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused. Affect also means to produce an essays, effect upon as well as to influence. I will double check my usage in coin this Hub just to make sure I haven't made an boyhood essays, error. Thanks! Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. These are great topics. I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. affect = influence - usually a verb. effect= result - usually a noun. effect= cause - not used that often - verb.

Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas. This will come in handy for essay my English class. Thanks. I Love it very much. rakesh ranjana 3 years ago. Social causes are growing up in boyhood friendships essays lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about it through this site, will help a lot in many ways for people to understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub! I like your ideas, it is something different innovative.

Vote up! Thanks! This is helpful. Where To Buy Term Papers! Vote up. Friendships! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is used by most American colleges in their English departments. However, you are very right to concept essay point out that APA and friendships Chicago and coin other formats are used in friendships essays different types of courses. I think considering cause and effect is on creative writing, sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on where you view the start of the boyhood friendships, situation. Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation. Sometimes it is hard to pull them apart.

That is why I usually like to call this a speculating about essay causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for the most important causes, or the most important effects that we see in boyhood a situation. Sumner Swett 3 years ago from Owls Head Maine. Okay so cause and effect essays are written in different formats, but let me say in my college profession for the essays to be written were to concept writing essay be in APA format, and it is essays, interesting when researching and writing whether it is from information you have researched or if it free lance. I like to coin research topics before writing and also note taking is effective. The cause is boyhood, what causes the situation and the effect is what you have to take into consideration to writing essay the cause as we all know it. Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from California.

Great topics! Voted up and shared. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Boyhood Friendships! Leidy--That is a great essay topic. I think that some of that labeling can be positive and other aspects are negative. It can encourage students to believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by making them think that they don't need to work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed. Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Macon, GA. A good and diverse collection of topics. I'll be sure to have my students check out some of these for writing essay their own essays. Annie Miller 4 years ago from Wichita Falls, Texas. Very interesting and in depth Hub.

I am passing this along and saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago. Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of essays before, and I have found the information that you have presented here to be excellent. Thank you for sharing. Voted up and useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from friendships, United States. Thanks so much Carol! You are always an encouragement. Term Papers! carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona. Boyhood! This is essay, something to save when trying to come up with new writing ideas. Boyhood Essays! Great hub. Going to pass this along and of course vote up.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and merchant of venice respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on friendships essays, affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and no winners essay others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and boyhood respective owners.

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essay on ww1 and ww2 About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Boyhood Essays. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary.

Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries.

Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on concept writing essay 4 August. German violation of boyhood friendships, Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to value of reading enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening.

Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and boyhood, debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to where to buy papers understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. Friendships Essays. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of essay, their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition.

Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. Friendships Essays. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. Merchant Of Venice Essay. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and boyhood essays, submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of china coin essay, their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of essays, Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and value essay, authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of essays, German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.

The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of books, their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of boyhood essays, dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and value of reading, transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on friendships 3 August. Where Term Papers. In the following months it was ardently courted by friendships, France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino.

Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. Where. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by friendships essays, two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to value essay keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the friendships other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war.

Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in china coin, the Middle East. Most important of friendships essays, all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and no winners essay, field fortifications.

Dense belts of friendships essays, barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the china essay war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to friendships essays defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. Coin Essay. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic.

The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the friendships Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the concept writing events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the essays Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the concept essay strategic initiative.

It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to boyhood essays evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory.

During this period the essay Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in boyhood essays, Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of concept writing essay, 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the boyhood essays fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the books on creative writing techniques rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better.

Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of boyhood essays, Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at no winners in war, great cost to themselves, but the essays German line held and no end to term the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. Essays. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. Essay. No real strategic damage was done.

By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. Boyhood Friendships. For the rest of the war in the west the essay Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and friendships essays, Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great.

Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the china military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of friendships essays, Poland, Lithuania, and Courland.

Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. Books On Creative Techniques. This proved too much for friendships, Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to in war the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the boyhood friendships essays Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions.

By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and essay, desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by essays, the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in essay, the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in boyhood friendships essays, the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.

The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is concept writing essay, nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the friendships essays Bukovina and large parts of value, Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at friendships, Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and of venice on love, British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into boyhood friendships essays surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the where to buy Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. Friendships. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war.

The Germans mocked it and value of reading essay, declared Salonika to be the friendships biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and value of reading essay, British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in boyhood, the autumn of writing, 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by essays, a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and where to buy term, was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.

Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Boyhood. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. Of Venice On Love. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by boyhood, Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and writing, under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.

The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and friendships essays, Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in essay, the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the friendships essays Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. Of Venice Essay On Love. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for boyhood essays, political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.

Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. No Winners In War. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season.

War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the boyhood friendships war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the china coin essay French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the friendships essays Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the term war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.

No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental.

In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to friendships defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in essay, the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an essays outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at essay, Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to boyhood friendships essays his fellow countrymen.

The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on china essay two fronts, against France in the west and boyhood friendships, Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to essay this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. Friendships Essays. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field.

The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to concept writing essay receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to friendships defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an writing army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of friendships, war, and was always improbable. The failure of the concept writing Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state.

It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to boyhood friendships essays recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. China Coin. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to boyhood essays front. The superior speed of the where term papers locomotive over boyhood friendships the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to where to buy papers operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the essays British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.

The second was Great Britain. German government rested on concept the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by friendships essays, intrigue and indecision. The kind of value essay, centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by friendships essays, a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.

Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.

The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into concept writing 'leverage'. Boyhood Essays. Austria was willing to merchant of venice essay on love take German help but not German advice. Only after the boyhood friendships essays crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power.

They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. Value Of Reading. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to friendships defeat the British, but large enough to no winners essay make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.

British entry into boyhood friendships essays the war dramatically shifted the on creative writing economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of friendships, manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the in war 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for essays, the first time to coin confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the friendships war.

During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of merchant of venice on love, men in the attempt to evict the Germans. Essays. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to merchant of venice the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to.

The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. Boyhood. If it did choose to where papers fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness.

Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Boyhood. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. Merchant. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to boyhood recognize that the war would be long and require the where papers complete mobilization of national resources.

Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and boyhood essays, the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to to buy term papers his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.

They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the boyhood British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by no winners in war, Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed.

By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for boyhood friendships essays, defeat, not the merchant essay German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and boyhood friendships essays, resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in writing techniques, the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders.

Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the friendships German army. They were also inhibited by where term, the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to friendships implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.

Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and value of reading, was given the power to control Allied reserves. Essays. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on value of reading essay the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in essays, the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. No Winners. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance.

Achieving operational effectiveness on boyhood friendships the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the no winners in war essay lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the essays product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority.

This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Concept Essay. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to essays work on the land and where papers, provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and boyhood essays, the growth of writing, railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'.

But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the friendships best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of no winners, iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in friendships essays, conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to writing say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough.

The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the boyhood technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to concept get out boyhood friendships, of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the books war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.

Communication for essays, most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and china coin essay, artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and boyhood friendships essays, paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only of venice essay on love, a major part of the boyhood essays problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. Concept Writing. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.

The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Boyhood. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to of reading its own peculiarities and boyhood essays, according to to buy term papers wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Essays. Munitions were also improved.

Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and of venice essay on love, concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. Boyhood Essays. But it always spared some, even in where term papers, front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the essays Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Books Techniques. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.

Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in friendships, the conduct of essay, war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the friendships number of writing techniques, infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the boyhood friendships essays front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned.

The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. In War. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of boyhood friendships essays, its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by in war, the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to boyhood survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to of venice on love make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to boyhood disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and no winners essay, advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and friendships, much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Concept Essay. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon friendships, enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in to buy papers, 1940.

The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to boyhood essays the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on essay the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into boyhood friendships essays a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories.

Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to no winners essay the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in boyhood friendships essays, Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and concept writing essay, a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the friendships essays new world had come in to china coin essay redress the balance of the old.

The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the friendships work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on of venice on love industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of boyhood friendships essays, demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Value Of Reading Essay. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Boyhood Friendships. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment.

In the where to buy papers autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of boyhood friendships, 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in value of reading, many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of boyhood, their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only no winners, did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of boyhood friendships, propaganda to maintain commitment to merchant on love the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of boyhood, access to china essay food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. Boyhood Friendships Essays. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and concept, Australasia.

Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to boyhood the war was low in most countries. Coin. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918.

The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and friendships essays, arguably for merchant of venice, women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in essays, the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the to buy term Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of boyhood friendships essays, weak and books techniques, sometimes avaricious successor states.

Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of essays, Allied reparations and by inflation. Of Venice Essay On Love. France recovered the provinces of friendships, Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and coin, loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by friendships, the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924.

The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by of venice on love, the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the boyhood friendships war ended.

In 1922 the china essay British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in boyhood friendships, protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of in war, Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at friendships essays, European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.

From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Essay. Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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